The Wasp Nest — Official Path of Exile Wiki

The Wasp Nest

The Wasp Nest
Throat Stabber Claw
Quality: +20%
Physical Damage: (56.7-60.9)– (197.1-211.7)
Critical Strike Chance: (7.56%-7.88%)
Attacks per Second: (1.80-1.88)
Weapon Range: 11 Requires Level 60, 113 Dex, 113 Int +40 Life gained for each Enemy hit by Attacks (150-170)% increased Physical Damage
(20-25)% increased Attack Speed
(20-25)% increased Critical Strike Chance
+(330-350) to Accuracy Rating
20% chance to Poison on Hit
Attacks with this Weapon deal 80-120 added Chaos Damage against
Enemies affected by at least 5 Poisons To discover how cruel nature can be,
you need only shake the wrong branch. Purchase Costs

Unique 8x Chaos Orb

Sell Price
8x Alchemy Shard
12x Alteration Shard
Physical: (228.4-255.6)

Total: (228.4-255.6) Miscellaneous
Item class: Claws

The Wasp Nest is a unique Throat Stabber Throat Stabber Claw
Physical Damage: 21– 73
Critical Strike Chance: 6.30%
Attacks per Second: 1.50
Weapon Range: 11 Requires Level 60, 113 Dex, 113 Int +40 Life gained for each Enemy hit by Attacks .

Item acquisition

Upgrade paths

This item can be acquired through the following upgrade paths or vendor recipes:

pathofexile.gamepedia.com

Paper Wasp Identification and More

Stephanie L. Richards, PhD, Medical Entomologist

What does a paper wasp nest look like?

You would likely recognize paper wasps (Order Hymenoptera: Family Vespidae) based on the structure of their nests. Their umbrella-shaped nests are made of a gray papery substance, and you may have seen one attached to the ceiling of your covered outdoor porch. These types of nests can also be found on tree limbs, chimneys, support beams in attics, garages, barns and other sheltered areas. There are several species (Polistes species) of paper wasps found in North America.

A female wasp, who becomes the queen, starts building her nest by secreting a pulp-like papery substance. This substance is a mixture of plant fibers and saliva. Hexagonal-shaped openings in the nest are used to house the progeny of paper wasps. The queen lays a single egg in each cell of the nest. Each egg develops into a larva and is fed a diet of arthropods (e.g., caterpillars, spiders) for about 1.5 months until the larva subsequently transforms into a pupa, and, finally an adult. There are 12 to 100 paper wasps per colony. These wasps operate in a caste system similar to ants where there is usually one queen, although some colonies may have more than one queen, and several non-reproductive workers that are in charge of foraging for food and tending to the queen and her progeny.

Architects have acknowledged that the joined hexagon-shaped compartments of a paper wasp nest are a very efficient use of space for housing the wasp larvae. Some architects have even used hexagon shapes that mimic wasp nests in the construction of buildings.

What is unique about paper wasp saliva?

Paper wasps use their saliva to waterproof their nests. A team of scientists have reproduced the proteins from paper wasp saliva and used this substance to waterproof an unmanned aerial vehicle (i.e., drone).

What do paper wasps eat?

Paper wasps may be considered beneficial insects because they are predators of other arthropods, such as insects (e.g., caterpillars) and spiders. Gardeners often appreciate that wasps prey on garden pests, such as caterpillars. Adult paper wasps immobilize and feed the prey arthropods to their developing progeny; however, adult wasps feed primarily on sugar (e.g., ripe fruit, honeydew, nectar).

When should I expect to see paper wasps?

During fall months when temperatures begin to cool, some wasp females mate with male paper wasps. Male wasps die shortly after mating. Mated females find shelter for the winter in covered areas, such as attics, tree hollows or other protected areas. You might observe several mated females clustering together during the winter period.

When warmer spring temperatures arrive, new nests are built by mated female wasps (generally not related to each other). Dominant female paper wasps will begin building nests for egg laying and may even overtake nests of other (less dominant) females. In some cases, large numbers of females will continue construction on an existing nest and nests can be reused for multiple years.

Can paper wasps hurt me?

Social wasps, like paper wasps, will defend their colony by stinging, hence people should be cautious when wasp nests are observed. Outdoor workers may come into contact with paper wasps more frequently than the general public, hence, they must take extra precautions to avoid exposure to stings, especially if they are allergic to them. Immune reactions to stings vary between individuals and can range from local swelling at the sting site to widespread systemic reactions and even to death (though rare). People may exhibit cross reactivity to venom from different species of hymenoptera (e.g., someone that shows a severe reaction to a paper wasp sting may also have a reaction to a honey bee or bumble bee sting and vice versa).

Unlike honey bee stingers that are straight and have external barbs, paper wasp stingers are curved and have internal barbs (Zhao et al. 2015). A study examining the differences in honey bee and paper wasp stings showed the honey bee took 1.5 seconds to complete the stinging process, while the paper wasp took only 0.5 second (Zhao et al. 2015). Paper wasps can easily remove their stinger from their victim, unlike honey bees. This may allow wasps to sting multiple times.

Is there anything I can do to help prevent paper wasps from entering my house?

Sealing potential entry points is the best method for helping prevent establishment of wasp colonies in areas such as attics. Nests observed on porches, along eaves, or other areas should be professionally removed and destroyed. The earlier a nest is observed, the easier it is to remove.

Reference

Zhao Z, Zhao H, Ma G, Wu C, Yang K, Feng X (2015) Structures, properties, and functions of the stings of honey bees and paper wasps: A comparative study. Biology Open 4:921-928.

www.terminix.com

How to Get Rid of a Wasp or Bee Nest in 5 Steps

Stick it to those insects (safely) before they stick a stinger in you

Warm weather brings swarms of buzzing insects — and the threat of getting stung, especially if there’s a bee or wasp nest near your home.

Insect stings cause more than half a million emergency room visits each year, according to National Pest Management Association (NPMA).

One of the best ways to prevent warm weather stings is to check your home and yard for nests made by bees and various types of wasps, such as paper wasps and yellow jackets, according to the NPMA.

Depending on the type of bee or wasp, you may find a nest up high and attached to a structure, such as the eaves of a building or a porch ceiling. Or, you may find a nest down low, in a hole in the ground or under porch steps. In fact, you may run into a nest while mowing your lawn.

Don’t let that nest be a buzzkill. Take these steps to safely deal with a nest anywhere on your property.

1. ID the insect. Some insects are more aggressive than others, so it’s good to know which type you’ve got. (You can check this guide to stinging insects from the NPMA.) For example:

(Photo: HB511/Shutterstock)
Bees. Honeybees make nests out of wax and help the environment by pollinating plants. They’re not normally aggressive, but will sting in self defense. If you want the nest off your property, consider calling a beekeeper to see if the bees can be relocated, the University of California’s Integrated Pest Management Program suggests.

See also:  Fig Tree Diseases » Tips on Identification - Control

(Photo: Sarah2/Shutterstock)
Paper wasps. Paper wasps build nests of papery chewed wood pulp. A nest may contain only a few insects, which are normally gentle but will sting if threatened, according to University of Minnesota Extension. The nests aren’t covered, so you can see the combs and easily apply a pesticide. Many homeowners can safely remove a paper wasp nest.

(Photo: Tom Grundy/Shutterstock)
Yellow jackets. These wasps often build nests covered with a paper-like “envelope” with just one opening. The nest may contain hundreds to thousands of the insects, which are very aggressive and may attack in groups, according to Michigan State University Extension. If you’ve got a yellow jacket nest, hire a pest control professional. Trying to spray such nest, especially while standing on a ladder, may be very dangerous.

2. Assess the threat. If a nest is located away from your house and far from where your kids play, the best choice may be to leave it alone, according to the University of Minnesota Extension. Many stinging insects use their nests for only one year, then abandon it, so the problem may go away on its own. If you go this route, you can avoid using toxic insecticides. If the nest is close to (or on) your house or in your yard, read on.

3. Get the right equipment. If you decide to get rid of a nest, make sure you have the proper safety gear. If the nest is up high, you’ll need a ladder that’s right for the job, as well as an insect spray labeled for use on wasps and hornets. Before you buy, read the label on the spray to make sure the pesticide will work for your situation. For example, many sprays can be used only outside, so if the nest is inside your home, you may need to call a pest control company. (If the nest is in the ground, you can use an insecticidal dust, according to Michigan State University Extension. You sprinkle it at the entrance to the nest. That typically will kill the insects within a day or two, and you’re done.) Also get a bee hat, protective eyewear and leather gloves.

4. Spray in the evening. Do not knock down a nest of insects during the day. Wait until late evening because more insects are likely to be inside the nest. Also, they’re less active at that time, so you reduce your chances of getting stung. Don your protective gear, including long sleeves and long pants that should be tucked into your socks. Clear kids and pets from the area. Try to avoid shining a light right on the nest and, if you must, use one with a red filter. If the nest is high up, stand off to the side rather than directly under it, because dead insects will fall after you spray. Following the instructions on the pesticide label, spray the nest. Then, get away as quickly as you can.

5. Wait to remove the nest. The following day, watch the nest for insect activity. If there are still insects flying around the nest, spray again in the evening. If there are none, use a rake handle or similar tool to knock the nest down. For good measure, spray insecticide on the remaining pieces that have fallen on the ground. Using heavy gloves, pick up and dispose of the nest and dead wasps so pets or other animals don’t eat them.

If you’re uncomfortable dealing with a nest on your own, consider calling in a pest control pro.

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Allie Johnson is an award-winning freelance consumer writer with a degree in magazine journalism. She lives in Georgia with her husband and two dogs.

www.safebee.com

Wasp nest-imitated assembly of elastic rGO/p-Ti3C2Tx MXene-cellulose nanofibers for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

Abstract

Ti3C2Tx MXene has drawn considerable attention as anode materials to store sodium ions because of the capability of accommodating the large sodium ions, enabling their intercalation without substantial structural change. However, the limited sodium-ion storage capacity of Ti3C2Tx hinders its real application in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). To enhance its performance as anode materials in SIBs, here, we introduce nanopores into Ti3C2Tx sheets by sonication, and after which we assemble them with rGO and cellulose nanofibers into an elastic freestanding composite structure by mimicking the wasp nest. The wasp nest-like structure endows the resulting composite with more accessible surfaces of electrode materials to the electrolyte. Further, the nanopores on the Ti3C2Tx sheets and the TiO2 formed from the sonication provide more active sites for sodium storage. As a result, the resulting composite shows a high capacity of 280 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 and remarkable cyclic life with a capacity retention of 84.8% after 1000 cycles at 1 A g −1 .

Graphical abstract

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These authors contributed equally to this work.

www.sciencedirect.com

The Chemical Compositions of Insect Venoms

Insect venoms are complicated. Really complicated. You could be forgiven for thinking that it must be a relatively simple company of chemicals that makes up the painful sensation of a bee or wasp sting, but in fact a hugely complex mixture of all sorts of compounds – proteins, peptides, enzymes, and other smaller molecules – go into a small amount of venom. The range of compounds is far too vast to detail every single one – but we can examine some of the major constituents in bee, wasp, hornet and ant venom.

We’ll start with the venom about which we know the most – that of bees. Unlike many other insect venoms, we have a relatively good idea of the percentage breakdown of the venom of your average bee. When the bee stings, the venom is mixed with water, so the actual composition of the substance it injects into you is around 88% water and 12% venom. From this point onward, we’ll consider the percentages of compounds purely in the venom itself.

The main toxic component of bee venom, also referred to as apitoxin, is melittin. Melittin is a peptide that comprises around 50-55% of dry venom, and is a compound that can break up cell membranes, resulting in the destruction of cells. However, it’s not considered the most harmful component of bee venom; that prize goes to an enzyme that makes up around 10-12%, phospholipase A. This enzyme destroys phospholipids, and also breaks down the membranes of blood cells, resulting in cell destruction; additionally, unlike the majority of larger molecules in the venom, it causes the release of pain-inducing agents. Yet another enzyme, hyaluronidase, aids the action of the venom by catalysing the breakdown of protein-polysaccharide complexes in tissue, allowing the venom to penetrate further into the flesh.

Other, smaller molecules can also contribute towards painful effects. A small amount of histamine is found in bee venom; histamine is one of the compounds released by the body during the allergic response, and can cause itchiness and inflammation. The proteins in the sting can cause an allergic reaction, leading to the release of even more histamine, and possible anaphylaxis. MCD peptide, another minor component of the venom, can also cause mast cells in the body to release more histamine, worsening inflammation.

The precise composition of wasp and hornet venom isn’t as well known as that of bees, but we still have a decent idea of what the major components are. The peptides that are found in the venoms are termed ‘wasp kinin’ and ‘hornet kinin’ respectively; these aren’t as well characterised as the peptides in bee venom, however. Like bee venom, they also contain phospholipase A, the enzyme hyaluronidase, and histamine. There are, though, some differences in the chemical composition. As well as variations in percentages of the different components, they also contain the compound acetylcholine, not commonly found in bee venoms. Acetylcholine is actually a neurotransmitter that’s also produced in our bodies, but in wasp and hornet venom, it helps stimulate pain receptors, heightening the pain felt from the sting and venom. Hornet venoms contain particularly high levels of acetylcholine.

You might have been told back in your science classes that bee stings are acidic, and can be neutralised with an alkali, whilst wasp stings are alkaline, and can therefore be neutralised with an acid. Sadly, this is something of an over-simplification. Whilst it’s correct that bee venom has some acidic components, whilst wasp venom has some alkaline constituents, the venom quickly penetrates the tissue once you’ve been stung. Therefore, topical application of an acid or alkali to the sting area is unlikely to provide relief. Additionally, since the venom is such a complex mix of components, many of which have contributing effects, it’s unlikely that neutralising a small number of these components would relieve the pain. What might have some effect, however, is anti-histamine cream, which can help prevent further inflammation.

See also:  10 Fascinating Facts About Butterflies

Whilst there is, of course, variation in venoms between different species of bees, wasps, and hornets, in ants this is markedly the case. The venom of some ants contains very little protein and peptide content, and is composed instead mainly of smaller compounds. An example is that of the fire ant. Fire ant venom consists of only around 0.1% of the dry venom, with the vast majority instead consisting of a class of compounds called alkaloids; these alkaloids are toxic to cells, and result in a burning sensation. Although the protein content is much lower than that of bees, wasps, and hornets, it can also cause allergic reactions and anaphylaxis.

Other ants don’t sting, but can instead spray their venoms; amongst many the main constituent of venom is formic acid. This leads us to a chemical reaction that is worth talking about. As it turns out, as unpleasant as the venom of the fire ants is, they meet their match in another species of ant, the ‘tawny crazy ant’. These two warring species of ants both make use of their venoms in conflict, but the tawny crazy ant uses chemistry to gain a clear advantage. They combat the toxicity of fire ant venom by detoxifying it with their own, which is based on formic acid. Researchers still don’t fully understand precisely how the detoxification occurs, but suggest it might be the result of the formic acid neutralising the enzymes that aid in fire ant venom’s potency. Even more interestingly, this detoxification process forms an ionic liquid at ambient temperature, a phenomenon that had not previously been observed in nature.

A final word on venoms goes to a component that is present in all four of the venoms we’ve considered: alarm pheromones. As if being stung by a bee or hornet wasn’t bad enough, the pheromones contained in the venom (which tend to be a complex mix of volatile low molecular weight compounds) signal to other members of the same species to take defensive action. In plain English, a wasp stinging you signals to other wasps that they should grab a piece of the action too. Apparently, the odour of the bee pheromone is reminiscent of bananas, though it’s probably not a theory you want to investigate.

EDIT: Bonus graphic! This one looks at the Schmidt Pain Index, developed by entomologist Dr. Justin Schmidt to rank the pain of the various insect stings and bites he experienced as part of his work. Whilst both the pain of a sting and its duration is subjective, and these rankings therefore may not hold true for everyone, it’s still an interesting ranking to look at. If there’s one thing that’s apparent from this graphic, it’s ‘never get stung by a bullet ant’!

click to enlarge

References & Further Reading

www.compoundchem.com

Wasps

Identification, images, and how to prevent infestation

Identification

  • Colour Yellow, white, black, reddish
  • Size From 13 mm to 40 mm long
  • Description Have no hair on their abdomen, which is connected to their thorax with a thin petiole waist. They have three pairs of legs and two pairs of membranous wings. Their head features mouthparts, sensory organs, compound eyes, and segmented antennae.
  • Notes Different wasp species have distinct markings.

Quick Links

  • How to identify Wasps
  • Signs of an infestation
  • Wasp Removal
  • How to prevent Wasps invading
  • Habitat, Diet, and Life Cycle
  • Commonly Asked Questions

How to identify Wasps

A typical wasp is hairless, unlike common species of bees. Wasps possess three distinct body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. The thorax is joined to the abdomen by a constricted petiole giving the appearance of a thin/slender waist. The thorax has three pairs of legs and two pairs of membranous wings which are used for flying. Like most insects, the head bears mouth parts, sensory organs, compound eyes, and segmented antennae. The last segment of the abdomen in female wasps is modified into the egg-laying ovipositors. The body size and colour of a wasp varies depending on species. Yellow jackets and hornets are stout and very colourful with bold yellow, white, and black markings on their bodies and faces. Paper wasps on the other hand are relatively long and thin-bodied (16 – 25 mm), long-legged, and have yellow-reddish and black markings. Mud daubers are very distinct, with very long bodies, 13 – 25mm long, with either long or stalked abdomen. Compared to other wasps, mud daubers are not so colourful; they are mainly black with occasional pale-yellow markings.

Signs of an infestation

Wasp Nests

Wasp nests can be found in numerous areas in and around homes. For instance, paper wasps tend to build aerial nests that hang from trees, the eaves of roofs, and even around decking or playground equipment. On the other hand, most types of yellow jackets build their nests in the ground, using old rodent burrows or protected areas under shrubs and rock piles. Identifying the species present is important for proper wasp nest removal.

Problems Associated with Wasp Nests

These pests are aggressive and will sting to defend their nests. Those with allergies to wasp venom can suffer severe reactions if stung. In order to avoid wasps, following basic prevention practices can help:

  • Keep picnic foods covered at all times.
  • Verify that all garbage lids are tightly sealed.
  • Inspect places around yards and homes where wasps might live early in the season to catch nests as they start to form.

Wasp Nest Removal & Control

It is common to discover nests unexpectedly when doing yard work like mowing the lawn or cleaning gutters. Although it may be tempting to try do-it-yourself control methods, wasp nest removal is best left to professionals. While many home remedies for wasp nests put homeowners in danger, the pest experts at Orkin Canada have the proper equipment and training for safe and effective wasp nest removal.

Wasp Removal

How We Get Rid of Cicada Killers

Identification and Biology

  • Known for their large size, cicada killer wasps burrow in lawns and make extremely loud buzzing noises.
  • Cicada killer wasps prefer to create nests in soil that is sandy, bare, and well-drained. Inside the burrows, the adult wasps deliver cicadas for the larval stages to feed off of.
  • Cicada killer wasps are equipped with stingers and can unleash a powerful sting when bothered, but they typically ignore people.
  • Larvae overwinter in the soil and pupation occurs in the spring.
  • Adult cicada killer wasps emerge in the summer months and females begin to feed, mate, and dig burrows.
  • Their burrows are easily detected by observing a regular U-shaped mound at the entrance. Additionally, piles of excess soil will remain.
  • Inside the burrows, each cell contains a single egg and one to three cicadas.
  • One generation occurs each year.

We look for burrows and mounds of dirt that indicate the nest site. These are commonly found in areas of sparse vegetation, well drained soil, and full exposure to sunlight such as:

  • Next to side walks and patio slabs
  • Planters & flower beds
  • Driveways & hill areas
  • Window boxes
  • Golf course sand traps

Think Green Prevention

  • Applying lime and fertilizer, accompanied by frequent watering will promote thick growth of turf, which acts as a cicada killer deterrent.
  • If the pests are infesting an area that can be tilled, it’s advisable to do so at the end of summer and again in the spring.
  • Any bare areas should be seeded to further deter infestation.

How to prevent Wasps invading

Seal all potential entry points to your home, Fix cracks around windows and doors, Repair door and window screens, Fill holes in ventilation lines, Check soffits and recessed lighting fixtures, Seal gaps leading to wall or baseboard voids, Reduce available food sources, Eradicate flies, ants, and spiders, Keep all food sealed outdoors, Clean up spills and crumbs promptly, Cover trash with tight fitting lids, Move garbage bins away from house, Reduce available nesting sites, Trim back bushes and vegetation, Remove old, unused wasp nests.

See also:  The Most Dreadful and Dangerous Insects that Can Kill Humans

Wasp-proofing: Queens overwinter in protected shelters in homes and emerge the following spring to start new colonies. The new colonies generally begin in close proximity to where the queens overwinter. Homeowners should wasp-proof homes and property by inspecting, identifying, and sealing or excluding all potential entry points and protected sites, such as cracks in windows and doors, poorly sealed holes for ventilation lines, spaces in soffits, recessed lighting fixtures, or gaps leading to voids in walls or baseboards. Any opening a quarter of an inch or larger represents a potential entry point. Wasp-proofing prevents or reduces the chances of queens entering structures to overwinter and establish colonies the next season.

Habitat Modification: Denying wasps food generally leads to the insects moving on. Reducing or eliminating factors that attract and encourage other insects such as flies, ants, and spiders, which in turn provide food for the wasps, also eliminates potential infestations. Wasps like to nest in protected areas, so trimming back bushes, twigs, shrubs, and trees eliminates potential nesting sites. Remove old, non-active wasp nests from previous seasons to prevent infestation relapses.

Human Behaviour Modification: Homeowners should adopt practices which do not attract wasps. During outdoor activities such as picnics or parties, homeowners should keep all food sealed in airtight containers, clean-up spills promptly, and cover trash with tight-fitting covers. Store garbage bins no less than 50 feet away from vulnerable entry sites or outdoor activities. During summer months, outdoor garbage bins should be placed away from entranceways and should be emptied on a daily basis.

It is important not endeavour to eliminate nests without proper guidance and knowledge. Call a professional pest control expert if you’re experiencing a wasp infestation in or around your home or business.

Habitat, Diet, and Life Cycle

Habitat

Wasp nests vary in shape, size and location depending on the species. Paper Wasps: Nests are constructed of paper-like material obtained by chewing and gluing plant material together. The nests are single layered, comb-like with no definable enclosure and consisting of 150 to 300 cells. The nests are stalked, attached to an object by a long stalks or stems called pedicel. Typical places where paper wasps attach their nests include fences, tree branches, twigs of trees and shrubs, eaves, door and window frames, exterior joists and soffits. Yellow Jackets and Hornets: Nests are also constructed of plant materials; however, they are multi-layered and consisting of five to nine combs with a total of 1,500 to 3,500 cells. The nests can either be exposed or protected in a paper envelope. Some yellow jack nests are the size of a soccer ball. Nests are typically found in hollow trees, wall voids, inside structures such as sheds, garages, and attics, and in trees and brushes. Some hornets and yellow jackets nest in ground. Ground nests are located typically in areas clear of vegetation. Mud daubers are solitary wasps. As the name suggests, mud daubers construct nests out of mud. A typical mud dauber nest is about 20-25 mm long. Such nests are generally plastered side by side forming a cluster of up to 100 to 120mm wide. Mud daubers like to build nests in sheltered sites, such as protected building structure and walls.

Most wasps primarily feed on nectar, fruit juices, or honey dew from plants. However, the most common wasp pests we encounter are primarily scavengers or carnivores that prey on other insects. Wasps are beneficial because of their predatory behaviour, which helps control insect pests in agricultural crops and gardens. The scavenger behaviour also draws wasps to human environments or activities where food is present, which makes the insects nuisance pests.

Life Cycle/Reproduction

Wasps undergo complete metamorphosis before becoming adults. The full process takes approximately six weeks. After eggs hatch, the new larvae feed on insects brought in by stinging female workers for a few weeks. Larvae then enter the pupal stage, a cocoon-like period where immatures transform into adult wasps over several more weeks. The queen typically only produces workers at the beginning of the season, and the workers care for the young as the queen continues to lay eggs.

Wasp colonies reach peak numbers during the late summer and early fall. A reproductive generation of males and females is produced around that time of year. Males die shortly after mating, with the rest of the colony dying off as temperatures drop. Fertilized females, or queens, overwinter and lay eggs in the spring to begin new colonies. Female wasps often hibernate in areas of the house with less traffic such as attics, barns, garages, or other accessible storage spaces.

Commonly Asked Questions

Why do I have wasps?

More than 500 species of wasps live in Canada, and most are social creatures that live in colonies ranging from half a dozen to 15,000 members. The most common pest wasps are hornets, yellow jackets, paper wasps, and mud daubers.

Paper wasps build single-layered nests from masticated plant matter and attach it to fences, branches, twigs, eaves, door and window frames, exterior joists and soffits. The nest may be exposed or protected in a paper envelope and will house up to 300 bees.

Yellow jackets and hornets also build nests from masticated plant matter but these are multi-layered and located in hollow trees, wall voids, inside structures such as sheds, garages, and attics, in trees and brushes, or on the ground. These nests will house up to 3,500 bees.

Mud daubers are solitary wasps and build nests from mud in sheltered areas like protected building structures and walls. Such nests are generally plastered side by side forming a cluster of nests more than a metre wide.

Most wasps primarily feed on nectar, fruit juices, or honeydew from plants, but the most common wasps are scavengers, preying on insects and human food. Wasps are typically attracted by food, beverages, and garbage.

Female wasps often hibernate in attics, barns, garages, or other accessible storage spaces.

How worried should I be about wasps?

Wasps are beneficial because they prey on insect pests in agricultural crops and gardens, but if provoked, wasps can sting multiple times, potentially causing fatal anaphylactic shock in allergic individuals if not treated.

Wasps can be dangerous, aggressive and extremely territorial and removal of a wasp nest and eradication of a wasp infestation is best left to a professional pest control service.

What attracts wasps?

The term wasp includes a broad category of flying insects ranging from paper wasps and mud daubers to the highly common yellow jackets and hornets found throughout Canada. The typical diets of wasps largely include other insects and arachnids. Wasps also feed on sweet liquids like nectars. Areas containing ready access to smaller, sustainable insects and spiders often appeal to wasps. Human food waste serves as a popular draw, as well. The social creatures often converge on trash cans located at schools, public pools, or other high-traffic outdoor parks where food consumption takes place. The insects take particular interest in the sucralose, sucrose, glucose, and other forms of sweeteners found in popular, modern food items, such as high fructose corn syrup-based treats or exposed and decomposing meats. Foods left out attract other insects, which provide both forms of preferred sustenance.

Preexisting burrows or former residences of small rodents or other tiny mammals can also attract wasps. Wasps prefer to build nests either underground or in shrubs, trees, or bushes. Many species of wasps assume homes or nests already burrowed out or created by other wasp or bee colonies or smaller mammals, as mentioned before. Sandy or bare soils prove likely to host wasp colonies. Voids in walls encased with soft materials like drywall or in abandoned vehicles also sometimes suit the needs of wasps for building nests. Large holes in trees typically represent another common location for wasps in Canada to reside.

www.orkincanada.ca

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