Butterfly Jaundice Photo and Description > Insects

Butterfly jaundice

Butterfly jaundice — a light-winged day butterfly, which can be found in the summer on the fields of clover or alfalfa. These creatures are very similar with some types of whites, therefore, they can only be distinguished when they are at the stages of the caterpillar. The genus is prone to migration — in search of fodder plants, moths go north.

Origin of view and description

Photo: Butterfly Jaundice

Jaundice (Colias hyale) — a butterfly belonging to the family of whites (Pieridae). The moth has several other names: hyalis jaundice (1758), small peat jaundice (1761), and ordinary jaundice. The genus has more than 80 species.

Interesting fact: The Latin name Colias hyale is given to an insect in honor of the nymph Hyale. She was an admirer of the vegetation goddess Diana. Together they went hunting and resting on forest lakes. Their images in the paintings adorn the halls of museums.

The species was first described by naturalist Carl Linnaeus.

In view of the wide distribution, there are many subspecies of the moth:

  • colias hyale hyale — distributed in Europe, CIS countries;
  • colias hyale altaica — Altai Territory;
  • colias hyale irkutskana — lives in Transbaikalia;
  • colias hyale alta — Central Asia;
  • colias hyale palidis — east of Siberia;
  • colias hyale novasinensis — China.

Interesting fact: During a long trip around the world, Charles Darwin was delighted with the sight of these lovely creatures when a population migrating to Indonesia surrounded his ship and landed on it to rest.

Appearance and features

Photo: Yellowness meadow

The moth is easily confused with insects from the genus of whites. Only their tracks, the color of which is very different, will help dispel doubts. Caterpillars of this species are bright, green. On the back there are yellow stripes and dark spots located in two rows.

The color of the wings of butterflies is yellow, sometimes green. The size of the front and rear wings is different, as is their color.

  • male wingspan — 5-6 centimeters;
  • females — a few millimeters less;
  • the length of the front wing of the male is 23-26 millimeters;
  • the length of the front wing of the female is 23-29 millimeters.

The upper side of the wings is usually yellow, the lower is grayish. On top of the fore wing, a dark sector with fuzzy yellow spots. In the middle are two black spots. On the hind wings are orange discal spots, on top are double spots. The lower part is bright yellow.

The female is much lighter and her background is almost white, with yellow scales. Both sexes have the same pattern. The front wings resemble a rectangle in shape, the hind wings are rounded. Fringes their pink fringe. The head is round, the eyes resemble a hemisphere in shape and are a complex organ consisting of six thousand small lenses.

The antennae are club-shaped, black, thickened at the apex, pink at the base. The limbs are well developed; each of them is used during walking. There are receptors on the paws. The abdomen is thin, tapering to the edge. The chest is covered with long hairs.

Now you know what the meadow butterfly jaundice looks like. Let’s see where she lives.

Where does the jaundice butterfly live?

The distribution range of the moth is very wide — Europe is up to 65 degrees north latitude. The insect prefers a warm temperate climate.

In Russia, it can be found in many regions, with the exception of the north:

  • Gorno-Altai;
  • European Central;
  • Pribaikalsky;
  • Tuvinsky;
  • Volga-Don;
  • North Ural;
  • Kaliningrad;
  • European Northeast;
  • Lower Volga and others

Almost everywhere can be found in Eastern Europe. In the east, near the Polar Urals, migratory individuals are often recorded. For a long time there was an opinion that the species does not inhabit the Ciscaucasia, but now it has been disproved. Insects do not fly on the Kola Peninsula, in deserts and subzones of dry steppes.

Favorite places are open spaces of forests and steppes, meadows, clearings, edges, roadsides, gardens, riverbanks, wastelands. In flowering mountain meadows you can see an insect at an altitude of up to 2 thousand meters above sea level. It is found in Turkey, China, Mongolia.

Interesting fact: Twin species live in southern Europe and the Caucasus, which even entomologists Coliashyale and Coliasalfacariensis cannot distinguish. In adults, the color is identical and when the caterpillar stage ends, it will not be possible to determine the species.

In spring and summer, lepidoptera migrate north, in search of fodder plants. It lives on alfalfa and clover fields. Due to migration, the species is found in the territories of Denmark, Austria, Poland, Finland, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Lithuania, Latvia, the Netherlands.

What does a jaundice butterfly eat?

Photo: Butterfly jaundice from the Red Book

Adults feed mainly on nectar, which they collect from the flowers of white clover, medicinal sweet clover, creeper, meadow clover, sickle alfalfa, sowing alfalfa, multicolor wicker, vetch (mouse pea), hypocrepsis, lyadvin, sainfoin, crested rosette, and other rosacea and cruciferous plants.

Caterpillars hatching from eggs superficially eat up the pulp of leaves, veins leave. After the third age, the larvae gnaw the leaves from the edges, together with the skeleton. Before hibernation, the caterpillars feed heavily for a month, in the spring this period is 20-23 days.

The jaundice Marco Polo, named by the Russian scientist Gregory Grum-Grzhimailo in honor of the Italian traveler, feeds on astragalus plants. Christof’s jaundice feeds on pillow-shaped plants. Wiskotta jaundice chooses slopes planted with a pecuniary. Peat jaundice feed on blueberry leaves.

Caterpillars mainly feed at night. Adult paws have taste buds to taste nectar. An elastic and mobile proboscis allows you to penetrate into the depths of the flower to get nectar. Caterpillars of some species prefer to eat leaves of prickly plants.

Features of character and lifestyle

Photo: Butterfly jaundice meadow

Moths years in the southern regions occur from April to October. In a year, 2-3 generations of insects may appear. The first generation in temperate regions flies from May to June, the second — July-August. Lepidoptera of both generations often fly at the same time.

Butterflies are active only in the daytime. At rest, their wings are always folded behind their backs, so it is extremely difficult to make out the upper side of the wings. Individuals fly very fast. In late spring and early summer, insects travel to the northern regions to settle in places with a sufficient number of fodder plants.

Females are much less common than males, in view of the sedentary lifestyle. They fly very rarely, most of the time they sit in the grass. Their flight is uneven, fluttering, galloping. Peat jaundice spends almost all the time in the swamps. In spite of the sedentary lifestyle, males can be found far beyond the usual range during a massive summer.

See also:  Bark Beetles, ScienceDirect

Maneuverable flight allows insects to travel considerable distances. Usually they do not rise from the earth higher than a meter. Life expectancy depends on the habitat. In favorable conditions, it can be up to 10 months. Some types of jaundices live from just a few days to a couple of weeks.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Butterfly yellow jaundice

Although lepidoptera fly once a summer, two generations appear in a year. On the wings of males are special flakes that vaporize pheromones designed to attract females of the same species. These flakes are located in clusters that form spots.

In the afternoon, partners look for each other to mate, they fly fast and without stops. After mating, females fly in search of forage plants for caterpillars. They lay 1-2 eggs on the inside of the leaves or on the stems of the plant. Eggs are fusiform, with 26 or 28 ribs.

Immediately after laying, the egg is yellow, but by the time of hatching the caterpillar acquires a red tint. The larva appears on the 7-8th day. The caterpillar is born green with pink spiracles about 1.6 mm long. The head is large, with white granules.

The summer generation is developing in 24 days. Autumn larvae molt three times and leave for the winter. By this time, they grow to 8 mm. In Europe, caterpillars wrap themselves in leaves for the winter, and in colder climates they burrow into the ground.

By spring, the length of the larvae reaches 30 mm; they are covered with dark hairs. After the fifth age, pupation occurs. Silk thread caterpillars cling to a stalk or leaf. The pupa is also green, 20-22 mm long. In anticipation of the appearance of a butterfly, the pupa turns red.

Natural enemies of jaundice butterflies

Photo: Butterfly jaundice from the Red Book

For the most part, the enemies of the caterpillars are predator insects hunting them. The natural enemies of adults are insects, birds, amphibians, reptiles, small mammals.

  • rider wasps;
  • hymenoptera;
  • sphaecides;
  • spiders
  • dragonflies;
  • ground beetles;
  • ants
  • tahini flies;
  • predatory bugs;
  • ladybugs;
  • praying mantises;
  • ktyr;
  • large heads;
  • lizards;
  • rodents;
  • frogs.

Birds prey on larvae to feed their chicks. Some birds attack insects when they rest, eat, or drink water. Birds drag butterflies on trees to make their wings fly off, after which they eat only the abdomen. Southern birds capture Lepidoptera on the fly.

Many invertebrates are no less dangerous for the genus. Parasitic wasps lay eggs on leaves, which are then eaten by moths, becoming carriers of larvae of riders who eat a butterfly alive. Inside the body, they feed on the organs of the jaundice, grow and develop. Up to 80 parasite larvae can crawl out of the caterpillar.

Some individuals fall into the web, but a much larger number of insects die from predatory spiders who prefer active hunting. Parasites do not attack adults. They live on the body of a moth, but do not kill it, since their survival depends on the wearer.

Population and species status

Photo: Yellowness meadow

The number of peat jaundice is negligible. In some territories, for example, in the Rivne Reserve, at the height of summer, 6-10 butterflies per hectare of habitat are recorded. At the caterpillar stage, insects cause significant damage to agricultural crops.

Some farmers use insecticides to control larvae. This causes irreparable damage to the population. Peat extraction and drainage of swamps negatively affect the natural habitats of Lepidoptera, peatlands are overgrown with trees and shrubs, which also leads to a decrease in numbers. Harvesting blueberries negatively affects the development of caterpillars.

In Western Europe and some Central European countries over the 20th century, numbers have fallen to critical levels. In biotopes under suitable conditions, the number of individuals can be stable. In Belarus, it is gradually declining.

Limiting factors include the isolation of individual populations, the small area of ​​natural habitats, the development of oligotrophic bogs, the burning out and development of upland bogs. In areas where individuals were found in single quantities, these factors led to a significant decline in the population or complete extinction.

Jaundice Butterfly Protection

Despite the fact that the genus belongs to the category of pests, it is still listed in the Red Book and protected by the law on ecology. Gecko jaundice and golden jaundice are listed in the Red Book of European Day Butterflies, they are assigned the category SPEC3. Peat jaundice is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine with category I and in the Red Book of Belarus with category II.

Many species were listed in the Red Book of the former USSR. Species that are negatively affected by humans need additional protection measures and control over their condition, the search for populations in habitats.

In Ukraine, peat jaundice is protected in several nature reserves of Polesye. In areas with high numbers, it is recommended the construction of entomological reserves with the preservation of peatlands in their natural state, which primarily concerns the top bogs.

In case of drying out of swamps and adjacent forests, it is necessary to take measures to restore the hydrological regime. These include the overlapping of reclamation channels designed for the outflow of water from swamps. Allowable clear cutting, not causing damage to the ground cover.

The species is protected on the territory of the NP «Nechkinsky» and the natural botanical reserve «St. Andrew’s pine forest.» No additional measures are required on the territory of protected areas. A set of standard activities focused on maintaining biodiversity is sufficient.

Butterfly jaundice It brings great benefits, contributing to the pollination and self-pollination of many plants. Any natural resources will ever be exhausted and moths are no exception. Scientists have directed a lot of efforts to explore and protect the habitat of winged flowers, to preserve and increase their numbers.


Lemongrass butterfly

Lemongrass butterfly one of the first begins to flutter in the spring, and often suffers from this, dying when the thaw is replaced by a new cooling — after it you can see bright yellow butterflies in the snow. They are found not only in spring, but also in summer and autumn. They stand out in bright colors, and also as if wings were slightly cut off from both edges.

Origin of view and description

Photo: Butterfly lemongrass

Schisandra belongs to the family of whites (Pieridae). It also includes pests such as cabbage and female repens, but lemongrasses themselves are not considered pests, since their caterpillars feed mainly on buckthorn. Therefore, they bear another name — buckthorn. The whites belong to the order Lepidoptera. According to the findings of paleoanthologists, the first representatives of the detachment inhabited the planet at the beginning of the Jurassic period — the age of the oldest found remains is approximately 190 million years.

By the Cretaceous period, when flowering plants spread more and more on the planet, lepidoptera reached their peak. They acquired a well-developed oral apparatus, their wings also developed stronger. Then there was the formation of a long proboscis, designed to suck out nectar. Lepidoptera species became more and more large, larger ones appeared, the length of their life in the form of adults increased — they reached a real flowering. Although in our time the diversity of this order is also striking, it consists of many dissimilar species.

Interesting fact: Butterflies change four forms during their lifetime: first an egg, then a larva, a chrysalis and, finally, an adult butterfly with wings. All these forms are strikingly different from each other, and the imago is the name of the latter.

Lepidoptera rapidly evolved along with flowering plants. By the Paleogene, most of the modern families, including whites, had finally formed. The appearance of modern lemongrass dates back to the same time. Gradually, their new species continued to appear, and this process is still not finished.

See also:  12 Strategies for Battling Cabbage Moths, Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

In the genus lemongrass, they include from 10 to 14 species — researchers have not yet come to a consensus about the exact classification of some. The difference between species is mainly expressed in size and color intensity. Further, in all cases where the opposite is not indicated, we will talk about the magnolia vine ordinary described by Carl Linnaeus in the fundamental work «System of Nature», which appeared in 1758.

We can distinguish several more famous and common types:

  • Cleopatra, living in the Mediterranean;
  • aminta, the largest — its wingspan reaches 80 mm, is found in Southeast Asia;
  • aspasia — Far Eastern butterflies, on the contrary, small (30 mm) and very brightly colored.

Appearance and features

Photo: Yellow lemongrass butterfly

In the form of an imago, it has elongated front wings and rounded hind wings — both have a pointed end. The hind wings are slightly longer and can reach 35 mm. The color allows lemongrasses to disguise themselves well: if they fold their wings while sitting on a tree or shrub, it is difficult for predators to notice them from afar.

Females and males differ primarily in the color of their wings: in males they are bright yellow, which is why the name of these butterflies came to be, and in females they are white with a green tint. In the middle of the wings there is a small orange spot.

They have faceted eyes and a round head, as well as a very long proboscis, with which they can extract nectar even from very complex flowers. Walking legs three pairs, with their help lemongrass move on the surface of the plant. Wings four pairs.

The sizes vary greatly depending on the species, usually the wingspan is about 55 mm. In representatives of the largest species, it can reach 80 mm, and in small lemongrasses only 30 mm. Caterpillars do not externally stand out: green in tone of foliage, they are covered with small black dots.

Interesting fact: If it’s not very hot, then, as soon as the sun hides behind the clouds, as a lemongrass tends to land on the nearest flower or tree, it is very difficult for it to fly without direct sunlight, since a high temperature must be maintained for the flight.

Where does butterfly lemongrass live?

The habitat is very wide, it includes:

  • most of Europe;
  • Near East;
  • Far East;
  • North Africa;
  • Southeast Asia;
  • Canary Islands;
  • Madeira island.

These butterflies are not in the deserts, steppes of the Ciscaucasia, beyond the Arctic Circle, they are also absent on the island of Crete. In Russia, they are very widespread, you can meet them from Kaliningrad to Vladivostok. Able to live in harsh environmental conditions, almost to the polar circle.

First of all, their range is determined by the distribution of buckthorn as the main food source for caterpillars, although they are able to eat other plants. If ordinary lemongrass is widespread, then other species can live in a very limited area, there are several endemic species that live in the Canary Islands and Madeira.

It is curious that these butterflies do not live in the fields, preferring overgrown bushes, various gardens, parks, edges and woodlands — the main areas where they can be found, since lemongrasses also do not settle in the dense forest. They live in the mountains, but not too high — above 2,500 meters above sea level they are no longer there. If necessary, they can fly over long distances in order to find the most convenient terrain for living.

Now you know where the yellow, bright butterfly lives. Let’s now see what butterfly lemongrass eats?

What does butterfly schizandra eat?

Photo: Butterfly lemongrass in spring

In the form of imago — nectar.

Among the plants whose nectar attracts lemongrass:

Wild flowers prevail among preferences, although nectar of garden lemongrasses is also drunk. Thanks to their long proboscis, they can feed on nectar, inaccessible to almost all other butterflies, for example, of the same primrose. For many spring plants, it is vital that they are pollinated by lemongrass, because there are almost no other butterflies at this time. The larva feeds on buckthorn, like a buckthorn laxative, zoster and others.

They eat the sheet from the middle to the edge in a few days, quickly growing, and by the time they are selected on the outside of the sheet, the molt is already ending. They do not do much harm to buckthorn, but are almost harmless for cultivated plants, with few exceptions: caterpillars can feed on foliage of plants such as cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, horseradish, radish or turnip. But cases when they harm plantings are very rare, since lemongrass eggs are usually laid in thickets and forest edges.

Interesting fact: Chooses which flower to sit on lemongrass not by the smell emitted by them, but by color. Most of these butterflies are attracted by blue and red flowers.

Features of character and lifestyle

Photo: Butterfly lemongrass

They are active during the day and fly only when it is sunny. They like warm weather very much, and in the spring, if it’s cool, they often freeze for a long time, folding their wings at a right angle and trying to catch as many sunrays as possible — first they substitute one side and then the other. As soon as evening comes and it becomes not so light, they begin to look for a convenient place to spend the night — usually thickets of bushes serve for this. They sit on a branch deep in the undergrowth and, having folded their wings, become almost indistinguishable from the surrounding greenery.

Unlike most other butterflies that spend not so much time in flight because of the high energy costs for it, lemongrasses are very hardy and can fly most of the day, covering long distances. At the same time they are able to climb to great heights. Since they live by the standards of butterflies for a long time, they need to save vitality — therefore, if conditions become less favorable, for example, rainy weather sets in and colder, then even in the middle of summer they may begin diapause. When it becomes warm again, lemongrasses wake up.

An interesting fact: Diapause is a period when the metabolism of a butterfly becomes much slower, it stops moving and becomes much more resistant to external influences.

Lemongrasses appear one of the first — in warm regions since March. But this is the butterflies that live the second year, they lay eggs in the spring, and then die. Young individuals appear at the beginning of summer, and in the middle of autumn they go to winter to “thaw” in the spring. That is, the lifespan of lemongrasses in the form of adults is about nine months — for day butterflies this is quite a lot, but in Europe they do keep a record for longevity.

See also:  How to Spray My House for Bugs, Hunker

For winter hiding deeper in the undergrowth. They are not afraid of frosts: the increased retention of glycerol and polypeptides allows you to stay alive in hibernation even at an air temperature of -40 ° C, especially since in a shelter, especially if it is under snow, it is usually much warmer. On the contrary, thaws are dangerous for them: if they wake up, they spend a lot of energy on flights, and since there are no flowers yet, they cannot resume its supply. With a sharp cooling, they simply do not have time to find a new shelter and fall into hibernation again — and die.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Butterfly buckthorn

They live alone, and only in the mating season they fly in pairs. It falls in the spring, and the initiative belongs to males performing a simple mating ritual: when they meet a suitable female, then they fly for a short distance after it. Then the male and female descend on the bush and mate.

After that, the female searches for a place near the buckthorn shoots so that the larvae have enough food, and lays eggs, one or two on each leaf, up to a hundred. They are kept with a sticky secret. A week or two eggs mature, and by the beginning of summer a larva appears. After the appearance, it begins to absorb the leaf — in the form of a caterpillar, the lemongrass is very voracious and eats almost all the time, growing from 1.5 to 35 mm. The time it takes to grow depends on the weather — the warmer and drier it is, the faster the caterpillar will reach the desired size and will pass all the molts. It usually takes 3-5 weeks.

Then she pupates. The length of stay in the form of a pupa depends on the climate and is 10-20 days — the warmer, the faster the butterfly will appear. Having got out of the cocoon, she spends a little time just hovering to spread her wings and let them grow stronger, and then she can fly freely — the individual immediately appears adult and fully adapted to life. In total, all stages of development take from 40 to 60 days, and the adult butterfly lives another 270 days, although it spends a significant part of this time in hibernation.

Natural enemies of lemongrass butterflies

Photo: Butterfly lemongrass

There are many of them: the danger threatens lemongrass at any stage of development, because there are lovers to feast on them in any form. Adult butterflies are easiest, since predators still need to catch them; there are no such problems with other forms.

Among the enemies of lemongrass:

There are more than enough predators feeding on butterflies, but their most terrible enemies are birds. They most often eat caterpillars, because this is nutritious prey that does not need to be hunted. In total, about a quarter of the caterpillars are destroyed by birds on average. Some birds also attack adults — most often they lie in wait when they rest or drink nectar.

For them, the easiest way is to hit the victim with his beak when she sat down and kill, then separate the wings from her and eat the torso. Although some are adroit enough to grab butterflies on the fly, for example, swallows do just that. But for adults, birds and predators in general are not so dangerous — they can fly away, and a protective color also helps, because of which they are difficult to notice when they are resting. Much harder to the caterpillars: they are hunted by a much larger number of predators, including small ones that are too tough for adult butterflies — and they are not able to fly away or run away. In addition, although the caterpillars also have a protective color, but they are given out by eaten leaves.

Caterpillars are loved by ants, killing them with the coordinated actions of large groups and then dragging them to their anthills. Parasitic wasps can lay eggs right on live caterpillars. The larvae emerging from them then gobble up the caterpillar for a long time directly alive. Sometimes she dies because of this, not having time to become a chrysalis, but even when she manages to live up to this, parasites then get out of the chrysalis, and not a butterfly at all. In addition, butterflies are also susceptible to bacteria, viruses and fungi; small mites can parasitize them.

Population and species status

Photo: Butterfly lemongrass in spring

Although the caterpillars are quite picky about food, the plants they prefer are widespread, so nothing threatens lemongrass. Of course, human activity could not but affect them — the area occupied by shrubs of buckthorn shrubs has noticeably decreased in the last century, moreover, pesticides are actively used — but reducing the number of butterflies is not yet critical.

There are still a lot of limonaria, but this applies to the entire planet, and in its individual areas a strong decline in the population of these butterflies is still observed. So, in the Netherlands, the question was raised of recognizing them as an endangered species at the local level and the corresponding protection. But the family as a whole is not assigned the status of a protected one — a wide range allows you not to worry about its survival. There are many lemongrass in Russia, they can be found in most parts of the country. Although individual species have a much narrower range and smaller population, sooner or later they may be at risk of extinction.

This applies primarily to two species — endemic to the Canary Islands, Gonepteryx cleobule and palmae. The latter inhabit exclusively the island of Palma. Another species, Gonepteryx maderensis, an endemic to the island of Madeira, is protected as the population of these butterflies has declined dramatically in recent decades. In addition, in the corners of our planet remote from civilization, species of lemongrass, not yet described due to their rarity, can also inhabit.

Lemongrasses are harmless butterflies, one of the first to fly in the spring and play a big role in pollination of spring flowers. They are not as widespread as hives, but they are also common, and live in most of the territory of Russia. Bright yellow lemongrass butterfly — one of the decorations of the warm season.


No comments

Добавить комментарий

Your e-mail will not be published. All fields are required.