Borzhnik butterfly insect

Borzhnik butterfly insect. Lifestyle and Habitat Habitat

If you consider carefully butterfly Brazhnik, You can see in it a lot in common with a hummingbird bird. A large-sized butterfly with a long, thick and fluffy body really very much resembles a tiny bird.

Not all flowers are able to withstand its rather considerable weight. Therefore, hawks do not sit on flowers, but suck out nectar from them with the help of a proboscis nose on the fly. From the side, it is interesting to observe how a large butterfly hangs over a bud and, with the frequent work of its wings, produces valuable flower nectar.

And this continues until it becomes heavier. It was noticed by people that, after almost complete saturation, the butterfly flies from flower to flower, swaying smoothly at the same time, as if under the influence of alcohol.

People who are not sober are sometimes called brazhniks. So the name stuck to the butterfly because of its seemingly reckless behavior and smooth swaying during flight.

There is still an opinion why people called them that. The fact is that the butterfly drinks nectar with such pleasure, like a man, a lover of drink, mash. The name is ancient, therefore, the true reason why they called the butterfly Brazhnik, probably, is simply not given to know. Most people nevertheless tend to the first version, which really is more like the truth.

Features and habitat

In nature, there is simply an incredible amount of the most diverse insects, beautiful and ugly, ordinary and supernatural. But perhaps the most popular of all this variety is the butterfly Brazhnik.

Wine hawker average

This is about her, there are many legends. An incredible number of signs and superstitions are connected with it. Butterfly Brazhnik was assigned a not entirely secondary role in the popular film “Silence of the Lambs,” in which the main character, suffering from manic tendencies, raised these moths in his mouth and placed their pupae in their mouths.

In general, everything connected with the butterfly Brazhnik has long been dark, mystical and frightening. For some reason, since ancient times, people considered this moth a harbinger of disasters and always tried to destroy it when they met.

Why did people so dislike this beautiful insect? There are several answers to this question. One of the very first and most compelling reasons for a man’s hatred of the butterfly Brazhnik is its appearance.

Euphorbiaceae

The fact is that on its back as if someone specially painted a human skull with crossbones. Looking at such a picture it is unlikely that anyone would come up with positive thoughts.

The second reason people disliked this insect was its unpleasant squeak. It is so loud and unpleasant, like screams, that makes people shudder.

A picture on the back is added to this scream and the harbinger of trouble is ready. Such external data prompted many people to creative work, in which basically this sweet and wonderful creature acted as a monster.

At its core, this butterfly is considered one of the largest insects. The span of its beautiful wings sometimes reaches up to 14 cm. This beauty belongs to the order of Lepidoptera. The body of the butterfly has the shape of a cone, its wings are narrow and elongated.

Tsinggulata shred

The butterfly has a long antennae, round eyes and a long proboscis, which is its main assistant in the extraction of food. Short and strong spikes are observed on the legs of the insect. The scales are visible on the abdomen. Fore wings wide and somewhat pointed to apex.

The rear is slightly smaller, mowing to the rear. Butterfly caterpillars are large, five pairs of legs. Their color is difficult to confuse with anyone. It is bright, with oblique stripes and specks resembling eyes.

At the end of the body of the caterpillar of the Brazhnik butterfly, a growth of a dense structure in the form of a horn is clearly visible. In many places, these caterpillars harm forestry, horticulture and agriculture, damaging crops.

Dead Head Hogwash (Acherontia atropos)

All species of this family are comfortable in a warm environment. But there are among them those who for some reason can migrate much more north from their habitats.

They are easily given flights through sea spaces and mountain ranges. If you consider some types of Brazhnikov, you can catch the significant differences between them. Oleander hawk, for example, deep green, like grass.

On its front wings stands out a noticeable pattern with various shades of white, brown, green and purple. The hind wings are dominated by gray and purple tones bordered by a green rim.

In color ocular hawthorn brown color and marble-like pattern prevail. A longitudinal strip of brown is clearly visible along the front back of the insect. The base of the hind wings is pale pink with red tones. In the middle, large spots of black with blue, reminiscent of eyes, stand out clearly on them.

Tobacco Hogwash gray with a little yellow. On the back of his torso, beautiful yellow rectangles are visible, separated by black stripes. This moth is very beautiful in real life. At lime shred Olive-green tones predominate in the color. On its wings uneven dark spots are visible.

Character and lifestyle

The Brazhniki butterflies, despite the rumor of people, are actually very gentle and harmless creatures. Their appearance on a summer cottage is not an omen of trouble, but a great chance to observe this beautiful creature, many species of which are listed in the Red Book.

Hogweed poplar

The look of it in real life is much better than Hogweed in the photo. Although the photo conveys its incredible beauty. These insects are considered the fastest pollinators of flowers. In flight, they develop incredible speed — up to 50 km / h.

Butterflies fly in a certain period. They can be seen in late summer and early fall. Almost all species of these insects prefer a twilight and nocturnal lifestyle. But there are among them those who can be seen during the day.

Every year they cover a huge distance, getting from Africa to Europe. Before turning into a doll, the butterfly Brazhnik is completely immersed in the ground. And after 5-6 hours, he can only stick his head out in order to eat on the leaves to which she pulls out.

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Far Eastern ocellate

Most often it can be found on potato fields. Many agricultural observers have seen more than once Brazhnika chrysalis when harvesting potatoes.

These insects can climb into the hive to get their own honey. From touching them, they emit a heart-rending and nasty squeak. Bee stings are not afraid of them because of the thick hairs throughout the body.

The most favorite delicacy of this moth is flower nectar. How he produces it was mentioned a little higher. It is worth adding that doing this is not easy. Such tricks are considered aerobatics.

Squid collects nectar from a flower

In order to get honey loved by butterflies, they have to fly over the hive and pretend that they are bees. A funny and interesting sight. Using a proboscis, it is not difficult for a hawker to make a hole in a honeycomb and enjoy honey from it.

Reproduction and longevity

Basically, a butterfly can produce offspring twice. If there is a long warm autumn, this can happen for the third time. True, during the cooling, the offspring from the third brood in most cases die from a sharp change in temperature.

Caterpillar

There are 4 phases in the life cycle of Brazhnikov butterflies. Initially, a mature female lays an egg. From which the larva emerges over time (Brazhnik caterpillar). The larva eventually turns into a chrysalis, from which an adult butterfly is obtained.

In order for the mating between the male and the female, she secrets a special pheromone that attracts a gentleman. Mating takes several hours. After which the female lays her eggs on the plants. There may be about a thousand. Most often, Brazhnika eggs can be seen on nightshade plants, potatoes, and tobacco.

The appearance of larvae is observed on 2-4 days. Larvae need a lot of food for a normal existence. Therefore, they actively absorb it in the evening and at night. The larva grows to large sizes, its length can reach 15 cm.

Oleander hawk

Her whole appearance may be threatening, but in fact it is a painfully harmless creature that spends more of its time underground, and appears on the surface of the earth only if it needs to be reinforced. Dolly survive winter in the ground. However, she does not wrap herself in a cocoon. With the advent of spring, a real butterfly Brazhnik appears from such a chrysalis.

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Butterfly dead head

Moths have always been associated in humans with something sweet, safe, and beautiful. They symbolize love, beauty and happiness. However, among them there are not very romantic creatures. Refers to them butterfly dead head. In the famous film “Silence of the Lambs,» buffalo maniac raised insects and put them in the mouth of the victims. It looked impressive.

Origin of view and description

Photo: Butterfly Dead Head

The dead head belongs to the family of hawks. Its Latin name Acherontia atropos combines two designations that inspire fear in the inhabitants of ancient Greece. The word «Acheron» means the name of the river of sorrow in the kingdom of the dead, «Atropos» is the name of one of the goddesses of human destinies who cut the thread that is identified with life.

The ancient Greek name was intended to describe the horrors of the underworld. The Russian name Moth Dead Head (Adam’s Head) is associated with its color — on the chest there is a yellow pattern that resembles a skull in shape. In many European countries, shredder is similar to the Russian name.

For the first time, Karl Linnaeus described the species in his work, The System of Nature, and named it Sphinx atropos. In 1809, an entomologist from Germany, Jacob Heinrich Laspeyres, identified the hawk in the genus Acherontia, to which he is included in our time. This genus belongs to the taxonomic rank Acherontiini. Within the rank, interspecific kinship has not been fully investigated.

In the world there are a huge number of species of insects, but only this creature has been honored with the creation of so many signs, legends and superstitions. Unreasoned speculation led to persecution, persecution and the destruction of the species, as a harbinger of disaster.

An interesting fact: the artist Van Gogh, who was in the hospital in 1889, saw a moth in the garden and depicted it in a picture called “Brazhnik dead head”. But the painter was mistaken and, instead of the famous Adam’s head, painted «Peacock-eye Pear».

Appearance and features

Photo: Butterfly hawthorn dead head

View of the Adam’s head — one of the largest among European moths. Sexual dimorphism is dimly expressed and females are not much different from males.

Their sizes reach:

  • the length of the front wings is 45-70 mm;
  • wingspan of males — 95-115 mm;
  • female wingspan — 90-130 mm;
  • weight of males — 2-6 g;
  • the weight of females is 3-8 g.

Fore wings are pointed, twice as long as wide; rear — one and a half, there is a small indentation. At the front, the outer edge is even, the back ones are beveled to the edge. The head is dark brown or black. On the black-brown chest there is a yellow pattern that looks like a human skull with black eye sockets. This illustration may be completely missing.

The lower chest and abdomen are yellow. The color of the wings can vary from brown-black to ocher-yellow. The pattern of moths may vary. The abdomen is up to 60 millimeters long, up to 20 millimeters in diameter, and is covered with scales. The proboscis is strong, thick, up to 14 millimeters, it has cilia on it.

The body is conical. The eyes are round. Labial palps pressed tightly to the head, covered with scales. Antennae short, narrowed, covered with two rows of cilia. The female does not have cilia. The legs are thick and short. There are four rows of spikes on the legs. On the hind tibia there are two pairs of spurs.

So we figured out what the Dead Head butterfly looks like. Now find out where the Dead Head butterfly lives.

Where does the dead head butterfly live?

Photo: Adam’s Butterfly Head

The habitat includes Africa, Syria, Kuwait, Madagascar, Iraq, the western side of Saudi Arabia, and Northeast Iran. It is found in southern and central Europe, in the Canary and Azores, Transcaucasia, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. The migratory individuals were observed in the Palearctic, the Middle Urals, and Northeast of Kazakhstan.

The habitats of the Adam’s head are directly dependent on the time of year, since the species is migratory. In the southern regions, moths live from May to September. Migrating hawks are capable of speeds of up to 50 kilometers per hour. This figure gives them the right to be champions among butterflies and allows them to migrate to other countries.

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In Russia, the Dead Head was met in many areas — Moscow, Saratov, Volgograd, Penza, in the North Caucasus and in the Krasnodar Territory, you can most often meet in the mountainous regions. Lepidoptera choose the most diverse landscapes for living, but more often they settle near plantations, fields, in woodlands, valleys.

Often butterflies select territories near potato fields. When digging potatoes, many pupae come across. In the Caucasus, individuals settle at the foot of the mountains at an altitude of up to 700 m above sea level. During the migration period, you can find it at an altitude of 2500 m. Flight time and its range depend on weather conditions. Lepidoptera form new colonies at migration sites.

What does a dead head butterfly eat?

Photo: Night Butterfly Dead Head

Adults are not indifferent to sweets. The nutrition of adults serves as an important factor not only in maintaining life, but also in the maturation of eggs in the body of females. Because of the short proboscis, moths cannot eat nectar, but they can drink wood juices and juices arising from damaged fruits.

However, insects eat very rarely, since they prefer not to be in flight, but to sit on the surface near the fruit during the exhaustion of honey, juice or moisture. Butterfly dead head likes honey, at one time can eat up to 15 grams. They penetrate hives or nests and pierce the honeycomb with a proboscis. Caterpillars feed on the tops of cultivated plants.

Especially to their taste:

Caterpillars also eat the bark of trees and some plants — belladonna, datura, dereza, cabbage, hemp, nettle, hibiscus, ash. They inflict tangible damage to shrubs in the gardens by eating foliage. Most of the time, the caterpillars are underground and crawl out only for feeding. Give preference to nightshade plants.

Individuals feed alone, and not in groups, so they do not cause special harm to plants. Crops, unlike pests, do not destroy, since they are an endangered species and are not satisfied with mass raids. Plants are fully restored in a short time.

Features of character and lifestyle

Photo: Butterfly Dead Head

This type of butterfly is nocturnal. In the afternoon they rest, and with the onset of twilight they begin to hunt. Until midnight, moths can be observed in the light of lamps and poles, which attracts them. In the rays of bright light, they whirl beautifully, performing mating dances.

Insects can make squeaking sounds. Entomologists for a long time could not understand which organ forms them and believed that it leaves the stomach. But in 1920, Heinrich Prell made a discovery and found out that the squeak appears as a result of the growth of the growth on the upper lip, when the butterfly sucks in air and pushes it back.

Caterpillars can also make a squeak, but it is different from adult sounds. It is formed as a result of friction of the jaws. Before being reborn into a butterfly, pupae can make a sound if disturbed. Scientists are not one hundred percent sure what it serves, but most agree that insects publish them to scare away strangers.

In the caterpillar stage, insects are almost always burrowing, crawling to the surface, only to eat. Sometimes they do not even protrude completely from the ground, but reach the nearest leaflet, eat it and hide back. Burrows are at a depth of 40 centimeters. So they live for two months, and then pupate.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Adam’s Butterfly Head

Every year, a dead head butterfly gives two offspring. Interestingly, the second generation of females is born sterile. Therefore, only newly arrived migrants will be able to increase the population. In favorable conditions and a warm climate, third offspring may appear. However, if the autumn is cold, some individuals do not have time to pupate and die.

Females produce pheromones, thereby attracting males, after which they mate and lay eggs up to one and a half millimeters bluish or green in size. Moths attach them on the inside of the leaf or lay between the stem of the plant and the leaf.

Large caterpillars hatch from the eggs, each with five pairs of legs. Insects go through 5 stages of growing up. On the first, they grow to one centimeter. Individuals of the 5th stage reach 15 centimeters in length and weigh about 20 grams. Caterpillars look very beautiful. They spend two months underground, then another month in the pupal stage.

Pupae of males reach 60 millimeters in length, females — 75 mm, weight of pupae of males up to 10 grams, females — up to 12 grams. At the end of the pupation process, the pupa may be yellow or cream in color, after 12 hours it becomes reddish-brown.

Natural enemies of the butterfly dead head

Photo: Butterfly hawthorn dead head

At all stages of the life cycle butterfly dead head pursued by various types of parasitoids — organisms that survive at the expense of the host:

Small and medium-sized species of wasps can lay their eggs right in the body of the caterpillars. Larvae develop by parasitizing on caterpillars. Tahini lay eggs on plants. Caterpillars eat them together with leaves and they develop, eating the internal organs of the future moth. When the parasites grow, they go outside.

Since beetroots are not indifferent to bee honey, they are often subjected to bites. It is proved that the Adam’s head is almost insensitive to bee venom and is able to withstand up to five bee stings. To defend themselves against a swarm of bees, they buzz like a queen bee that has recently emerged from a cocoon.

Moths also have other tricks. They make their way into the hives at night and produce chemicals that hide their own odors. With the help of fatty acids, they soothe bees. It happens that bees sting a lover of honey to death.

Insects do not harm beekeeping due to their low numbers, but beekeepers still consider them to be pests and destroy them. Often they erect a mesh around the hives with cells no more than 9 millimeters so that only bees can penetrate inside.

Population and species status

Photo: Butterfly Dead Head

Often, individuals can only be found in solitary numbers. The abundance of the species directly depends on weather and natural conditions, therefore, from year to year their number varies greatly. In cold years, the number drops significantly, in warm years it quickly resumes.

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If winters are too harsh, chrysalis can die. But by next year, numbers are recovering thanks to migratory individuals. The second generation of moths is bred in a much larger number of individuals due to migrants arriving. However, in the middle lane, second generation females cannot bear offspring.

A completely favorable situation with the number of moths is in the South Caucasus. Winters are moderately warm and the larvae survive to thaw safely. In other territories, changes in environmental conditions adversely affect the number of butterflies.

The total number cannot be calculated, only indirectly, based on the found pupae. Chemical treatment of the fields led to a decrease in the number of insects in the territories of the former USSR, especially in the fight against the Colorado potato beetle, which caused the death of caterpillars and pupae, uprooting of bushes, and ruin of habitats.

Interesting fact: Moths have always been persecuted by humans. The sounds reproduced by the moth and the pattern on its chest led to a panic of ignorant people in 1733. They blamed the rampant epidemic on the appearance of a hawk. In France, some people still believe that if a flake comes into the eye from the wing of the Dead Head, you can become blind.

Guard butterfly dead head

Photo: Butterfly Dead Head from the Red Book

In 1980, the appearance of the Adam’s head was listed in the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR and in 1984 in the Red Book of the USSR as disappearing. But at present it is excluded from the Red Book of Russia, since it has been given the status of a relatively widespread species and not requiring protective measures.

In the Red Book of Ukraine, the coddler is assigned 3 categories under the name «rare species». These include insect species with small populations that are currently not considered “endangered” or “vulnerable” species. Special explanatory classes are held for schoolchildren about the inadmissibility of the destruction of tracks.

On the territory of the countries of the former USSR, a progressive decrease in the number of individuals is observed; therefore, it is extremely necessary to apply measures to protect these creatures. Security measures should consist of studying the species, its development, the influence of weather conditions and fodder plants, and restoration of habitual habitats.

It is necessary to study the distribution of butterflies, to determine the boundaries of the habitat and migration zones. In cultivated agricultural areas, the use of insecticides should be replaced by an integrated pest control method. Moreover, in the fight against beetle, pesticides are ineffective.

Translated from Greek, a butterfly translates as «soul.» It is just as light, airy and clean. It is necessary to preserve this soul for the sake of future generations and give descendants the opportunity to enjoy the view of this beautiful creature, as well as admire the mystical appearance of these majestic moths.

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Wolf Habitat

Wolf Habitat and Distribution

Wolves are very diverse animals, which is why they have a habitat that is very spread out around the world. It isn’t true that they only live in very thick forests and come out at night. Wolves have been identified in many areas that you may not ever imagine them being able to survive. Their versatility is amazing and it has helped them to survive in spite of their status as an endangered animal.

Some species of wolves only live in the United States in forests and other areas where animals are plentiful for them to consume due to their dietary needs. Others live in the cold regions of the Arctic where there is hardly any other animals surviving there due to the bitter cold. They are able to live with large animals including bears, elk, and moose.

There are wolves found in the mountain ranges of Colorado thanks to some reintroduction programs along the Rockies that have been very successful. Regardless of the location, these animals need to have room to roam around. Their home range can be from 33 to 6,200 km2. It will depend on the type of wolf and where they happen to reside.

Research has found evidence of wolves living all along the Northern Hemisphere even though they don’t have very large numbers. They can be found along the plains, in the savannah deserts of Africa, and in forests that have both hardwood and softwood. As long as their basic needs are met they are able to survive. They are also able to adapt and to move into new territory if that is necessary for them to survive.

An arctic wolf in the snow

Most of the wolves left in the world today are found living on the frozen tundra of Alaska and Canada. Here they have the ability to live in remote areas and not be bothered like they are in other places where humans are more likely to settle. Even so, it doesn’t mean they aren’t in jeopardy due to a lack of food. Hunters go to those areas as well in the hopes of being able to successfully kill wolves.

Wolves spend about 8 or 10 hours every day moving through their home range. It is rare that they will stay in one place for too long of a period of time. They mark their habitat with urine as well as a scent that comes from glands in their tails. These markers are to let other wolves know that such territory has already been claimed.

It is common for the habitat of a pack of wolves to overlap with that of other packs. Generally this is very peaceful with the different packs avoiding each other. However, when the size of the habitat is reduced and when food is hard to find they can become more aggressive towards each other.

The leading reason why wolves out there today continue to have a hard time surviving comes down to the fact that their habitat is being destroyed. People continue to want more land to place their homes on or their ranches. Businesses continue to tear down the areas that these animals inhabit. Without a vast habitat for them to live in they struggle to find enough food for survival.

That is why they seem to be attacking more domesticated animals. They need a source of food and when that is placed in front of them, they aren’t able to differentiate between that and what nature offers them. Wolves have a bad reputation of being destructive but when you view the whole picture you will see that humans are the ones responsible for taking away their habitat.

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