Weeds of Australia — Biosecurity Queensland Edition Fact Sheet
- 1 Weeds of Australia — Biosecurity Queensland Edition Fact Sheet
- 2 Scientific Name
- 3 Synonyms
- 4 Family
- 5 Common Names
- 6 Origin
- 7 Naturalised Distribution
- 8 Notes
- 9 Moth Control Methods: Repellents vs Mothballs vs Traps
- 10 Comparing Different Moth Control Methods
- 11 How to deal with hot rape on gooseberries and currants
- 12 How does it look
- 13 What harm
- 14 Life cycle
- 15 Risk group
- 16 Signs of a fire moth
- 17 Fighting gooseberry fodder
- 18 How to deal with gooseberry pests, exploring ways
- 19 How to deal with gooseberry fodder
- 20 Measures to combat sprout aphids on gooseberry
- 21 How to get rid of shitovki on a plant
- 22 Gooseberry sawfly: description and methods of control
- 23 How to deal with gooseberry moth
- 24 How to rid the gooseberry spider mite
- 25 Gooseberry pest control, folk recipes
Click on images to enlarge
habit (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
leaves, flowers and young fruit (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
leaves with deeply toothed margins (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
close-up of pale yellow flower with brownish-coloured centre (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
stems and immature fruit borne on relatively long drooping stalks (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
close-up of immature fruit with angular covering (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
immature fruit with covering removed (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
close-up of seeds (Photo: Steve Hurst at USDA PLANTS Database)
young plant (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
the very similar annual ground-cherry (Physalis ixocarpa), with rounded fruit borne on relatively short stalks (Photo: Sheldon Navie)
Physalis angulata L.
Physalis angulata L. var. angulata Physalis ciliata Sieber Physalis minima L. (misapplied) Physalis minima L. var. indica (Lam.) C.B. Clarke (misapplied) Physalis indica Lam. (misapplied) Physalis parviflora R. Br.
annual ground cherry, annual groundcherry, bladder cherry, bladderberry, bush tomato, Chinese lantern, Chinese lanternplant, cut leaf ground cherry, cutleaf ground cherry, cutleaf ground-cherry, cutleaf groundcherry, goose berry, gooseberry, ground cherry, husk tomato, Indian gooseberry weed, mullaca, native gooseberry, wild gooseberry, wild tomato, winter cherry
This species probably originated in tropical America, but is now widespread throughout tropical, sub-tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world (i.e. almost cosmopolitan).
This species is widely naturalised in northern and eastern Australia (i.e. in northern Western Australia, the northern parts of the Northern Territory, throughout most of Queensland, and in some parts of eastern New South Wales). It is occasionally also naturalised in south-eastern South Australia and south-western Western Australia, and possibly naturalised on Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands.
Wild gooseberry ( Physalis angulata ) is regarded as an environmental weed in Western Australia.
Fact sheets are available from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) service centres and our Customer Service Centre (telephone 13 25 23). Check our website at www.biosecurity.qld.gov.au to ensure you have the latest version of this fact sheet. The control methods referred to in this fact sheet should be used in accordance with the restrictions (federal and state legislation, and local government laws) directly or indirectly related to each control method. These restrictions may prevent the use of one or more of the methods referred to, depending on individual circumstances. While every care is taken to ensure the accuracy of this information, DEEDI does not invite reliance upon it, nor accept responsibility for any loss or damage caused by actions based on it.
Copyright © 2016. All rights reserved. Identic Pty Ltd. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland.
The mobile application of Environmental Weeds of Australia is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes.
Moth Control Methods: Repellents vs Mothballs vs Traps
If you’ve ever experienced moths in your home or belongings, you understand how much of a nuisance they can be—not to mention the damage they can cause to your linens and carpets. If you’ve found little holes in your clothes or patches in your carpets with disappearing fibers, you have probably also found all the signature signs of a moth infestation in your home.
Moth larvae, silken tubes and cocoons will be found wherever moths are bedding and hatching—normally in your clothes. When laying eggs, moths prefer fabrics, especially those that are undisturbed (for example, that wool jacket you shoved in the back of your closet 6 months ago). Female moths can lay up to 50 eggs within 3 weeks and those eggs hatch within 10 days, although they may take a little longer in cooler conditions.
The damage that moths can do to your home and clothing is not something that should be taken lightly. Taking the appropriate measures to remove moths from your home is necessary. Below we compare mothballs vs moth traps vs repellants to help you find which control method would best suit your situation.
Comparing Different Moth Control Methods
Mothballs and other poisons:
Disadvantages – The most common complaint about mothballs is their smell. The odor gets into clothes and other linens and has to be washed out. Mothballs emit an odor because of the chemicals they are made with — these chemicals pose a health threat if ingested by people or animals, making some mothballs dangerous. Some mothballs have even been linked to accidental poisoning or death of pets. Moth crystals and other poisons aren’t any different; controlling moths with harmful chemicals exposes your family and pets to serious risks.
Advantages – Most users report that mothballs are effective in killing moths. Mothballs are also inexpensive.
Natural Moth Repellants:
Disadvantages – When using a natural repellant as opposed to a poison, it may take longer to rid your home of a pest. It can also be difficult to know how much to use, where to put them, and when to refresh or replace them.
Advantages – First and foremost, natural repellents are completely safe for your loved ones—and not only do they work for chasing moths away, they smell good while doing it. Another plus is that you can mix up your own repellant using essential oils like thyme, mint, lavender, or rosemary which are known to repel moths.
Disadvantages – Traps can be a pain if you have to empty them, especially if you are someone who’s afraid of getting near a moth or insect, dead or alive.
Advantages – Traps are pet and family friendly and won’t cause any damages to your linens and fabrics. They emit no pungent odor and can be left and forgotten about until the time comes to empty, or replace it.
3 Tips for Keeping Moths Away
Below is a list of more moth control methods to further protect your home and help prevent moths from returning.
Keep clothing clean. Because moths lay their eggs in clothing, you should wash and dry the clothes before storing them away. This removes any larvae that may be stuck on the fabric, as well as the organic matter the moth larvae feed on such as body oils, food stains, and human or pet hair.
Vacuum seal unused or stored away linens. Moths prefer clothes and other items that are made of natural fibers like fur, silk, and wool. If these kinds of fabrics are rarely used, store them away in an air tight container, or vacuum seal them to keep moths out. This ensures that your Grandma’s old sweaters and blankets will be safe in your care.
Use Stay Away Moths. Moths find their ideal piece of clothing to lay eggs by using their sense of smell. Stay Away Moths works by releasing the scent of specially selected essential oils — which is pleasant to humans but offensive to moths. Being a natural product, it can be used anywhere you need it: in closets, drawers, chests, tubs, under your child’s bed–no need to worry about harmful chemicals. Place a single pouch per storage container or closet, increasing as needed until desired results are achieved. Stay Away lasts 30-60 days before it needs to be replaced.
How to deal with hot rape on gooseberries and currants
Among the most common pests of the garden can not distinguish gooseberry moth, which spoils a lot of harvest every year.
What kind of insect it is, what is its life cycle and how to deal with it — we will tell further.
How does it look
Gooseberry moth is a small gray butterfly with a wingspan of up to 0.3 cm. The front pair has a gray color with brown stripes and white scales, and the back one is much lighter than the front and has a black edging.
The caterpillars of the pest are somewhat smaller and reach a length of about 1.2-1.4 cm. The caterpillar has a bright body, on which dark, blurred bands are clearly visible.
The anal and thoracic plates are brown and the head is black. The brown pupa of the pest reaches 9 mm in length and has 8 curved spines on the cremaster. She spends the whole winter in the topmost layer of soil, and with the arrival of spring and the appearance of buds, butterflies appear on the gooseberries and currants from the cocoons.
Did you know? The moth butterfly can live not only on plants, but also on animals. For example, she feels great in the wool of a sloth, who leads a sedentary lifestyle.
Basically, the caterpillars eat the pulp and seeds of berries, with the result that for a short period of time one caterpillar can kill 14 currant berries and 6 gooseberry berries.
Damaged and entangled with cobweb fruits become brown in color and dry out quickly. Thus, with the invasion of the moth, the entire crop is under threat.
Pupae of the pest spend the winter in the spider cocoons located in cracks or in the surface of the soil, not far from the currant bushes and gooseberries. The period of formation of buds on the plant is characterized by a massive departure of butterflies, which lasts almost a month.
At the end of the flowering period of the bushes the pest lays the eggs inside the flowers. Only one female can leave up to 200 eggs, distributing them two per flower. After 10 days, caterpillars emerge from the clutch, which, in search of food, gnaw buds and reach the fruit ovary. If there are several caterpillars in one bud, then one of them will soon move to the nearest empty bud. Affected parts of the plant are covered with spider web.
The development and active feeding of the caterpillars lasts about 1 month, after which they will be fully prepared for pupation: they sink into the ground and are covered with a gray dense cocoon right at the base of the bushes. This period usually coincides with the ripening of the berries affected by the pest plants.
Only those specimens, to which the fire still reached, prematurely change color, and then rot or dry, and continuing to hang in the web. For the entire season, only one generation of gooseberry moth develops.
Read also about such garden pests: Colorado beetles, honey bears, slugs, ants, wireworms.
As the name implies, gooseberry prefers gooseberries, but it feels good on currants or even raspberries. In all these cases, they gnaw outside the ovary and unripe fruits, and also eat away the seeds (on the gooseberry). Other crops in the garden or in the garden fire is not terrible.
Did you know? The moth is still considered the only organism that has the ability to digest wax, which is facilitated by the presence in the body of a special enzyme caterpillar.
Signs of a fire moth
It is easy to find this pest on a plant; it is enough just to inspect the bush, paying special attention to the berries on it. So, on the fruits you can find small holes, from which relatively thin cobwebs stretch to the neighboring ones.
It will take quite a bit of time, and such spoiled fruit will be much more. If you take a closer look at the lump of cobwebs on the gooseberries, then up to six berries can be inside it, some of which will be completely fresh, while others will be dried out and rotten. As for the currant, in a similar tangle, there are often up to 12 berries. Having parted the discovered «nest» and having opened the largest and healthiest looking fruit, a surprise will be waiting for you inside it: along with the uneaten remains of seeds, there is usually a rather long (about 1 cm) bright green caterpillar of the small tail with a black head.
Over time, some of these eaten away fruits will only increase in size, and the caterpillars will gradually leave the berries and go down under the bush. Usually they do not crawl away and are located 30 cm from the stem of the plant.
Read also about such gooseberry pests:
Fighting gooseberry fodder
Of course, if you find a small moth on a currant or gooseberry bushes, you will be interested in how you can effectively deal with it to save your crop.
There are several common methods, but it is best to perform timely prevention.
Preventive measures to combat the described pest mainly consist in timely mechanical gathering of damaged berries and ovaries, on which traces of ophthalmic or moth bones are clearly visible.
This action will save the rest of the harvest from their persistent attention. All collected pests are usually destroyed with boiling water.
Important! It is necessary to learn to recognize damaged fruits in a timely manner: usually these berries turn red before, and their tops quickly begin to rot.
In addition, make it a rule to regularly inspect other plants adjacent to currants or gooseberries, since the same raspberry can be a source of fire. And of course, you shouldn’t forget about the agrotechnology of growing plants, because when weakened, the bushes are more susceptible to attacks of pests.
The timely pruning of the shoots will also help, since the thickening of the landings only attracts pests. Bushes should be well lit and blown by air. And with the arrival of autumn, do not forget to remove all fallen leaves from under the bushes.
In practice, it has been repeatedly proven that digging the soil around the bush is the most effective method of dealing with gooseberries. Despite the fact that this is quite a laborious process, hilling each bush with 10-15 cm of soil at its base will save the fruits from the appearance of butterflies. They simply cannot overcome such a layer of earth to get to the surface. However, one should not forget that it is better to take the soil from between the rows and from a depth of at least 5 cm, where there are definitely no pupae. Ground under the bushes can spud compost or peat (layer up to 8-10 cm). After the end of the flowering period, such mulch should be removed.
An effective remedy is also the cultivation of the soil with a 12% solution of dust, and 10 days before opening the buds, 50 g of dust powder is poured under the bush itself.
No matter how hard you try to prevent the appearance of the gooseberry moth or get rid of it with the help of agricultural methods alone, the most effective control measures are based on the use of special preparations.
For example, Actellic, Etafos and Karbofos are well suited from chemical agents to combat ophilidae. Spraying of these compounds is carried out immediately after flowering plants.
In addition, if this year the gooseberries and currants were massively affected by the fire moth, then next year the treatment with these means should be carried out before the start of flowering.
Important! Spraying the bushes with the indicated preparations will not only protect the plants from the fire, but also act as a preventive measure against anthracnose.
After waiting for the gooseberry flowers to fully bloom (about 5 days from the beginning of flowering), the bushes are treated with an infusion of pharmacy chamomile, for which 100 g of dried flowers of the plant are pre-filled with 10 liters of hot water.
Alternatively, you can also use a mixture of pyrethrum powder and road dust (in a 1: 2 ratio) for pollination of bushes. Sieve the dust thoroughly before mixing. After 5-6 days after the first pollination, the procedure should be repeated again.
If you don’t know how to deal with ophilia, because the pest has firmly settled on the gooseberry and currant bushes, try again on the elderberry branch on the advice of I. Michurin. To prepare a solution for the treatment of plants, 10 g of elderberry powder must be infused in 1 liter of water for 48 hours, then filtered. Before direct processing, 150-200 ml of the concentrate should be diluted in 800-850 ml of water, and only then used. The processing procedure should be carried out in the evening, when butterflies are most active and massively fly over the bushes.
In most cases, the recommendations described help to completely get rid of the pest, but if next year you again notice signs of vital activity of the gooseberry moth on your plot, simply repeat all the above procedures again.
How to deal with gooseberry pests, exploring ways
The taste of gooseberry is familiar to many of us since childhood, but the unpleasant «nuances» that are often encountered when harvesting can upset you somewhat: insects all over the bush, white bloom on the fruit or the web between the branches no longer make this plant so popular. However, If you want to get not only healthy, but also an attractive crop, then you should be aware of how to deal with gooseberry pests.
How to deal with gooseberry fodder
For the gooseberry, the appearance of pests is quite typical and one of the most popular is the fire pest. This small butterfly is very common in our area. The wingspan of this gooseberry pest reaches 3 cm. The butterfly has a gray color, and brown brown stripes are clearly visible on its wings. Appears from the caterpillar, painted in a saturated green color, the pupa of which spends the winter in the upper soil layer.
The butterfly appears in the spring, during the formation of buds. The female larvae lays in buds and inflorescences, as they grow, they eat out the flesh of the berries, with the result that the fruits do not have time to ripen and dry.
A characteristic sign of «living» ogniye on your plant will be the appearance of a white web. To combat this gooseberry pest, you can use traditional methods and «chemical attack.» Effective means in the fight is to dig the soil under a bush, which is held in late autumn and contributes to the destruction of the pupae. A good help for the bush will be the removal of spider nests from branches and inflorescences.
No less effective is the protection of gooseberry with ash solution, applied to the bush during the spring and spring processing. After flowering, the plant can be sprayed with insecticides, for example, carbolite, etafosom, and a bush.
Important!Gardeners unanimously say that it is impossible to treat the plant with insecticides before flowering, however, if your bush is severely affected, then treatment can be done.
Measures to combat sprout aphids on gooseberry
Shoot aphid is a «clean», small insect of green color and egg-shaped form. The larvae lay their eggs in the bark of young shoots, which winter there. Eggs are black with a glossy shine. These gooseberry pests are born at the time of budding and feed on young leaf petioles. Aphids suck the juice out of the kidneys, as a result of which the leaf dries out and twists. In the first days of summer, a female appears, who «spreads» her young throughout the garden.
Any gooseberry pests need to be eliminated as soon as possible, therefore, and effective struggle with them provides for an integrated approach to solving the problem:working with folk remedies (hilling, mulching, planting plants with a strong, spicy smell) and by chemical means (can be treated with insecticides BEFORE the appearance of the first leaves and after harvesting). Particularly effective is the «scalding» of the bush with boiling water in the early spring, however, this should be done during the period when there are no frosts.
Did you know?You can fight aphids with the help of ladybugs and afelinus that destroy it.
How to get rid of shitovki on a plant
Before you start to fight with different pests gooseberry, you need to know how they differ from each other. Our next “guest” is fairly easy to learn, although there are many varieties of it (acacia false guard, comma-shaped shield, willow shield). Shchitovki winter in the damaged bark of the plant, or on the outside of the branch.
The very body of the insect is under the «protection» of the shield, which can be from yellow-brown to red-brown, oval or convex in shape. This is quite a small pest, The size of the calf is not more than 4.5 mm. The female lays eggs (usually in spring), and she dies. During the month, the eggs are «in the shelter», then glued to the branches and young shoots.
Shchitovki suck the juice from the branches and shoots, as a result of which they weaken and dry out. To combat the shield shoots that are already damaged can be cut. Besides, it is useful to use the available drug DNOC, delivered in liquid form, in the ratio of 100 grams of the drug to 10 liters of water. You can moisten gooseberry branches with nitrafen or use one of the “grandmother’s tools” — whitening the branches with hydrated lime.
Important!Treatment of pests gooseberry should be up to the point whenwake upthe kidneys.
Gooseberry sawfly: description and methods of control
Very often on the gooseberry bushes can be seen tiny insect, painted in red and black or yellow, with a look similar to a fly. It is very dangerous for the sheets, because it is on the area of the sheet that the adults lay eggs. Caterpillars of white and yellow color can destroy the entire leaf in a few days. Sawflies are of two types: yellow gooseberry and pale-legged gooseberry. They differ only in color: the first — yellow — red; the second is reddish black.
The larvae of this insect winter in cocoons in the upper layers of the soil under the bush, and pupate with the first warming. Then There are butterflies that are able to lay up to 150 (!) eggs per season. Caterpillars are born within ten days and have 20 legs.
Did you know?Over the summer, 3-4 generations of sawflies can form on your plot, so you should start fighting this insect from the moment you notice it.
How to deal with gooseberry moth
Yellowish caterpillar with rectangular brown spots on the back and yellow stripes on the sides (the insect is quite large — up to 4 cm). It moves along the “loop” course, in a way of pulling up your body. If you have noticed this insect on your bush — you know, the gooseberry moth will soon appear — one of the most common gooseberry pests.
This insect hibernates «warm» in cocoons that are stored under the remnants of leaves. Larvae hatch in spring; butterfly, up to 5 cm in size, has a pale gray-brown color with dark brown specks on its wings. In the summer, she lays eggs on the inside of the leaf. The «principle of operation» of the moth is the same as that of the sawfly — eating and killing sheets.
For the fight and suitable folk remedies and chemicals. The process of treatment with insecticides takes place in three stages, as in the fight with the sawfly. Folk remedies for treating the bush from the moth provide for pouring boiling water over the bite area, and to destroy the larvae, shake them manually, and then treat the bush with various bactericidal preparations.
Important! For additional protection of the bush, you can spud it before hibernation, but do not forget (!) To break up the spring.
How to rid the gooseberry spider mite
The first signs of the appearance of spider mites (including gooseberries) can be seen in May, although the plant begins to «suffer» from it already in early spring. The spider mite lives on the inner side of the leaf and braids it with a white spider web. This small, sucking insect, up to 0.4 mm in size, manifests itself as the formation of white small dots on the leaves, after which they become «marble» and dry out.
Females of ticks overwinter in the soil, under the rests of leaves. Very often ticks multiply on weeds, and then «move» to the bushes. Work on the destruction of this pest gooseberry must begin before the formation of buds, then you can spend spraying acaricides (vofatoks, colonoid sulfur, etc.)
Did you know?Sulfur-based treatment is one of the most popular options for controlling insects, however, its effectiveness is slightly lower and, moreover, the substance can cause burns on the plant.
Gooseberry pest control, folk recipes
Folk («grandmother’s» recipes) will forever remain the most popular solution to the problems of gardeners, because they are the most accessible and always at hand. For example, very popular is planting next to the bush «odorous» plants, such as tomatoes, parsley root, etc. Also You can use a soap solution: 300 grams of soap for 10 liters of water.
In the fight against aphids, the caterpillar is very wide Sarepta mustard is used: 10 liters of water take no more than 100 grams of powder, stirring it first in a small amount of water, and then adding to the bulk of the liquid. In the fight with the shield and aphids is often used tobacco tincture (one kilogram of natural tobacco is drawn in 10 liters of water and the gooseberries are sprayed with this solution for 5-7 days). Very often, for additional disinfection of the bush stem, use hydrated lime.
As you see any of these gooseberry pests can easily be found in the garage / storeroom / shed or, no problem to buy in the store. This will help you in the care of the bush and improve its frost resistance and yield.