Broomrape, Definition of Broomrape at

broomrape

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The Broomrape is now becoming a very pernicious clover weed, especially in lighter soils.

We have also the pest of broomrape ; and if badly infested by this weed, great destruction follows to the crop.

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conventional

adjective

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Many Jewish women have been accepted as conventional , mainstream hot.

The end of conventional childbirth might only be a matter of time.

They double down on the plot device of a lone visionary opposed by conventional hierarchies.

Enter the iSpoon, a conventional stirrer on one end and a tablet stylus on the other.

Conventional wisdom holds that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent.

In no insignificant number of cases the vote is a cover by which revolutionary demands can be given a conventional front.

No conventional and hideous hat or bonnet disfigures the neat outline of their heads.

His restless eyes held hers, but his greeting was conventional .

The conventional idea has been that in the field the only alternatives were fighting and taking it easy.

The conventional type of manual training—one period per week in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades—was not holding the pupils.

Explore Dictionary.com

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Where do thrips come from on an orchid and how to fight them?

Trips is a common plant pest. Currently, about 6000 species of this insect are known.

The body of thrips is elongated, the legs are thin. The size of the insect is about 1-3 mm. Quite often, thrips affects indoor plants, including orchids, which causes a lot of trouble for both experienced collectors and novice flower growers.

This article describes in detail where the thrips on the orchid come from and how to deal with them.

What are dangerous?

Thrips are carriers of various viruses and infections of indoor cultures. Settling on plants, thrips spoil their appearance. The period of flowering is significantly reduced, and the orchid looks sluggish. In plants, the immunity is weakened, because of which they become easily accessible to fungi.

How to detect?

Insects feed on plant sap; they pierce a leaf and suck out nutrients from it. The surface of the sheet plate at the puncture site becomes silver-green, and later darkens, acquiring a dark brown or black color.

Another symptom is black spots on the leaf surface — waste products of the pest. Also on cultures affected by thrips, flower stalks, buds and new growths are bent. In some cases, you can see traces of pollen on fresh flowers — a sure sign of an insect. Most often thrips can be found on cattley, cymbidium and phalaenopsis.

A photo

Then you can see the photos of these pests on orchids:



You can learn more about the types of thrips and see their photos here.

Causes of

The most likely source in the collection may be new plants purchased in untested places or with hands. Still insects are easy to bring with a bouquet of field or garden flowers.

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Houseplants left in the spring-summer period on an open balcony, loggias or in a country plot are also subject to attack by this pest.

How to get rid?

    How do others fight these pests to get rid of?
  • At the first signs of thrips, the affected plants should be isolated from the rest of the collection in order not to spread the pest.
  • On orchids most often thrips settle on flowers, that is why flower stalks are cut off with already opened flowers. Buds are also removed — thrips lay eggs in them.
  • If traces of insects, their eggs or larvae are visible on the growths and leaves, then remove them with a damp cotton pad.
  • Treat diseased orchids with anti-thrips drugs, strictly following the instructions on the package. Preference is given to systemic drugs. Repeat the processing if necessary.
  • For several days in a row, it is necessary to thoroughly wash the soil and the orchid itself under warm running water. Such a procedure will reduce the number of pests.

    Important! After water procedures, it is necessary to remove moisture from the sinuses of the leaves with a cotton disc or place the plant in a room with good ventilation. Stagnant water is detrimental for many types of orchids.

    You can find out more about what trips are and how to deal with them in indoor plants.

    Chemicals

    For the destruction of the pest use a variety of liquids and sprays, some of them have an oily base. Often this contact drugs. They operate in direct contact with insects and their eggs. During the work with such means observe a dosage since These substances can damage orchid leaves.

    Systemic preparations are of the form:

    • granules;
    • powders;
    • water soluble emulsions;
    • sticks.

    Such substances penetrate the plant itself and make it poisonous to the pest.

    Preparations are most popular in indoor floriculture:

    They are systemic fungicides and relatively easy to use.

    When working with fungicides, observe the precautions, since many drugs are poisonous. After the treatment, be sure to wash your hands.

    Biological agents

    Sometimes on sale there are biological plant protection products. These can be jars, bags and labels, which contain predatory species of bugs or ticks that hunt other insects. These containers are placed next to the plants and open to beneficial insects settled on orchids.

    Folk methods of pest control

    1. The most popular and affordable to use is a soap solution. A small piece of soap is dissolved in 250 ml of warm water and the plant is sprayed with the resulting solution. After 15-20 minutes, the solution is washed off, and the orchid is well washed with clean water.

    Prevention

    1. The main rule is to quarantine newly purchased plants. This will not allow to infect the collection with thrips, and other pests or diseases. For two weeks, a new orchid needs to be isolated from other flowers and watched, treated if necessary. Making sure that the orchid is healthy, place it in a permanent place and take care of the rest of the plants.
    2. Keep the orchids at high humidity and periodically arrange a warm shower. This measure has a beneficial effect on the well-being of plants and prevents the appearance of thrips.
    3. In large collections of orchids, it is advisable to carry out routine processing of chemicals against pests. Often, a single treatment with a period of six months is enough for orchids to be healthy.
    4. Periodic inspection of orchids will not hurt either. Thrips detected in time will not have time to capture most of the plants, and it will be easier to deal with them.

    Conclusion

    Trips is a malicious pest of indoor crops, from which it is not always easy to get rid of. This will take time, effort and special means. It is much easier to prevent the appearance of a pest, so treat your orchids with attention and love. Then their healthy appearance and flowering will delight you for many years.

    gb.farmforage.com

    Creeping Indigo: Get Ahead of the Problem Now

    Creeping indigo’s unique seed pod clusters help identify this potentially toxic exotic plant. Dozens of seed are quickly disbursed and will germinate in spring.

    The calendar and thermometer indicate the return of consistent warm weather is arriving soon. With it come forage production for grazing and hay, and the many weeds which create an assortment of problems. Included is Creeping indigo, Indigofera spicata, a weed with many traits equivalent to a malicious stalker whose sole purpose is to conquer territory and sow problems. This commonly overlooked exotic invader does not get the attention of the long list of infamous invasive plants such as kudzu, cogongrass, and climbing fern.

    A native of Africa and southern Asia, creeping indigo is a legume. Most legumes are viewed favorably by the agricultural community, since they possess nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules. Creeping indigo was introduced to Florida from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) around 1925 as part of a research project to investigate several properties including nitrogen fixation and it’s potential as a forage crop for the livestock industry. While this species was considered to have a good nitrogen fixing capacity, there were other features which were not appreciated. Livestock toxicity issues began to be a concern of researchers as early as 1933.

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    Historically, most of the Indigofera species were used for production of indigo dye, which resulted in deep blue shades in a variety of textiles. Over time this stable dye became a valuable commodity, and was hauled by way of pack animals to distant locations for barter in ancient markets and bazaars. Creeping indigo does not contain as much dye as other species in its genus, and was ignored as a valueless weed until the early 20th Century. While legumes such as clovers and perennial peanut make excellent forage, there is an ongoing search for the next improved option.

    When early test as potential forage were conducted on rabbits, one did not survive the initial grazing trial. The surviving rabbit recovered after creeping indigo was removed from the diet. Besides rabbits, equine, cattle, sheep, goats, guinea pigs, and birds have also been poisoned by this exotic plant. Swine, demonstrating exceptionally good sense, will not eat this plant and have avoided it in feeding tests.

    Identification of creeping indigo in late autumn is aided by the very distinctive seed pod clusters. Seed pods are straight and approximately an inch long in densely packed groups of about one hundred pods per stalk. These downward-pointing clusters are bright green when immature, but dry to a matte black during the winter. The pods easily shatter when bumped or struck by an animal and will scatter the tiny seeds within.

    Creeping indigo seed pods form in clusters and are typically stiff, pointed, and facing downward. Credit: Brent Sellers, UF/IFAS

    During the growing season, creeping indigo is a lowing growing plant which lies over in a prostrate fashion potentially reaching six feet in length. Leaves contain seven to nine hairy leaflets and stems are hairy, too. Flowers appear at the base of the leaves, and contain numerous pink blooms during the summer. Soon after the pretty flowers disappear, this creeping beauty becomes a forage producer’s nightmare. Hairy Indigo Indigofera hirsuta is a non-toxic relative of creeping indigo. Hairy indigo generally has a much more erect growth habit than its creeping cousin. However, when the plants are very young or when hairy indigo is regrowing after being mowed the two species look rather similar. One way to tell the species apart is to look at the arrangement of the leaflets. Creeping indigo leaflets have an alternate attachment on the petiole while hairy indigo leaflets are opposite. For help distinguishing the two species contact your county’s UF/IFAS Extension Office.

    Flowers of creeping indigo arise from the base of the leaves and are pink to salmon in color. Credit: Brent Sellers

    Now is the time to identify concentrations and prepare for control efforts. For more information on identification, symptoms in livestock and control see the UF/IFAS publication Creeping Indigo, A Poisonous Plant of Concern in Florida Pastures.

    nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu

    Pest Smarts + Neem Giveaway!

    Heat and harvest come to this – pests. It’s easy to malign them, “Damn things!”, but pests are not malicious, they’ve come because you’ve served dinner. Aphids, leafhoppers, scale, thrips, green vegetable bugs – put a feed out, create the perfect environment and they will come!

    A pest free garden

    Got ya there! Nope, wont ever happen. As long as we garden (ie manipulate the environment) – even in a kind and gentle way – we’ll have pests. For a peaceful life it helps if you adjust your mind to this fact. We can however, be smart and minimise pest numbers.

    Today I’m sharing my tried and true pest prevention plan. I’ve included options for natural management because no matter how onto it your garden is – you’ll get a pest or 20 every now and then.

    Beneficial insect power

    Beneficial insects are your go to smart solution. There’s an army of insects on your side – parasitic wasps, hoverflies, ladybirds, praying mantis, spiders, dragonflies, assassin bugs, lacewings, various beetles, frogs and earwigs. They’ll manage pests, pollination and recycling of debris in return for a safe haven and a year’s supply of food. In order to sustain this population you need an attitude of gratitude towards a few pests – they’re feeding the good guys.

    This kind of garden (mine by the way) is heaven for beneficial insects. Nectar + pollen rich + spray free. Building your garden of Eden takes time (like all good things). Be patient.

    Who’s Eating Who (the pest and the predator)

    Check out the array of bugs hanging out on your plants (a magnifying glass is super helpful.) Where there’s a pest, there’s also a predator. Probably a few different types of each. Rushing in guns blazing wipes out all the good guys as well. Identify everyone with the ever helpful google (or god forbid a book), and figure out who’s the pest, and who’s eating the pest.

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    There’s a-lot going on on my corn. There are brown puffy parasitised aphids about to give birth to a heap of new parastic wasps. There are empty brown aphid mummies – the parasitic wasps have already left. Ladybird larvae are eating aphids like there’s no tomorrow and there’s a few ladybird larvae pupating as well – more ladybirds on the grow! Needless to say I did nothing. Nature had it all in hand and my beneficial insect population was exploding daily. To squash or spray would’ve been counter productive. So yeah, worth it to find out whats happening before you pull the trigger.

    Be Strong

    What a difference to our pest levels when we garden in a steady, robust, natural way.

    • Look after your garden well by watering and feeding properly. Artificial fertiliser, too much manure and overwatering creates sweet, soft, sappy growths that sucking pests adore.
    • Go gentle on your soil. If you’re at the beginning and your soil is sand or heavy clay plant more greencrops than crops until you’ve got awesome as soil and even then, don’t over burden it.
    • Meet all the needs of your plants. Plant with the seasons – heat lovers when its hot and those that prefer cool when its cool. Don’t fertilise legumes and do fertilise heavy feeders. Happy plants (like happy people), have a heap less problems.
    • Cover your soil.
    • Grow resistant varieties. Talk to gardeners in your area. Experiment with varieties until you find ones that the pests don’t bother. Save the seeds of those.

    Be cunning

    Pests hunt by either smell or shape. So be smart and use disguise, camouflague and distraction (ie your parenting toolkit). If carrot fly is a problem at yours be judicious when you sow so that you don’t need to thin much – the smell attracts the fly. Or spray with seaweed before thinning or grow alongside strong smelling onions.

    • Disguise vulnerable plants by growing among different shapes and smells. Eg carrots with spring onions and calendula or tomatoes with nasturtium, marigolds and parsley.
    • Distract pests away from your vegies by growing plants they prefer close by – this is called catch cropping. Eg: seduce shield bugs away from tomatoes and beans with mustard or cabbage whites with nasturtium.
    • Regular seaweed or fish foliar sprays not only boost your plants, but disguise scent.

    Spray free solutions

    Halt pests at the earliest point – a couple is easy, an epidemic is not – which is why a daily walk about is one of my top pest strategies.

    • Use your fingers. Pests like snails, aphids and shield bugs are easily managed by picking off and/or squashing.
    • Cover vulnerable crops with fine insect mesh like wondermesh. This works well for potatoes to avoid psyllids, brassicas to avoid cabbage whites and carrots to avoid carrot fly.
    • Make traps. Yogurt traps for slaters, beer traps for snails, yellow sticky traps for whitefly, leave boards or orange skins out to trap slugs.

    Unsafe spray

    • Don’t use knock ’em all dead (the good and bad) sprays like Pyrethrum, Rhubarb, Garlic and Derris Dust (which is by the way a neurotoxin).
    • Don’t use chemical sprays. Even in the driveway – spray drifts into every nook and cranny, going far further than you think. I was pretty bummed last week judging school gardens to see herbicide damage on vegetables in children’s gardens.

    Safe Spray

    Neem is the one. Death comes to insects that suck or chew the plant. It must be ingested to work. It is not a contact killer. Which is what makes it safe for bees and beneficials. So too the ingredient Bacillus Thuringiensis which is the active ingredient in Dipel and Kiwicare caterpillar killer and must be ingested to work – it’s the way to go to manage caterpillars.

    Neem is super easy to use and can be mixed with any liquid feed for the ultimate garden spray. I use it to manage psyllids on my tomatoes, aphids on citrus, blister mite on Pears and shield bugs on my raspberries.

    Neem Giveaway

    Bonny at Naturally Neem has offered x2 200ml bottles of Neem as a giveaway for you guys. Wohoo! Just in time for summer pests.

    Reply to this blogpost and tell me one aspect of your pest management you’re inspired to change after reading this.

    Two winners. The winners will be randomly selected. Only open to NZ residents. Competition closes on the 5th December 2018. Winners announced on the 6th December 2018

    www.ediblebackyard.co.nz

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