Termites xylophages

Termites xylophages

Insectes Г larves xylophages

Garros Traitements

L’entreprise Garros Traitements située à AgenLe Passage vous garantit un travail soigné dans le respect le plus total de votre habitation et de votre immobilier.

Notre intervention n’est pas dГ©gradante, sans odeur et nos boГ®tiers intГ©rieurs / extГ©rieurs sont trГЁs discrets. Les produits et mГ©thodes utilisГ©s sont sans danger pour les occupants (ni pour les animaux domestiques), et ont un trГЁs faible impact environnemental. Notre Г©quipe effectue un suivi rГ©gulier du chantier selon un cahier des charges prГ©cis, tout en restant en permanence Г votre Г©coute.

Garros Traitements intervient dans la lutte contre les termites dans les dГ©partements du Lot-et-Garonne (47) (Agen, Villeneuve sur Lot, NГ©rac, MГ©zin et Barbaste), du Tarn-et-Garonne (82) (Moissac), du Gers (32) (Condom, Lectoure et Fleurance) et des Landes (40).

N’hГ©sitez pas Г nous contacter soit par tГ©lГ©phone au 06 71 77 58 07, soit Г l’aide du formulaire de contact.

Garros Traitements is proud to offer you the best termite inspections and treatments to protect your home. English spoken.

www.garros-traitements.fr

Xylophage insects (Insecta: Coleoptera; Hymenoptera; Isoptera) – industrial wood vermin in Uzbekistan Текст научной статьи по специальности « Биология»

Аннотация научной статьи по биологии, автор научной работы — Lebedeva Natalya Ivanovna, Mirzaeva Gulnara Saidarifovna, Rustamov Kakhramon Djurabayevich, Kholmatov Bakhtiyor Rustamovich, Ganieva Zumrad Abdukhakimovna, Mansurxodjaeva Maxmuda Usmanovna

Researches have been first performed in 14 regions of Uzbekistan to >industrial wood , timber, construction material, lumber and household items made of wood owned by indiv >Uzbekistan refer common furniture beetle Anobium pertinax L., black longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L., Anacanthotermes turkestanicus J. and A. ahngerianus J. termites and true bees (superfamily of Apo >Anthophoridae Family). The local spread of xylophagous insects is reported at the territory of the republic as well as the lack of large core inhabitants, except for termites of Anacanthotermes genus. The main reason of industrial wood and other material attack is application of wood of high humidity and its contamination with wood-staining fungi; the wood and construction material not debarked; lack of fungicidal treatment of the wood to prevent mold damage and fungosity and lack of insecticide treatment to prevent insect attack. The present work is performed under the financial grant of the State Scientific and Technical Programmes (GNTP) Ф5-ФА-0-14830 “Investigation of population ecology and functioning of the range of xylophagous insects and their adaptive mechanisms” (2012-2016).

Похожие темы научных работ по биологии , автор научной работы — Lebedeva Natalya Ivanovna, Mirzaeva Gulnara Saidarifovna, Rustamov Kakhramon Djurabayevich, Kholmatov Bakhtiyor Rustamovich, Ganieva Zumrad Abdukhakimovna, Mansurxodjaeva Maxmuda Usmanovna,

Текст научной работы на тему «Xylophage insects (Insecta: Coleoptera; Hymenoptera; Isoptera) – industrial wood vermin in Uzbekistan»

11. Ten A., Kashkarov R., Matekova G., Zholdasova I., Turaev M. New Important Bird Areas in Uzbekistan//Sandgrouse, – 34 (2), –

12. URL: http: www.iucnredlist.org

13. URL: http: www.cites.org

Lebedeva Natalya Ivanovna, Mirzaeva Gulnara Saidarifovna, Rustamov Kakhramon Djurabayevich, Kholmatov Bakhtiyor Rustamovich, Ganieva Zumrad Abdukhakimovna, Mansurxodjaeva Maxmuda Usmanovna, Institution of gene pool of the flora and animals world of Academy of science of the Republic of Uzbekistan E-mail: [email protected]

Xylophage insects (Insecta: Coleoptera; Hymenoptera; Isoptera) — industrial wood vermin in Uzbekistan

Abstract: Researches have been first performed in 14 regions of Uzbekistan to identify xylophagous insects that damage industrial wood, timber, construction material, lumber and household items made of wood owned by individuals, organizations, strategic objects, cultural heritage objects, etc. The wood inhabited with wood borers was reported in 41.4% cases. To the most harmful and widespread 15 species of wood borers identified in Uzbekistan refer common furniture beetle Anobium pertinax L., black longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L., Anacanthotermes turkestanicusJ. and A. ahngerianusJ. termites and true bees (superfamily of Apoidea.) — antoforidies (Anthophoridae Family). The local spread of xylophagous insects is reported at the territory of the republic as well as the lack of large core inhabitants, except for termites of Anacanthotermes genus. The main reason of industrial wood and other material attack is application of wood of high humidity and its contamination with wood-staining fungi; the wood and construction material not debarked; lack of fungicidal treatment of the wood to prevent mold damage and fungosity and lack of insecticide treatment to prevent insect attack. The present work is performed under the financial grant of the State Scientific and Technical Programmes (GNTP) 05-0A-0-14830 “Investigation of population ecology and functioning of the range of xylophagous insects and their adaptive mechanisms” (2012-2016).

Keywords: beetles, horntails, anthophoridae, termites, industrial wood, Uzbekistan.

Improving the life, human beings tend to live in the environment using items of natural and animal origin. These items are often subject to attack of various insects from the nature resulting in their damage. Over 1000 cases ofwood and wooden structure damage are reported in objects of cultural heritage and residential houses ofthe private sector in the city of Tashkent, Andijan, Bukhara, Jizzakh, Kashkadarya, Navoi, Namangan, Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Syrdarya, Tashkent, Fergana, Khorezm regions of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan (walls, columns, floors, flooring, windows, doors, furniture, musical instruments, etc.) attacked by termites [7; 8; 9; 22]. The challenge to protect wooden structures and items from infestation by xylophagous insects that results in the emergency condition of houses, buildings and museum facilities constructed demanded the urgent address.

It is known that symbiote fungus and microorganisms found in gastrointestinal tract thereof commit to the deleterious activity of insects that feed on wood cellulose contribute. The extent of the wood damage is even more enhanced by the combined infestation with fungi and insects [18].

However, the measures to prevent attack of true powderpost beetles still remains not only time consuming, but often less-effective. The reason is the latent life habit of the pest larvae in in the wood, duration of the larval stage and uneven development of

larvae, yet, within a single generation, nocturnalism of most imago species and high reproductive pattern thereof, food availability and adequacy which, in combination, cause difficulties to perform preventive measures and extermination of insects. Moreover, the latent life habit of larvae, and sometimes that of imago, in wood contributes to almost minimization of the number and category of their enemies and parasites.

A range of major publications [2; 3], aim to highlight most issues associated with fauna, taxonomy, biology, physiology and ecology of some groups of insects of Uzbekistan and neighboring areas. Of the range of xylophagous insects relatively thorough investigations of termites have been performed [7; 8; 9; 22]. Nevertheless, the termite investigations have been primarily focused in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and Khorezm region. The information on other xylophagous insects of Uzbekistan and some other details of their ecology were fragmentary [2].

The purpose of this work was to determine the species composition ofxylophagous insects — the pests that damage the industrial wood in Uzbekistan, isolation of the most harmful and mass species among them and elaboration of the strategH to manage the xylophagous insect populations.

This workhas been performed under the financial grant of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences F5-FA-0-14830 “Investigation of

population ecology and functioning of the range ofxylophagous insects and their adaptive mechanisms” (2012-2016).

2. Materials and Metods.

Routing surveys are conducted for all wooden structures, items and objects from timber in premises and buildings of private sector, administrative, historical and strategic facilities in 14 regions of Uzbekistan (Tashkent, Andijan, Bukhara, Jizzakh, Kashkadarya, Navoi, Namangan, Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Syr-Darya, Tashkent, Fergana, Khorezm, Republic of Karakalpakstan). The data on industrial wood infestation and insect collection was compiled through route surveys from March to October 2012-2016, the period of active insect behavior.

The surveys in premises were started from the inspection of wooden windows and windowsills since most insects are light requiring. Moreover, the floor near the windows, baseboards, flooring under the furniture, shelves, cabinets, and so forth have been inspected followed by investigation of individual wood items. The survey was performed in the whole building including the attic space and a basement.

The opinion on the damage of timber or wooden items by xy-lophagous insects was made based on a range of external signs, of which, the following have been identified if they were found on the surface of infected objects or under:

– spill (wormhole dust) — by-product of insect larvae,

– holes — refer to exit holes of beetles and other insects,

– clay molding — infestation of an object with termites.

To revel the living larvae ofxylophagous insects, the infected object was opened though this was not always available and acceptable especially regarding the cultural heritage facilities. Anything found during the survey (live insects, larvae, case-warm or pupae or their remaining skin) was collected into tubes and containers and labeled.

The specimens were tested for the precise analysis and identification of insects in the Laboratory of Entomology and Mycology of the Institute of Plant and Animal Genofond of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences.

The study object were the xylophagous insects (beetles, anto-forides, horntails, termites), wood, timber and items from different tree species collected in various anthropogenic biocenoses of Uzbekistan.

Field surveys and laboratory tests were performed as widely accepted in entomology and ecology [20, 21] during works. The works included identification of all damages and pattern thereof, the results were photographed using the digital camera and recorded in the “Damaged wood sample card” developed by us using projects made by I. N. Toskina and I. P. Provorova [21].

Along with collection of xylophagous insects, peculiarities of their ecological population were reported, namely, the ecological condition of the habitat (climate, the room climate — temperature, light, heating, windy, humidity, presence of fungal infections, etc..) were marked as well as its location, terrain, geographical structure, soil and vegetation, fauna, water sources availability, organics, etc.

The xylophagous insects have been mainly identified by the imago, by th sample of wood damaged by them as per B. M. Ma-maev, L. N. Medvedev, F. N. Pravdin [16], S. S. Izhevskiy, et al [6], I. N. Toskins, I. P. Provorova [21] and others.

The termite species of Anacanthotermes genus were investigated by molecular and genetic methods at the Scientific Research Center for Physical and Chmical Biology named after A. N. Belozersky at the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russia) [17].

3. Results and Discussion

In the course of routing surveys we have revealed that the high extend of damage is caused to wooden structures of buildings and

facilities in rural areas of the country, where the local population is not fully aware of pests and preventive measures to protect the wood against infestation by xylophagous insects. Moreover, the people willingly tend to use the wood damaged by these insects [19]. Consequently, the measures to treat facilities against fungi and wood-borers, restoration of wooden buildings, structures and utensils, require a huge amount of funds. Losses associated with the damage of cultural heritage objects with xylophagous insects of the republic (Khiva, Bukhara, Navoi, Samarkand, Termez and others) cannot be recovered at all.

More than 200 species of insects are reported in the CIS countries only that can damage various wooden materials and items. Not all of them are equally injurious, indeed; approximately, 80 species of insects often behave harmfully and cause the considerable damage to wood. Most of these insects refer to two largest orders including about 50 species of Coleoptera beetle and over 20 species of Lepidoptera butterfly. The remaining pool of few species refer to pests as follow: Isoptera termites, Psocoptera louse, Hymenoptera and Thysanura [4].

In the early XX century, G. G. Yakobson [23; 24] described 4 species of termites of the Anacanthotermes genus found at the territory of the Central Asian republics, of them, 2 species, namely, A. turkestanicus and A. ahngerianus are reported to habitat in Uzbekistan known for high level of morphological similarities.

We performed molecular and genetic surveys to reveal that A. ahngerianus prevails in the south-west and west of Uzbekistan; A. turkestanicus is found in remaining parts of republic [17].

Apart from termites that destroy the construction timber, lumber and household items made of wood, in 2012, we proceeded to investigation of other xylophagous insects — industrial wood pests in Uzbekistan [10; 11; 12; 13; 14].

The survey reported on 41.4% cases ofinfestation with xylophagous insects of wooden structural elements and household items made of wood of private owners, organizations, strategic objects of cultural heritage; timber, building materials, and lumber. At the same time, the spread of insects was reported as local and there was no mass and abundant population of insects revealed. However, this colonization does not apply to termites ofAnacanthotermes Genus.

Termite colonization in the territory of the republic was reported both in natural and urban ecosystems. They are observed in all regions of Uzbekistan where private housing and cultural heritage objects are reported to be seriously destroyed by termite population (Table).

The most extensive and intensive settlement of the A. turkestanicus Turkestan termite is typical for the Central and Southern regions of the country, the large Transcaspian A. ahngerianus termite prevails in the North-West. By the survey results, in some habitats ofA. turkestanicus in Uzbekistan, the population of A. ahngerianus is reported to evidence on no distance of the area of species to be considered. This is again proved by the results of the study performed by a group of authors [5; 15] on overlapping areas of A. turkestanicus and A. ahngerianus population in ecosystems of Uzbekistan [1].

By the outcome of works to identify xylophagous insects that destroy the industrial wood, items and objects of wood in Uzbekistan, 15 species ofwood borers were identified referring to 3 orders 7 families, and 13 species of them, apart from termites, were fist revealed in Uzbekistan:

– Hard-wing beetles (Coleoptera Order) – 9 species: death-watch beetles (Anobiidae Family) – 5 species: houseworm Anobium pertinax L., woodworm Anobium punctatum D., beetle Priobium carpini H., red-legged Anobium rufipes L. and velutinate Oligomerus brunneus O.; long-horn beetles (Cerambycidae Family) – 2 species: house longicorn

beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L., Saperda octopunctata (Scop.); bark beetles (Scolytidae Family) – 1 specie: eight-dentated bark beetle Ips typographies L. and true powderpost beetles (Lyctidae Family) – 1 specie; – Isoptera: termites (Hodotermitidae Family) – 2 species:

Most injurious and mass species of wood borers revealed in Uzbekistan are the common furniture beetle Anobium pertinax L., house longicorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L., Anacanthotermes turkestanicus J. and large Trans-Caspian termite A. ahngerianus J. and Anthophoridae Family species of Apoidea Superfamily of true bee.

Conifers like pine, spruce, larch, fir and cedar are widely used in global construction. Most often, bearing wooden structures are made of them. The wood is used to arrange walls and partitions, roofing and ceilings, to manufacture moldings and millwork. This wood waste product is also effectively used, namely: sawdust and chips are used to manufacture items along with chipboards and xylite items, using various organic adhesives, pressed boards, planks, etc.

In Uzbekistan, wood of local poplar an willow is often used for building construction. These woods differ in the content of moisture in the wood, [19] and the population of termites and xylophagous insects that willingly settle in wood.

However, a comparative analysis performed to study the population of xylophagous insects showed that the most number of species identified to destroy houses made ofmud, clay and straw and wood, industrial wood and utensils in the country is associated in view ofecol-ogy with the raw untreated wood of deciduous trees (poplar, willow).

Infestation ofwood with termites can be easily and faster identified by formation of clay molds and galleries on the surface of wood or soil. Identification of xylophagous isects by outer signs is too more complicated and time-consuming. It is possible only when the wood is infested, and larvae actively develops in the wood, the wood-powder and exit holes appear on its surface, which commits to the

Turkestan termite Anacanthotermes turkestanicus J. and the large Trans-Caspian termite A. ahngerianus J.

– Hymenoptera Order: horntails (Siricidae Family) – 2 species and true bee (Apoidea Superfamily), of them, Anthophoridae – 2 species.

considerable loss of the wood integrity and its prospective destruction. Accordingly, preventive measures against these pests also differ.

Therefore, it is required to reduce the moisture content of the wood prior to use, which can prevent damage of wood by wood-fungi; to peel and highly clean the surface of the wood and construction materials from irregularities; to pre-treat the wood with preservatives and insecticides to avoid fungi and insects.

4. Conclusion and Recommendations

Researches have been first performed in 14 regions of Uzbekistan to identify xylophagous insects that damage industrial wood, timber, construction material, lumber and household items made of wood owned by individuals, organizations, strategic objects, cultural heritage objects, etc. The wood inhabited with woodborers was reported in 41.4% cases. Most injurious and mass species out of 15 species of woodborers in Uzbekistan are common furniture beetle Anobium pertinax L., house longicorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L., Turkestan Anacanthotermes turkestanicus J. and the large Trans-Caspian termite A. ahngerianus J. and true bee species (Apoidea Superfamily) — Anthophoridae Family species.

The local spread of xylophagous insects is reported at the territory of the republic as well as the lack of large core inhabitants, except for termites of Anacanthotermes genus. The main reason of industrial wood and other material attack is application of wood of high humidity and its contamination with wood-staining fungi; the wood and construction material not debarked; lack of fungicidal treatment of the wood to prevent mold damage and fungosity and lack of insecticide treatment to prevent insect attack.

Table 1. – Spread of A. turkestanicus and A. ahngerianus termites by Uzbekistan regions (2003-2013, termitarium investigated by n-25)

A. turkestanicus A. ahngerianus A. turkestanicus A. ahngerianus

North-Western: Khorezm region, Republic of Karakalpakstan + +++ + +++

Central: Samarkand, Bukhara, Navoi regions +++ + +++ ++

Eastern: Andijan, Ferghana, Namangan regions + – ++ –

North-Eastern: Tashkent, Syrdarya, Jizzakh regions + – ++ –

Southern: Surkhandarya, Kashkadarya regions +++ – +++ –

1. Abdullaev I. I., Khamraev A.Sh., Lebedeva N. I., – 2015. Anacanthotermes termite population ecology, Jacobson, – 1904. International conference information package “Environment protection and eco-biological education”, Elabuga town, – November 25-26, – 2015, Russian Federation, Republic of Tatarstan, Elabuga: – 176-183.

2. Azimov D. A., Bekuzin A. A., Davletshina A. G., et al, – 1993. Insects of Uzbekistan. – Tashkent: Fan, – 1-340.

3. Azimov A. A., Kreuzberg A. – 2005. Necessity to strengthen meaures to supply cadaster funa information for Uzbekistan, Ekologiches-kiy vestnik (Ecological bulletin), – Tashkent, – No 1. – 8-12.

4. Akulov Е. N. – 2009. Phytosanitary condition of timber in Krasnoyarsk Krai, News-Bulletin (Izvestia) of the Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University. – Saint-Petersburg, – No 187. – 3-10.

5. Belyaeva N. V. Natural hybridization and experimental crossbreeding of termites of Anacanthotermes Genus, Jacobson. Works of the entomology sector of the research laboratory on elaboration of measures to prevent biological damage. – М. – 1974. – No. 5. – 74-83.

6. Izhevsky S. S., Nikitsky N. B., Volkov O. G., et al, – 2005. Illustrated Guide on xylophagous beetles – wood and forest pests of Russian. -Tula: Grif and Co, – 1-220.

7. Khamraev A.Sh., Lebedeva N. I., Abdullaev I. I. et all. – 2006. Biology, ecology and control of the Turkestan termite Anacanthotermes turkestanicus, infesting structures of historical importance in Uzbekistan. XV Congress of the International Union for the study of social insects. Washington D. C., USA, – August – 2006. – 3 р.

8. Khamraev A. S., Lebedeva N. I., Zhuginisov T. I. et all. – 2007. Food preferences of the turkestan termite Anacanthotermes turkestanicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). USA, Sociobiology, – Vol. 50, – No. 2. – 469-478.

9. Khamraev A.Sh., Lebedeva N. I., Khokhlacheva V. E., et al, – 2008. Anacanthotermes termites – dangerous bio-destroyer of Uzbekistan facilities and elaboration of preventive methods and actions to control their population. (Collected works) Use of best practices to protect plants against pests”, – Tashkent: TALQIN, – 102-114.

10. Khamraev A.Sh., Lebedeva N. I., Mirzaeva G. S., et al, – 2013. Biological and ecological features of common beetle (Anobium pertinax L.). Information bulletin of the Karakalpak State University named after Berdakh, Nukus, – No 3. – 143-147.

11. Khamraev A.Sh., Lebedeva N. I., Mirzaeva G. S., et al, – 2015. Wood as the habitat for borers. Reports of the AS of RUz, – No 2. – 93-97.

12. Lebedeva N. I., Khamraev A.Sh. – 2014. Common furniture beetle (Anobium pertinax L.) – enemy of wooden structures. Materials of the applied science conference “Improvement of measures against termits within the country territory”, – Tashkent, – April 11, -2014. – P. 27-30.

13. Lebedeva N. I., Khamraev A.Sh., Akhmedova Z.Yu., 2014 a. Xylophagous insects – malicious infestants of wooden materials and historic monuments. Materials of the applied science conference “Improvement of measures against termits within the country territory”, -Tashkent, – April 11, – 2014. – P. 21-27.

14. Lebedeva N. I., Khamraev A.Sh., Mirzaeva G. S., et al, – 2014 b. Xylophagous insects – pest to destroy wooden materials and historic monuments. Information bulletin of the Karakalpak State University named after Berdakh, Nukus, – 4 (25): 21-25.

15. Luppova A. N., – 1958. Termites of Turkmenistan. Research works of the Zoology and Parasitology Institute, Academy of Sciences of – Turkmen SSR, – Т. 2. – 81-145.

16. Mamaev B. M., Medvedev L. N., Pravdin F. N., – 1976. Insect identifier in the European part of the USSR. – М.: Prosveshenie: – 103-187.

17. Mirzaeva G. S., Allaberdiev R.Kh., Khamraev A.Sh. et all. – 2012. Molecular genetic studies of termites Anacanthotermes kind in Central Asia. 3rd International Conference “Molecular phylogenetics MolPhy-3”, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. – Moscow, – July 31 – August 4, – 2012 – М.: – 127.

18. Mozolevskaya E. G., Selikhovkin A. V., Izhevsky S. S., et al, – 2010. Forest Entomology. A textbook for university students. – М.: Aka-demiya, – 1-416.

19. Nurzhanov F. A., Lebedeva N. I., Nurzhanov А. А. – 2013. Determination of wood resistant to xylophagous insect damage and reasons of their stability. Biology – science of XXI century. – 17 International Pushin School of young scholars, SPb, thesis – М.: – 549-550.

20. Pearce M. J. – 2000. Termites. Biology, ecology and control: – 1-115.

21. Toskina I. N., Provorova I. P., – 2007. Museum insects. (Biology. Infestation prevention. Measures). – М.: Partnership of scientific publications, KMK: – 58-67.

22. Ergashev N. E., Madatyan A. V., Lebedeva N. I., – 1996. Injurious activity of termites in residential buildings. Agriculture of Uzbekistan, – Tashkent, – No 2. – 42.

23. Yakobson G. G., – 1904. On Russian termites. Works of the Entomology Bureau of the Board of Scholars of the Main department for land management and agriculture. – М., – Т. YIII, – No 4. – 3-54.

24. Yakobson G. G., – 1913. Termites, inhabitant, damage caused by termites and ways of liquidation Works of the Entomology Bureau of the Board of Scholars of the Main department for land management and agriculture. – М., – Т. Х, – No 2. – 3-76.

Mirzaakhmedova Nargiz Alisultanova, Dalimova Dilbar Akbarovna, Tashkent institute of improvement of doctors, Tashkent, Uzbekistan Laboratory of Genomics, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan E-mail: [email protected]

Association of polymorphisms of ADIPOQ, APOA5 and APOC3 genes with menopausal metabolic syndrome in Uzbek population of women

Abstract: Menopausal metabolic syndrome (MMS) — is a set of neurovegetative, psychoemotional and exchange-endocrine disorders occurring with the onset of menopause and include rapid weight gain with the formation of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and/or arterial hypertension.

Each of the key components of MS, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and high blood pressure, has genetic predisposition for which main candidate genes were identified. These candidate genes areADIPOQ, APOA5 and APOC3.

It should be noted that certain gene polymorphisms in combination with estrogen deficiency displaythemselves differently in different populations dependent on gender, age and ethnicity.

The aim of our study was to investigate the association of polymorphisms of ADIPOQ, APOA5 and APOC3 genes in the Uzbek population of women with menopausal metabolic syndrome.

cyberleninka.ru

Share:
No Comments

Leave a Reply

Your e-mail will not be published. All fields are required.