Working Principle of Water-proof Vole Repeller — Aosion International (Shenzhen) Co, Ltd

Working Principle of Water-proof Vole Repeller

Rats, bats and other animals communicate with ultrasound. The auditory system of mice is very developed and sensitive to ultrasound. They can judge the source of sound in darkness. Young rats can send out 30-50 kHz ultrasound when threatened, and they can return to their nests by sending out ultrasound and echo without opening their eyes. Adult rats in crisis can send out an ultrasound call for help, while mating can also send out ultrasound to express happiness, we can say that ultrasound is the language of rats.

Ultrasound produced by the waterproof vole repeller can effectively stimulate and cause the rats to feel threatened and uneasy. This technology comes from advanced pest control concepts in Europe and America. The purpose of using water-proof vole repeller is to create a «good space without mice and pests», create an environment where pests and mice can not survive, force them to migrate automatically, unable to reproduce and grow in the control area, and achieve the goal of eradicating rats and pests.

The electromagnetic waves produced by the waterproof vole repeller are only a few hertz frequencies. The frequencies of ultrasound and infrared rays are beyond the range of human hearing, and the power of all radio waves is very small, so they are absolutely harmless to human body. If it is harmful to human body, there will be no medical devices such as ultra-low frequency therapeutic instrument, ultrasound therapeutic instrument and infrared therapeutic instrument.

Types of Networks: LAN, WAN, WLAN, MAN, SAN, PAN, EPN & VPN

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  • 1:16 Personal Area Network
  • 2:33 Local Area Network
  • 3:56 Metropolitan Area Network
  • 4:35 Wide Area Network
  • 4:55 Private Networks and…
  • 8:13 Lesson Summary

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Paul is a GIS professor at Vancouver Island U, has a PhD from U of British Columbia, and has taught stats and programming for 15 years.

Types of Networks

There are several different types of computer networks. Computer networks can be characterized by their size as well as their purpose.

The size of a network can be expressed by the geographic area they occupy and the number of computers that are part of the network. Networks can cover anything from a handful of devices within a single room to millions of devices spread across the entire globe.

Some of the different networks based on size are:

  • Personal area network, or PAN
  • Local area network, or LAN
  • Metropolitan area network, or MAN
  • Wide area network, or WAN

In terms of purpose, many networks can be considered general purpose, which means they are used for everything from sending files to a printer to accessing the Internet. Some types of networks, however, serve a very particular purpose. Some of the different networks based on their main purpose are:

  • Storage area network, or SAN
  • Enterprise private network, or EPN
  • Virtual private network, or VPN

Let’s look at each of these in a bit more detail.

Personal Area Network

A personal area network, or PAN, is a computer network organized around an individual person within a single building. This could be inside a small office or residence. A typical PAN would include one or more computers, telephones, peripheral devices, video game consoles and other personal entertainment devices.

If multiple individuals use the same network within a residence, the network is sometimes referred to as a home area network, or HAN. In a very typical setup, a residence will have a single wired Internet connection connected to a modem. This modem then provides both wired and wireless connections for multiple devices. The network is typically managed from a single computer but can be accessed from any device.

This type of network provides great flexibility. For example, it allows you to:

  • Send a document to the printer in the office upstairs while you are sitting on the couch with your laptop.
  • Upload a photo from your cell phone to your desktop computer.
  • Watch movies from an online streaming service to your TV.

If this sounds familiar to you, you likely have a PAN in your house without having called it by its name.

Local Area Network

A local area network, or LAN, consists of a computer network at a single site, typically an individual office building. A LAN is very useful for sharing resources, such as data storage and printers. LANs can be built with relatively inexpensive hardware, such as hubs, network adapters and Ethernet cables.

The smallest LAN may only use two computers, while larger LANs can accommodate thousands of computers. A LAN typically relies mostly on wired connections for increased speed and security, but wireless connections can also be part of a LAN. High speed and relatively low cost are the defining characteristics of LANs.

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LANs are typically used for single sites where people need to share resources among themselves but not with the rest of the outside world. Think of an office building where everybody should be able to access files on a central server or be able to print a document to one or more central printers. Those tasks should be easy for everybody working in the same office, but you would not want somebody just walking outside to be able to send a document to the printer from their cell phone! If a local area network, or LAN, is entirely wireless, it is referred to as a wireless local area network, or WLAN.

Metropolitan Area Network

A metropolitan area network, or MAN, consists of a computer network across an entire city, college campus or small region. A MAN is larger than a LAN, which is typically limited to a single building or site. Depending on the configuration, this type of network can cover an area from several miles to tens of miles. A MAN is often used to connect several LANs together to form a bigger network. When this type of network is specifically designed for a college campus, it is sometimes referred to as a campus area network, or CAN.

Wide Area Network

A wide area network, or WAN, occupies a very large area, such as an entire country or the entire world. A WAN can contain multiple smaller networks, such as LANs or MANs. The Internet is the best-known example of a public WAN.

Private Networks

One of the benefits of networks like PAN and LAN is that they can be kept entirely private by restricting some communications to the connections within the network. This means that those communications never go over the Internet.

For example, using a LAN, an employee is able to establish a fast and secure connection to a company database without encryption since none of the communications between the employee’s computer and the database on the server leave the LAN. But, what happens if the same employee wants to use the database from a remote location? What you need is a private network.

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One approach to a private network is to build an enterprise private network, or EPN. An EPN is a computer network that is entirely controlled by one organization, and it is used to connect multiple locations. Historically, telecommunications companies, like AT&T, operated their own network, separate from the public Internet. EPNs are still fairly common in certain sectors where security is of the highest concern. For example, a number of health facilities may establish their own network between multiple sites to have full control over the confidentiality of patient records.

With the growth of the Internet, private networks have gone virtual. A virtual private network, or VPN, extends a private network into a public network, such as the Internet. A VPN is a network in which some parts of the network use the Internet, but data is encrypted before it is sent over the Internet to indicate that it is a private network. A VPN provides a high level of security for traffic over the Internet.

Other Special Purpose Networks

Most computer networks are general purpose networks used for many different forms of communication, but some networks have been built for a very specific purpose.

A storage area network, or SAN, is a network dedicated to data storage. A large organization may have different types of centralized storage, not all of which should be accessible to all users of the local area network within the organization. A dedicated SAN gives network and database administrators more control over data storage. Regular LAN users only get access to the elements of this storage system that are relevant to them.

A home area network, or HAN, is a type of PAN specifically designed for home use. A home network may include things like digital televisions, home security and other types of systems that are unique to the home environment and not typically found in an office.

A body area network, or BAN, is a network of wearable computing devices. This can include things like a watch, special glasses, tracking devices and heart-rate monitors. For example, an Alzheimer’s patient could be outfitted with a location tracking device and a cellular communication device. If they leave a certain area, family members can be alerted with a text or e-mail message to the location of their loved one.

Lesson Summary

Computer networks can be characterized in the term of the geographic area they occupy and the purpose of the network within this geographic area. Networks can cover anything from a handful of devices within a single room to millions of devices spread across the entire globe.

A personal area network is a computer network organized around an individual person within a single building. A local area network consists of a computer network at a single site for sharing resources, typically an individual office building.

A metropolitan area network consists of a computer network across an entire city, college campus or small region. A wide area network occupies a very large area, such as an entire country or the entire world. Special purpose networks include storage area networks, home area networks and body area networks.

Learning Outcomes

After you’ve completed this lesson, you should have the ability to:

  • Identify how computer networks are classified
  • Describe different networks based on size
  • Explain the purpose of SANs, VPNs and EPNs

Solar Powered Snake Repellent

1. Principle
1). Use solar energy to charge and discharge.
2). According to the scientific research, animals are very sensitive to vibration and they can sense any tiny vibration. So this product is based on the principle of vibration wave emission, the use of simulated stimulation of the central nervous system of snakes and rats sound and vibration in the underground transmission, causing a sense of discomfort and panic so that they do not want to get close and hence escape the scene.

2. The scope of use
Wide grassland, parks and other open spaces, the effective range is about 300 square meters, the closer animals are, the better the effect will be.

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3. Product description
1). Built-in special devices, through the transmission of sound and vibration waves, the snake and rats feel uncomfortable, so that they will get far away from the scene, and the purpose of driving away thus be achieved;
2). Use solar panels to supply power, and built-in high environmental protection rechargeable batteries, which can store enough power.
3). This product is easy to install, causing no radiation and damage to the human body, and can be used safely.

This product is rainproof outside but not rainproof inside. Please do not install it in low-lying areas.
If the rainwater is too high, please remove the product until the rainwater recedes.
Charging method: solar energy charge, turn on the switch, insert any places with sunlight and it will charge automatically.

Features of solar powered snake repellent:

1)Without wiring, it can be put anywhere you want.
2)Using environmental protection material, there will be no pollution.
3)Without electricity, sunshine helps pay electricity bills.
4)No electric shock, no radiation, so there is no harm to the human body.
5)Simple installation, it can be used immediately after being plugged in.

Scope of use: hotels, villas, parks, farms, rice fields, farms, and other places.

What else do we need to consider?

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In detail

What if our use of cookies changes?

If your cookie use changes significantly, then you will need to consider how this impacts on any consent that you have already gained.

For example, if you introduce a new cookie, or change the purposes of cookies already in use change after consent has been obtained, then your users will need to be made aware of these changes in order to allow them to make an informed choice about this new activity.

What about cookies set on websites that we link to?

Your online service may not be the only place where users and subscribers could have cookies set during their interactions with you.

For example, if you have a presence on social media platforms, then those platforms will set cookies on users’ devices once they visit your pages there, eg after they’ve navigated away from your website. These cookies can be used for different purposes depending on the platform, but common uses are to provide you with statistical information about how users interact with your social network presence.

Although you may not directly control the cookies that the platform sets, you do control the fact that you have a presence on that platform and you are also able to determine what types of statistics you want the platform to generate based on user interaction.

This means that you are jointly responsible, with the social media platform, for determining the purpose and means of the processing of personal data of any user that visits your presence on that network and are therefore a joint data controller for this activity with the platform.

This remains the case even if the network only provides you with anonymised or aggregated statistical information, as in order to generate that information the platform will process personal data, firstly by recording what visitors do and then by then anonymising that information.

You should be aware that not all of those accessing your social media presence from your website will necessarily be logged-in users of the social platform in question and therefore you need to ensure that they are provided with appropriate information before they visit.

So, you need to ensure that your own privacy notice on your website includes references to any social media presence that you may have, and how individuals are able to control the setting of any non-essential cookies once they visit there, even if these cannot be covered by your site’s consent mechanism.

You should also provide information about the processing of any personal data within your privacy notice as well as somewhere your page on the online platform, even if this is simply a link back to that privacy notice.

What about cookies set on overseas websites?

It is firstly important to note that if you are based in the UK you will be subject to the requirements of PECR even if your website is hosted overseas (eg, using cloud services based in the USA).

Although PECR does not have specific provisions regarding organisations operating outside the European Economic Area (EEA), where personal data is processed the GDPR applies. If your organisation is based outside Europe and you offer online services designed for the European market (eg that provide products or services to customers in Europe), you need to comply with the GDPR’s requirements in respect of the information you provide to users as well as when, and how, you obtain consent.

So, where personal data is involved, if the user is not provided with clear and comprehensive information about the use of cookies then they cannot be said to be appropriately informed about the processing of their personal data – which is part of the fundamental data protection principle about fair, lawful and transparent processing.

When assessing whether the GDPR’s territorial scope provisions apply to you, you should take account of:

  • whether the processing relates to personal data of individuals in the EEA, and
  • whether that processing also relates to the offering of goods and services or monitoring of behaviour.

Mere availability of a website to users within the EEA will not automatically be sufficient to bring that website in scope.


An e-commerce website based outside the EEA offers users the ability to set up accounts and purchase products from any location in the world. Users can also list product prices in different currencies, including Pounds, Euros and other EEA currencies.

It is therefore clear that the products the site sells are intended to be offered to individuals within the EEA, and the site would be in scope of the GDPR.

Where the site uses cookies and similar technologies to process personal data, it would need to provide users in the UK and Europe with information about these cookies and comply with the rest of the GDPR.

A website may be available globally, and therefore accessible to individuals within the EEA, but this will not always mean it is specifically offering goods and services to those individuals. It will depend on the particular circumstances.

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An online news outlet based outside the EEA but accessible to individuals within the EEA may not be in scope of the GDPR, depending on its circumstances. The outlet may carry news reports relating to the EEA, but if this content is ‘directed at’ individuals within the outlet’s own country or territory, rather than individuals in the EEA, then it will not be in scope of the GDPR even if those individuals can access the news reports online.

However, if the outlet intends to have a ‘global’ reach then it obviously means to offer its service to anyone, including EEA individuals; it will therefore need to consider whether the GDPR’s territorial provisions apply to it, and the implications this has for providing cookie information and obtaining consent.

If you have a non-EEA website you can also take steps to demonstrate that you are not intending to offer goods and services to EEA individuals, for example:

  • including specific references in your privacy information; or
  • preventing EEA users from accessing your site, eg via IP address blocking.

The decision to undertake this activity is entirely down to you, but may provide an effective means of demonstrating that you do not intend to offer your service to individuals in the EEA.

Further reading – European Data Protection Board

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB), which has replaced the Article 29 Working Party (WP29), includes representatives from the data protection authorities of each EU member state. It adopts guidelines for complying with the requirements of the GDPR.

The EDPB has recently published guidelines on the territorial scope of the GDPR . These guidelines are currently subject to public consultation. We will update this link when the EDPB completes this work.

Can public authorities set cookies on their websites?

The requirements to provide clear and comprehensive information and obtain consent apply for anyone using cookies, whether or not you are a public authority. So, if you are a public authority that runs an online service – such as your website – the cookie rules apply to you as well.

What about other devices like mobiles, smart TVs, wearables, and the ‘Internet of Things’?

In recent years, there has been ever-increasing usage of mobile devices such as smartphones and fitness bands, and internet-enabled appliances such as smart TVs and other so-called ‘Internet of Things’ devices such as home thermostats and connected vehicles. Generally, connected devices come under the definition of ‘terminal equipment’.

Web services, often called web application programming interfaces (APIs) are typically used by mobile devices and other hardware. Since these services can also store or access information on the user’s device just like any website, it is important to note that the cookie rules apply to all such devices where cookies or similar technologies are in use.

Here are some points to remember:

  • A web API that sets cookies must comply with the cookie rules. In the field of mobile devices, this typically means that the mobile app accessing the web API is the obvious place to incorporate consent mechanisms, where applicable. It also means that users who access the web API using other means (eg a web browser) might not receive the same information and might need to be treated differently in order to avoid setting cookies without consent.
  • In the same way that a website can make use of existing browser settings (as detailed in Regulation 6(3)(a) of PECR) to obtain consent, preference settings within a device’s operating system may mature into a consent mechanism for app and web app developers.
  • The limited, and sometimes non-existent, physical interfaces on some internet-connected devices pose challenges when trying to inform users about cookies and their purposes. Without being able to display information as part of a website itself, you need to consider alternative methods of informing users. These might include clear instructions packaged along with the device, information provided during product registration, or use of a companion mobile app to provide an interface so that information can be communicated and consent gained.

What happens if we don’t comply?

The ICO’s aim is to ensure organisations comply with the law. In cases where organisations refuse or fail to comply voluntarily the ICO has a range of options available for taking formal action where this is necessary.

Although the GDPR gives the ICO enhanced powers, the enforcement regime for PECR remains that which was in effect under the 1998 Data Protection Act – except where personal data is processed.

Where formal action is considered, perhaps because an organisation refuses to take steps to comply or has been involved in a particularly privacy-intrusive use of cookies without telling individuals or obtaining consent, any use of formal regulatory powers would be considered in line with the factors set out in the published Regulatory Action Policy.

More guidance on the circumstances in which the Information Commissioner will use enforcement powers, including what is considered a ‘serious infringement’, can be found in the ICO’s civil monetary penalties guidance.

The Regulatory Action Policy makes clear that any formal action must be a proportionate response to the issue it seeks to address and that monetary penalties will be reserved for the most serious infringements of PECR.

The ICO cannot exclude the possibility of formal action in any area. However, it is unlikely that priority for any formal action would be given to uses of cookies where there is a low level of intrusiveness and low risk of harm to individuals. The ICO will consider whether you can demonstrate that you have done everything you can to clearly inform users about the cookies in question and to provide them with clear details of how to make choices. For example, the ICO is unlikely to prioritise first party cookies used for analytics purposes where these have a low privacy risk, or those that merely support the accessibility of sites and services, for regulatory action.

Further reading – ICO guidance

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