Where to start with pest control

Where to Start with Pest Control

Pests are unwanted plants, animals, insects, germs or other organisms that interfere with human activity. They may bite, destroy food crops, damage property, or otherwise make our lives more difficult.

NPIC does not make recommendations. But, we can certainly shed some light on the path to effective pest control.

  1. I’m uncertain where to start
  2. Identifying the pest
  3. Learning about MY pest (ants, bedbugs, etc.)
  4. Knowing when to take action
  5. Exploring effective control methods
  6. Gauging my pest control success

Are you UNCERTAIN where to start in the pest control process?

Determine if the problem is something you can tackle or if help from a pro is needed.

Maybe you’re the type to dive in, research your pest, explore the most effective control options, and are feeling well prepared to take things on by yourself. Or maybe you feel like you are in over your head, don’t have time to learn about your pest, or can’t get access to the tools you need to do the job well. Whether you’ve «got this» or need a pro, there are resources available to you.

Who can help if I do this myself?

Who can help if I need a pro?

  • NPIC: Selecting A Pest Control Company
  • NPIC: Mosquito/Vector Control
  • Public Health Departments (State / County or City)

Step 1: Properly identify your pest.

It’s much harder and much less effective to battle your pest if you don’t know exactly what it is.

  • State / County Cooperative Extension Offices

Step 2: Find out more about your pest’s habits.

Learn why it’s there in the first place. What does it need in order to survive? Might it cause harm to people, animals, buildings, and such? What makes it grow, develop, and reproduce? Knowing this information highlights a pest’s weaknesses, which you can use to your advantage (puts you in control of the situation).

  • NPIC: Pest-specific Information (by name)
  • State / County Cooperative Extension Offices
  • NPIC: Fact Sheets on Pests in Your Area
  • NPIC: Pest Identification Guides and Tools
  • University of California: California IPM Program
  • Cornell University: New York IPM Program

Step 3: Decide whether action is needed. or whether you can tolerate the pest’s presence for now.

If a pest is known to transmit disease, destroy property, or cause damage in other ways, our ability to tolerate them may be zero. But, if the pest doesn’t cause harm, you may decide that you can deal with a certain number of them or their presence in a specific location. Every situation is different though, so you will have to decide when it’s right to take action.

  • Public Health Departments (State / County or City)
  • Mosquito/Vector Control

Step 4: Explore the most effective ways to control your pest.

If/when the pest reaches a level where you can no longer tolerate them, you’re going to need a plan of action. There may not be just ONE way to control the pest, so consider choosing multiple methods. By attacking the issue from several angles, you may actually prevent the pest from being a problem again.

  • NPIC: Pest-specific Information (by name)
  • Public Health Departments (State / County or City)
  • Mosquito/Vector Control
  • NPIC: Pest Control Company (tips for selecting a company)
  • NPIC: Pest Control Tips

Step 5: Keep an eye out for the pest now and in the future.

You might think you’re done after tackling the pest problem. But, you need to monitor the situation to make sure your approaches worked. If you notice that the pest has come back over time, think about adjusting your control methods.


Date Issued: 18-Jul-2014

Time to Train: 30 Minutes

It is the management policy that pest control is carried out on a regular basis and that the A department of the rooms division, responsible for cleaning the hotel’s guest rooms and public areas.

«>Housekeeping Department has an overall responsibility to co-ordinate between the contractors and all departments.

Purpose: The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the

A Hotel or Inn may be defined as an establishment whose primary business is providing lodging facilities for the general public, and which furnishes services like Reception, Food and Beverage, Housekeeping, Concierge, Laundry etc. Read more about Hotel Industry

«>Hotel premises are refrained from all pests, to ensure problem areas can be identified and effective measures can be taken promptly and to ensure that the minimum disturbance is caused to the operation of the Hotel and our Person who used the services of a hotel.


If any hotel staffs find pests such as cockroaches, ants, rats, spiders, flying insects etc. in any area of the Hotel they should immediately report it to the Housekeeping Department.

Housekeeping Staff will record the details in the Pest Control Log Book. The Format is as follows:

Description of Pest Problem

Location of Pest Found

Date of Pest Treatment Appointment

Job Completed on.

«>Log Book weekly to ensure the proper treatment is complied with.

Housekeeping floor supervisor or the Housekeeping manager should co-ordinate with the pest control contractor for monthly schedule and urgent implementation arrangement of ad-hoc pest control.

Housekeeping Manager will advise other department of the schedule and the type of treatment used for pest control, so the necessary safety measure can be taken by the concerned department Eg. Covering of food, cancelling of table settings etc.

Pest control contractor will be guided and accompanied by Housekeeping staff for security and job performance control purpose.

Types of Pest Control service:

There are three basic treatments in controlling pests:

  • Rodenticide Treatment (e.g. Laying of rat bait)
  • Insecticide Treatment (e.g. Spraying of Insecticide)
  • Flying Insects Control (e.g. Fumigation).

«>pipe duct rooms and both stair ways.

«>plus laying and checking of rat bait.

Frequency – Every second month during daytime.

Treatment – Spray plus laying and checking of rat bait

Frequency – Monthly during overnight

Kitchen and Restaurants Areas

All F&B outlets i.e. All kitchens, staff canteen and restaurants.

Treatment – Spray plus laying and checking of rat bait, fumigation

Frequency – Monthly during overnight.

Training Summary questions:

Q1. What is the purpose of pest control in hotels?

Q2. Who should you inform if you find pests like cockroaches, ants, rats etc. In hotel premises?

Q3. What should be the ideal frequency for pest control for public areas?

Q4. Who should review the pest control log To sell or reserve rooms ahead of time.

Q5. What are the types of pest control services?


Frost-resistant grade of black currant of Bagheera

Black currant — the berry is known to all, and attention to this amazing plant is easy to explain with a wide range of its use.

This is a real treasure for phytotherapists, useful substances contain both leaves, and twigs, and berries, roots just let down, they have not yet found a worthy use.

The center of attention is undoubtedly the berry with its incomparable taste and aroma.

The article discusses in detail the variety of currants Bagheera, as well as the external description of the plant and the photo.

For more than two hundred varieties with a variety of features settled in the gardens, currant will be found for every taste, and rarely in what gardener does a plant of one variety. Usually it is currant from early to late ripening.

Description of Bagheera

Bagheera — grade of black currant of average term of maturing. It has a sprawling bush of medium degree of growth, from one and a half to two meters, leaves of medium intensity of staining, dull, have five blades, slow downability is noticed — the bush leaves in winter with foliage.

The variety is self-fertile, good because the berry is large, up to three grams, is about the same size, its color is not just black, but glossy black, which makes the berry even more attractive. Berry is collected in brushes from three to seven centimeters from four to seven pieces in a knot, and brushes in knots are usually two or three.

Yield the Bagheera variety is good, up to five kilograms from a bush, early, in the second or third year after planting, enter the fruiting stage. The peel has an average density and dry separation, which makes it possible not only to store the berry, but also to transport it without loss. Sweet taste and the berry flavor preserves for a long time, matures amicably.

The excellent taste of the berry is designed to make jam from it. Especially in conjunction with summer varieties of apples: Augustus, Hornist, Papirovka, Robin, Bely Pour.

A very important positive quality of the variety is its resistance to low temperatures in winter and high in summer. Anthracosis and powdery mildew of a plant of the variety Bagheera are rarely affected, more often suffer from rust and kidney mite.

A photo

Breeding history

A remarkable variety of black currants Bagir obtained by the method of hybridization from varieties Minay Shnyrev and Bredtorp breeders All-Russian Research Institute them. I.V. Michurin.

Cultivation and care

Rarely does a plant prefer light shading, give as much sun as possible to all, and currant only benefits from a small shade, sunburn does not occur, and this quality does not depend on the variety.

Soils almost all plants love fertile, neutral, and currants are no exception in this regard, but if the soil in your area is, let’s say, not very good, it is in your power to ennoble it.

To do this, we fill a large bucket of humus, three hundred grams of superphosphate, three hundred grams of potassium sulfate, fifty grams of potassium sulfate, and a shovel of wood ash; , mulch the soil around a small bush, prune a sapling into two or three buds.

The deed is done, we take care and get the long-awaited result, but this is if you didn’t save on the planting material and did not buy it from a random seller, and if this happened, wait for surprises.

These are very simple agrotechnical methods, without which, however, it is impossible to do.

Bush varieties Bagheera it has an average dew force, sprawling, and by the fifth year after landing it should have three or four shoots each year of growth. The bush can grow in one place for up to fifteen years, and as it ages, old shoots are cut out with the formation of young ones going for replacement.

A bushy plant with good rooting of shoots, to which our variety belongs, grows very quickly, as the shoots take root in places of contact with the soil. To avoid uncontrolled growth, shoots should be raised above the ground.

Currant propagates by layering and shoots, and rooting them is very easy.

Well-ripened shoots are necessarily cut into a slanting cut of fifteen centimeters and planted into the prepared soil for planting at an angle of forty-five degrees with two or three buds above the soil surface. Care for cuttings classic.

Diseases and pests

Variety Bagheera resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew, but may be affected by rust and mites. Ticks openly move around the plant from the opening of the buds to the end of flowering, and at this time the most vulnerable to the effects of pesticides.

For processing use drugs Neoron, Actellic, Acarin.

On our site you can get acquainted in detail with the main signs of common garden diseases. Read all about anthracnose, bacteriosis, chlorosis, rubella, oidium and mildew, //selo.guru/ptitsa/bolezni-p/gribkovye/parsha.html and rust, bacterial cancer and bacterial burn.

From the moth before flowering the plant is sprayed with a shag infusion. If you notice weakened shoots with small leaves, remove and burn them necessarily, and sprinkle the bush with Karbofos after flowering, so you will destroy the currant glass bowl. Aphids can be defeated only by destroying the ants, boiling water is suitable for their extermination — it is harmless and effective.

Currants varieties Bagheera bred in the late seventies of the last century and successfully passed the test of time, while remaining a favorite of gardeners despite the fact that the number of new varieties is constantly growing.

However, one should not avoid such varieties of black currant: Belarusian Sweet, Gross, Summer House, Dobrynya, Venus.


Physical control methods

Manual control

Manual control is the use of the hands or handheld tools to deal with weeds (called invasive plants in the Biosecurity Act 2014). An advantage of manual control is that it minimises soil disturbance, and decreases the likelihood of erosion and seed germination.

Hand pulling

Hand pulling aims to remove the entire plant, including its roots, from the soil. This method is useful for small-scale infestations. It is best to hand-pull weeds after rain, when soil is moist. Sturdy gloves should be worn to avoid prickles, blisters or sap burns to the skin. It is not appropriate for all weed species, such as those with underground bulbs.

Hand tools such as broad knives and trowels can be used to remove underground parts of weeds (such as bulbs) that may reshoot. In some cases it is necessary to dig out the crown of the plant. This requires the growing part of the plant to be cut beneath the ground using a knife.

Grubbing or chipping

This method requires weeds to be dug out using a mattock or chip hoe. Depending on the plant, it may be important to expose the root system, and remove the crown.

In some cases, the mattock or chip hoe is used to cut the stem of the plant below the ground. This method is useful when the ground is hard. Gloves should be worn to avoid blisters.

Mechanical control

Mechanical control is the use of powered tools and machinery to manage weeds and is best suited to larger infestations. Care should be taken to minimise soil disturbance.

Slashing, mowing, dozing, pushing and felling

At times, controlling weeds using mechanical methods is preferred. However, care should be taken when machinery is used in the process.

Disturbing the soil with mechanical control can:

  • increase the likelihood of seed germination
  • damage native vegetation.

In some cases it’s possible to slash weeds using a tractor slasher or ride-on mower. Often this method is used where other favourable species will outgrow the slashed weeds. Some control contractors apply steam after the weeds have been slashed.

Bulldozers and chainsaws can be used on woody and tree weeds where they are pushed or felled and finally snigged (dragged away). These methods are only suitable in certain situations, as they create high levels of soil and vegetation disturbance. Also, shoots and seedlings require follow-up attention.

Grading or scalping the top layer of soil is an effective method of removing a seedbank. As this method greatly disturbs the soil, it is best suited for areas that are to undergo complete rehabilitation.


6 Other methods of pest control

Page last updated: November 2010

The use of pesticides to control pests should always be the last resort. Other action can be taken around homes and communities to control pests. Most of these actions simply relate to clean and healthy living.

6.1 Hygiene as a method of pest control

When houses and yards are kept clean, there is no food for pests and nowhere for them to live and breed, and this in turn means that there are few pests.

Pests can be controlled by practising good hygiene in the following ways:

  • Clean up after meals. Put food scraps in the bin, and wash and dry plates, cups, glasses, cutlery and cooking pots after use.
  • Put all rubbish into the bin
  • Wrap all food scraps tightly in paper before putting them in the bin
  • Keep all the benches, cupboards and floors clean and free of food scraps
  • Regularly clean behind stoves, refrigerators and other household appliances
  • Keep food in containers with tight-fitting lids
  • Use the toilet properly. Make sure that all urine and faeces goes into the pedestal pan and that the toilet is flushed after use. Toilet paper is the only kind of paper that should be flushed down the toilet.
  • Make sure the toilet is clean and the cistern works correctly
  • Make sure that all septic tanks and leach drains are well sealed
  • Make sure that the community rubbish tip is operated correctly with the rubbish being buried regularly
  • Use flyscreens to stop pests entering the house and seal holes around pipes

There is little point to having a pesticide program to control domestic pests if the relevant hygiene factors are not addressed as well. The pests will soon return if good hygiene is not maintained.

6.2 Biological control methods

Biological control methods can also be used to control pests. These methods include using natural enemies of the pest and biologically interfering with their ability to breed. Pesticides are not used.

Two examples of biological control methods are:

  • the use of Australian native fish to feed on mosquito larvae in water bodies
  • the use of the dung beetle to break down and bury cow faeces so that it is no longer available as a breeding place for flies

However, biological control methods can go wrong. One such example was the introduction of the giant cane toad to Queensland some years ago to control cane beetles. It was though the toad would to feed on the cane beetles and so reduce their numbers. But the toad was not successful in controlling cane beetles. Instead the poisonous toads multiplied rapidly, and have now become a major environmental pest in Queensland, the Northern Territory, and are likely to enter the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

There are other areas where biological products have been successfully introduced to control pests. One such example is the use of BTI to control mosquito larvae. BTI is a larvicide composed of a toxin producing bacteria. The mosquito larvae are killed when they eat the bacteria. BTI will not kill mosquito pupae.

BTI comes in liquid and granule form and is added to water bodies. BTI will not be effective if the dose rate for the amount of water is not correct. The correct method of application is very important to get the best results.


Crop Profile: Currants in New York

This material is based upon work supported by the USDA-CSREES-Pest Management Alternatives Program under Award No. 99-34381-8314. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the USDA-CSREES-Pest Management Alternatives Program.

    Profile Prepared By:
    &#160 &#160 Eric Harrington/George Good
    &#160 &#160 Cornell University/PMEP
    &#160 &#160 5123 Comstock Hall
    &#160 &#160 Ithaca, NY 14853
    &#160 &#160 607-255-1866

    Basic Commodity Information
    &#160 &#160State Rank:. N/A
    &#160 &#160% U.S. Production:. N/A
    &#160 &#160Acres of Bearing Age:.

&#160 &#160Acres Harvested:.

&#160 &#160Yearly Production Costs:. $NA

Production Regions: Growing any species of currants is prohibited in the following counties of New York: Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Lewis, Saratoga, Warren, and Washington. Growing is also prohibited in designated townships of additional counties, as follows: in Herkimer County, the townships of Manheirn, Norway, Ohio, Russia, Salisbury, and Webb; in Oneida County, the townships of Annsville, Ava, Boonville, Camden, Florence, Forestport Lee, Remsen, Steuben, Trenton, and Western; in St. Lawrence County, the townships of Brasher, Clare, Clifton, Colton, Edwards, Fine, Hopkinton, Lawrence, Norfolk, Parishville, Piercefield, Pierrepont, Pitcaim, Russell, and Stockholm; in Sullivan County, the townships of Cochecton, Tusten, Highland, Lumberland, Forestburg, and Mamakating, in Orange County, the town of Deerpark; and in Ulster County, the townships of Hurley, Kingston, Marbletown, Olive, Rochester, Rosendale, Saugerties, Shandaken, Ulster, Wawarsing, and Woodstock.
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Furthermore, growing black currants (pure Ribes nigrum) is prohibited throughout New York State. These regulations are designed to protect five-needled pines against white pine blister rust, a devastating disease that infects white pines, currants, and gooseberries; pines cannot become infected unless currants or gooseberries are present nearby. Hybrid rust-resistant black currants, however, can be grown where other Ribes species are permitted (e.g., Titania, Consort, Crusader).
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 The federal government and many of the surrounding states have dropped their prohibition against growing currants and gooseberries because the real cause has been determined to be the black currant. There is some movement to have these regulations rescinded in New York.
Description: All forms of currant are deciduous shrubs, fast growing under optimum conditions. The plant is a multiple-stemmed clump, to 5 feet high and 5 feet wide, but is suitable for training as a standard. Annual growth is in a single flush in spring. The roots are superficial, fine and easily damaged by frequent cultivation.
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 The leaves are alternate, single, lobed and maple-like. Black currant leaves range from pale green to dark green, while those of the red currant are deep blue-green. Both are easily burned by intense sunlight. Leaf size and number is reduced under water stress.
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Currant flowers are borne toward the bases of one-year old stems and on spurs on older stems. They appear in early spring with new growth. Each flower bud opens to a number of flowers (up to 20), joined together on a delicate, drooping 5 — 6 inch stem, called a strig. The strig length is reduced or flowering is suppressed by lack of winter chill. Individual flowers (green in the case of red currants and blush pink for black currants) are not showy, but joined together on the strig they give the bush a lacy texture. Pollination is by hoverflies and other insects. Black currant flowers also attract honeybees. Most currants have self-fertile flowers, but a few cultivars are partially self-sterile. Depending upon the cultivar, fruits ripen from 70 to 100 days after blossoming.
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Fully set strigs will be a pendulous chain of small berries. The fruit is easier to pick if the strigs are long and have clear lengths at the bases for holding onto while harvesting. Black currants commonly ripen from the top down. Modern red currant varieties have been selected for their ability to ripen all the berries on a strig at once. Berries of red, white and pink currants are translucent; black currants are matte brown-purple. The berries contain 3-12 tiny seeds.
Cultivars: Red Currants (Jonkheer van Tets, Red Lake, Redstart), White Currants (Blanka, Primus, White Imperial, White Versailles), Pink Currants (Pink Champagne), Black Currants (Titania, Ben Alder, Ben Lomond, Consort).
Cultural Methods: Currants prefer a cool climate and a rich, moist, but well-drained soil high in organic matter. Silt and clay loams are best; however, plants can do well on fertile sandy loams. Light, sandy soils that tend to become hot and dry during the summer, or land where water stands at any time during the year is avoided. In general, neither crop thrives in hot, dry places. Because currants blossom very early in the spring, they are not planted on low lands or in pockets where late spring frost may injure the blossoms.
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Annual pruning increases yields and keeps plants manageable. Currants are pruned so that most fruit are borne on spurs of two- or three-year old wood. A pruning program maintains a continuous supply of such wood. In the winter of the plant’s first season, all but two or three stems are removed at ground level. The following winter all but two or three stems that grew the previous season, at which point the bush will have two or three each of one and two-year old stems. This is repeated each season. By the fourth season any stems more than three years old are cut away at their base. Long stems that have grown to scraggly are also shortened each winter.
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Currant seeds germinate if stratified for three to four months at temperatures just above freezing. Seedlings are prolific and do not vary much from parent. Bushes grown from seed bear when two or three years old. Currants are easily propagated by hardwood cuttings of one-year old wood.
Commodity Destination(s):
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Fresh Market. 50%
&#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Processing. 50%

    Pest Information: Insects

    Currant Aphid
    Biology: This pest overwinters in the egg stage on bark or new canes. The small yellowish aphids begin to appear when leaf buds open in the spring.
    Symptoms: The aphid is most common on red currant plants. The leaves of infested plants are cupped, galled, distorted, and discolored; the upper leaf surfaces are most seriously affected. Honeydew excreted by the aphids covers the foliage and fruit with a sticky coating.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: None
    Control: An application of malathion is recommended as the leaf buds are opening. Malthion 57EC (1.6 pt) or Pyrethrin 0.5EC (2-12 oz). Safer soap and Stylet oil are also used for control.

    Currant Borer

    Biology: The adult of this pest is a clear-winged, blue-backed moth with yellow markings.
    Symptoms: Eggs are laid in leaf axils. The larva of this moth attacks the canes in mid- to late June, boring in and tunneling up and down as the cane develops. The resulting damage greatly weakens the cane so that it is capable of only sickly growth or it may break off altogether.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: Infested canes are removed and destroyed before June 1. Using recommended pruning practices and removing canes that are too old helps reduce pest infestation.
    Biological Control: pheromone disruption
    Chemical Control: None

    Currant Stem Girdler

    Biology: The sawflies emerge from the middle to the last of May in New York; both sexes have shining black bodies and light brownish-yellow legs. In the male nearly all of the abdomen is of a brownish-yellow color, while in the female the front half of the abdomen is reddish-orange, and the rest is black. The female is about 1/2 inch in length, the male somewhat smaller. The former is provided with a stout, sharp saw-toothed ovipositor, which when exserted extends at a right angle beneath the abdomen. By means of this ovipositor the female punctures a cane a few inches from the tip and inserts the elongate oval, yellowish-white egg into the pith. After the egg is deposited the female walks up the shoot from one half inch to an inch and deftly girdles the cane with her ovipositor. Sometimes the girdling is so complete that the tip falls at once, but usually a portion remains uncut and the tip may remain attached for some time, especially if the shoot is a large one. This killing of the tip of the cane seems to be necessary for the development of the egg and grub.
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 The eggs hatch in about eleven days. The grubs feed almost entirely on the pith, which they tunnel out to a distance of not over six inches, leaving the burrow packed full of excrement behind them. The borer becomes full-grown about the first of September and cleans out the lower end of its burrow for the distance of about three fourths inch and then eats a passageway out to the outer bark, which soon dies and shrinks over this point. It then surrounds itself with a silken cocoon within which it remains as a grub all winter. The change to a pupa takes place in the spring, and the adult insect emerges a few days later.
    Symptoms: The pest eats, or girdles, the tips of new shoots, which eventually die and fall off.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: The girdling habit of the adult insect which causes the young shoot to wilt, die, and drop off in May makes it easy to determine whether the pest is present or not. Since the egg is embedded in the shoot less than an inch below where the girdling is done, and as the grubs rarely tunnel down more than six inches, if the injured shoots are cut off at least eight inches below the girdle and burned, the insect will be effectively controlled. if the work is performed in May or June soon after the girdling is done, only two or three inches of the tips need be cut off. The cutting and burning of about eight inches of the tips of the injured shoots at any time of the year, even in winter, will prove an effective remedy for this pest.
    Chemical Control: None

    Gooseberry Fruitworm

    Biology: Currants are subject to the attacks of a greenish caterpillar with a brownish head 3/4 inch in length when full-grown, which feeds within the fruit and causes it to color prematurely and either dry up or fall to the ground and decay. While ordinarily not a serious pest, it has been known to destroy almost the entire crop in certain places.
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 The grayish moths have an expanse of nearly an inch; the forewings are crossed by darker lines, and there is a row of small blackish dots near the outer margin. The female deposits her eggs on the fruit. The young larva enters the partly grown berry and feeds on the pulp, casting out the excrement through the opening in the skin of the fruit by which it entered. It will sometimes enter several berries in succession, and often webs together several berries with a silken thread. When full-grown, it descends to the ground and transforms to a pupa within a brownish oval cocoon beneath dead leaves or other trash. The winter is passed as a pupa, and the moths emerge the next spring soon after the fruit has set.
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 The caterpillars are very active, and when alarmed will wriggle out of the berry and hang suspended by a silken thread only to return to the fruit when the danger is passed.
    Symptoms: This pest causes premature coloring and separation of the fruit. The adult moth lays eggs on the fruit, and the larvae enter the developing berries and feed on the pulp. Several berries and portions of the stem may be tied together by silken webbing.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: Hand picking the infested berries provides some control.
    Chemical Control: None. Use of malathion for other pests (i.e. Japanese beetles) will help control fruitworms.

    Imported Currant Worm

    Biology: The full-grown larva is 3 inches long; it is green with yellowish ends, has a black head, and is covered with black spots.
    Symptoms: Shortly after the leaves are out in the spring the adults deposit eggs on the undersides of leaves along the major veins. A week to ten days later, tiny larvae emerge and begin eating holes in leaves. The worms feed in colonies and later singly, voraciously stripping the plants of foliage. A second brood occurs in early summer, and a partial third brood may appear depending on the weather.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: Removing leaves containing eggs can help to control pest.
    Chemical Control: Chemical sprays are applied as soon as worms appear. Malathion 57EC- 1.6 pt/A

    San Jose Scale

    Biology: The mature female scale is about the size of a pinhead and circular in shape, with a nipple-like prominence in the center.
    Symptoms: Infested plants are yellowish and unhealthy looking, and many of the canes eventually die. Seriously infested plants appear grayish, as if coated with ash.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: Infested canes are pruned out and destroyed before new growth begins in the spring.
    Chemical Control: Dormant oil spray (4 gal in 10 gal water) applied before the buds swell and burst in the spring. Apply when dormant.

    Insecticides on Currants:

    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Amount of Product per Sprayed Acre Insecticide &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Formulation &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 lbs active ingredient

    malathion (Malathion) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 57 EC (1.6 pt) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 1 lb

    Apply as leaf buds are opening for currant aphid. Apply as soon as worms appear for imported currant worm control. For other pests as berries are turning red.

    PHI: 3 days
    REI: 12 hours

    methoxychlor (Methoxychlor) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 50WP (2-3 lbs/A) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 1-1.5 lbs

    PHI: 14 days
    REI: 12 hours

    pyrethrin (Pyrenone) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 0.5 EC (2-12 oz) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 0.125-0.75 lbs

    Apply as leaf buds are opening for currant aphid.

    PHI: 0 days
    REI: 12 hours

      Pest Information: Diseases

    Leaf Spot
    Disease Cycle: The fungus overwinters in the inconspicuous cane lesions or infected fallen leaves. Spores produced from these sites are distributed the following spring by air currents and splashing rain, and infect young canes and leaves while they remain wet. Additional spores are produced from these new infection sites, and are distributed by splashing rains throughout the summer, spreading the disease. Only young, growing tissues are susceptible to infection.
    Symptoms: Brown spots appear on leaves; at a later stage, leaves turn yellow.
    Resistant Cultivars: None
    Cultural Management: Destroy affected leaves and apply mulch after leaf drop.
    Chemical Control: Copper hydroxide applied before bloom, after petal fall and after harvest. Sulfur 80WP (2 lb/A) applied just before bloom. Sulfur may cause injury in some cultivars.

    Powdery Mildew

    Disease Cycle: The black overwintering structures, called cleistothecia, form on canes and twigs. Ascospores are released around bloom. Conidia can be produced within 10 days and contribute to multiple infections during the growing season.
    Symptoms: Initially, white powdery patches appear on the leaves and shoots in the early spring. As time passes, these patches turn rusty brown. Newly formed fruit also become infected, showing the same powdery growth. Infected berries become cracked and may shatter.
    Resistant Cultivars: Susceptibility to this disease is highly variable, depending on the variety planted; European varieties are generally much more susceptible than American varieties.
    Cultural Management: Prune and dispose of infected branch and shoot tips in early spring. Trellising to improve air circulation.
    Chemical Control: Sprays are most necessary during humid or wet weather in the spring. JMS Stylet Oil (3-6 qt/100 gal water) or wettable sulfur 80WP (6-15 lb/A).

    Fungicides on Currants:

    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Amount of Product per Sprayed Acre Fungicides &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Formulation &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 lbs active ingredient

    copper hydroxide (Kocide) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 61 DF (10lb/A) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 3.51 lbs
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 2.4 L
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 4.5 L
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 77 WP (10 lb/A)
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Champ 4.6 F (6 2/3 pt/A)

    Apply copper hydroxide before bloom, after petal fall and after harvest for leaf spot control.

    PHI: NA days
    REI: 48 hours

    mineral oil (JMS) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Stylet oil (3-6 qt/100 gal water) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 2.9-5.8 qts

    Apply prebloom, postbloom and then apply when the first signs of powdery mildew are apparent and repeat as necessary. The oil kills the disease on contact, so high water volumes and thorough coverage of the leaves and developing fruit are essential for good control.

    PHI: 0 days
    REI: 4 hours

    sulfur (Thiolux) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 80WP (2-15 lb/A) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 1.6-12 lbs

    Apply sulfur just before bloom for leaf spot control. Apply after first signs of powdery mildew appear. Sulfur causes injury on some cultivars.

    PHI: N/A
    REI: 24 hours

      Pest Information: Weeds

    A 4-inch layer of bark or sawdust mulch, or a combination of the two, greatly aids in weed control. Cultivation should be minimized because the root system is very shallow in currants and gooseberries. Grasses can be planted between rows to minimize weeds within the planting. Mulches and herbicides are generally applied in a 4-ft. band under the row.

    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Amount of Product per Sprayed Acre Herbicides &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Formulation &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 lbs active ingredient

    oryzalin (Surflan) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 75 WSP (2.5-5.0 lb) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 2-4 lbs
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 A.S. (2-6 qt)

    Apply to both bearing and nonbearing plants before weed emergence. Rain or irrigation is needed within 21 days after application.

    PHI: N/A
    REI: 12 hours

    glyphosate (Roundup) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 4L (1 qt) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 1 — 4 lbs

    Preplant or wiper applications only. Do not contact foliage.

    PHI: 30 days
    REI: 12 hours

    pelargonic acid (Scythe) &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 3-5% soln. for annuals &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 2.25 — 20 gal
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 5-7% soln. for perennials
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 7-10% for maximum burndown

    Apply before new canes emerge in spring or after canes become woody. Do not contact desirable foliage.

    PHI: 24 hours
    REI: 24 hours

      Pest Information: Vertebrates

    Bird Control: Damage to fruit by birds is a serious problem in many areas of New York. Visual scare devices such as whirlers, streamers, reflectors, and plastic hawk and owl models are used in combination with sound devices such as exploders, alarms, or recorded devices. For sound devices to be effective, their location and the frequency of sounds arechanged daily. They also are in place before the fruit ripens. Some towns have passed ordinances regulating the use of sound devices. The most effective sound devices are those with species-specific bird distress calls programmed into the device.
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Several types of netting, such as plastic, nylon, cotton, and polyethylene, are marketed for protecting fruits. A light-weight acrylic netting that can be draped directly over plants is available. It does not require support and it does not interfere with sunlight, pollination, or growth. Most netting is expensive, and can be reused for many years.
    &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 &#160 Methyl anthranilate formulations for bird repellency are labelled for use but have not proven to be effective.

    Rodent Control: Various rodents can damage a small-fruit planting, especially as they feed under bark in the winter. Closely mowing the area around the planting and between the aisles in early November will reduce the habitat for voles and mice. The habitat (woodlots) of predators that feed on rodents (hawks, owls, foxes) should be protected around the area. A number of poisonous baits are labeled for use in agricultural areas. To be most effective, baits should be placed in feeding stations that exclude large animals and are replenished throughout the winter.

    Deer Control: Deer populations are at an all time high, and they can devastate berry plantings. Multiple strategies are required to discourage deer from feeding on berry plantings. Habitat modifications, reductions in animal numbers, and evaluation of fencing alternatives are some of the methods applied.

    Dr. Marvin Pritts
    Professor — Pomology
    Cornell University
    Department of Fruit and Vegetable Science
    119 Plant Science Bldg.
    Ithaca, NY 14853
    [email protected]

    Mr. Steven McKay
    Regional Specialist
    Columbia County Cooperative Extension
    RD 1, Rte. 66
    Hudson, NY 12534
    [email protected]

    Dr. Wayne Wilcox
    Professor — Plant Pathology
    Cornell University
    New York State Ag. Experiment Station
    Geneva, NY 14456
    [email protected]

    Dr. Gregory English-Loeb
    Assistant Professor — Entomology
    Cornell University
    New York State Ag. Experiment Station
    Geneva, NY 14456
    [email protected]

    1. References
    1. 2000 Pest Management Guidelines for Small Fruit Crops. 1999. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 71 pp.

      1999 Pest Management Recommendations for Small Fruit Crops. 1998. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 56 pp.

      The Home Fruit Planting. Information Bulletin 156. Revised Edition. 1989. Eames-Sheavly, Marcia and Marvin P. Pritts. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 44 pp.

      Food and Feed Crops of the United States. Second Edition, Revised. 1998. Markle, G.M., J.J. Baron, and B.A. Schneider. Rutgers University. 517 pp.

      Currants and Gooseberries. 1996. Hayden, Richard A. and Michael N. Dana. Department of Horticulture, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. West Lafayette, IN. 2 pp.

      Currants: Fruit Facts. 1996. California Rare Fruti Growers, Inc. 3 pp.

      Currant and Gooseberry Pests — Currant Aphid. Northwest Berry and Grape Information Net.

      Currant and Gooseberry Pests — Currant Aphid. Northwest Berry and Grape Information Net.


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