Water voles: description, photo, methods of struggle — Animals
Water vole or earth rat in the garden: photo and measures to combat the pest by biological and chemical methods
- 1 Water vole or earth rat in the garden: photo and measures to combat the pest by biological and chemical methods
- 2 Water vole: description
- 3 Lifestyle vole
- 4 Water vole: control methods
- 5 Recipes bait
- 6 Tricks in the fight against water vole
- 7 Precautionary measures against voles
- 8 Rodent Features
- 9 Danger of earth rats
- 10 Pest control: effective methods
- 11 Prevention Guidelines
- 12 How is a water rat worse than a mole?
- 13 How to deal with a water rat in the garden that is harmful
- 14 Ground rat in the garden
- 15 We fight with water pest
- 16 Let’s say no to rodents
- 17 Water voles: appearance and distribution
- 18 Ways to combat water vole
- 19 Prevention of appearance
- 20 Reviews on pest control methods
- 21 Clean area — preventing the appearance of rats
- 22 Effective ways to combat rats
- 23 Pets in the fight against rodents
One of the key problems that prevent obtaining high yields is the water rat (water vole). Uninvited guest mercilessly damages seedlings, steals sweet root crops and potatoes from the beds, destroys bulbous flowers and causes irreparable damage to the root system of fruit and berry plants.
Water vole: description
Such a rat is called a vole because of its natural habitat.
Torso length — up to 24 cm, tail — about 10 cm, covered with small thick hairs, body weight — about 200 grams. The muzzle is stupid, shortened. The ears are small, hidden in the fur. The fur is very lush, gray-brown. Sometimes there are black individuals. With its habitat, the vole selects swamps, streams, small reservoirs, and reclamation ditches located in close proximity to the dacha plots. Water rat swims well, dives well. In the natural environment, it feeds on soft and succulent parts of marsh plants: young reed shoots, basal parts of sedge, reed and rosyza, to fully saturate such a low-nutritional food animal consumes in very large quantities.
Under natural conditions, the water vole, the fight against which is often unsuccessful, is an active shrew. It digs out at a small depth large burrows of complicated design, and outlets to the surface settle in unremarkable places: dense grass thickets, littered areas, located nearby dumps.
During the season, water voles produce 2-4 broods, each with 6-7 cubs. At the age of one month the animals are happy to switch to succulent feed, including rhizomes of garden flowers and young trees. Part of the younger generation begins to multiply in the same year.
For the winter, the water vole (the photos are presented in the article) is carefully stocked up, gardeners often find its warehouses, in which several buckets of selected tubers are neatly folded, which have moved here from the vegetable garden. Moreover, for the animal, even the type and size of vegetables is important: carefully selected tubers are one-on-one — medium and even.
Signs of water vole appearance on the plot:
- the emergence of holes on the lawns with grass gnawed around them,
- hole diameter 5-8 cm,
- the courses are dug under the very surface of the soil.
Water vole: control methods
Natural vole has no natural enemies. Traps and mousetraps for this animal are ineffective and are aimed at the destruction of a small number of individuals. In the ground at a depth of about 20 cm, an arc trap is installed near the exit from the hole, which is used for catching fur-bearing animals. Cover or fill the ground holes with traps should not be.
It is extremely difficult for a person to fight such a neighbor. One of the methods of dealing with an uninvited guest is bait. Diverse in composition, they are aimed at achieving the same goal. It is recommended to lay the bait in plastic trimmed bottles, pipe trims, under the boxes with holes made in them. Mixing means should be a wooden stick or plastic object, because the water voles are sensitive to human smell.
- Recipe number 1: 20-25 g of gypsum diluted with 30-40 g of flour and a small amount of vegetable oil. The animal dies from gypsum, which, when it enters the stomach, begins to harden.
- Recipe number 2: According to one part of gypsum and roasted bran and two parts of fat. The resulting mixture is required to be divided into balls and spread out in places of settlement of rats.
- Recipe number 3: Combine 20 g of rosin with 20 g of powdered sugar and 15 g of borax.
- Recipe number 4: Poisoned grain, the bait of it is most effective in the autumn.
- Recipe number 5: Sugar and malt are mixed in equal proportions in a container with quicklime, dishes are placed next to them with water. Rat, satisfying hunger, immediately wants to drink. This action will be the final in her life.
Water voles do not tolerate the smell of garlic, milkweed, black root and hazel grouse. A large number of such plants planted on the site will determine the mass flight of rodents. To ensure the accuracy of the method, it is recommended to put nut leaves, fish heads, garlic cloves in the burrows.
Tricks in the fight against water vole
Many gardeners are trying to expel water rats from their territory by inserting a hose into the discovered underground passages, the other end of which is connected to the exhaust pipe of the car. The engine idling fills the strokes with pernicious exhaust gases. The method does not always work if the underground labyrinths are strongly branched and entangled.
Some gardeners scare voles with loud sounds. To do this, plastic bottles with holes made in them must be tilted under the slope into the soil. The wind that gets inside will be transformed into a mournful whistle that rats cannot stand.
Effective special ultrasonic rodent repellents, sold in stores. The operation of these devices requires a constant power source or a regular battery change. It is also recommended to change the range of sound, in order to avoid animals getting used to it.
Interesting materials for the expulsion of a water vole sensitive to unpleasant odors are:
- Rabbit skin. It can be cut into several parts, clog the entrances to the holes with it and set it on fire.
- Oven soot. Diluted with water to a viscous consistency, it is recommended to pour it into the holes.
With the ineffectiveness of the above methods will have to use chemicals that are required to decompose into holes or near them. This action is recommended to repeat in 5-7 days. Chemicals are a direct danger to pets, so there should be no pets in the area of their use.
Precautionary measures against voles
In addition to the use of various baits, it is imperative to keep the area clean, in late autumn, in order to protect against frost and pests, to tie up tree trunks with covering materials. After each big snowfall in the days of thaw, the snow around the trees is required to be trampled down: compressed, after a cold snap, it becomes an insurmountable obstacle for rodents.
When cleaning from the territory of the dead animals should be aware that they are carriers of tularemia — a dangerous infectious disease. Therefore, in no case can a vole be taken by hand.
Subsequently, in order to prevent water voles in a well-groomed territory, it is recommended to build a fence on a solid, recessed (minimum 40 cm) foundation. It is important to prevent the presence in the intake sections and the attachment points of the slots through which the water voles could penetrate inside.
The parasite is not only able to dig moves in the ground, but also floats beautifully, which causes it to move closer to the garden plots in the autumn period in search of food. In one year, the female produces five offspring, each has from two to fourteen calves. A young individual is able to give birth to offspring two years after its birth.
The difficulty of combating a pest lies in its fecundity, adaptation to various habitat conditions. The presence of favorable conditions can lead to the reproduction of rodents in catastrophic quantities. The earthen rat is in appearance an attractive, furry animal. Rodents belong to the group of voles. The body length of the parasite does not exceed 25 centimeters, about 12 of them fall on the tail. The water vole’s weight is about 500 grams, the color is changeable (black, brown, gray, with white stripes and without).
Feeding on the parasite root crops, tops, leaves, bark of young trees. It can also eat frogs, clams, field mouse. In summer, the rodent prefers to dwell near water bodies, looking for food and shelter there. In winter, the earth rat moves closer to the person, lives in the garden, sheds. The rodent quickly moves through the trees, able to feast on small birds, chicks, eggs.
As a dwelling, the rodent chooses cluttered places with an abundance of old branches, unnecessary trash. In addition to the passages, the earth rat is able to build storerooms, where it hides food for the winter period. In general, the parasite makes the hole of their numerous passages, pantry, nest. The number of supplies includes almost everything: potatoes, carrots, beets, grains, legumes. All «buildings» are located 20 centimeters under the ground.
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Danger of earth rats
In view of the high fecundity, it is not difficult to guess that the earth rat is capable of destroying all food reserves not only in the garden, but also in human habitation. If there is not enough edible, rodents climb into the house, eating even cereals, crumbs, sausage. In addition to the theft of the harvest, the rodent spoils the root system of plants with its moves, which leads to a decrease in their fertility and further drying.
Parasites dig tunnels near the surface, spoiling not only vegetable stands, but also floral ones. Earthen rat in Holland is considered the main enemy of tulips. The earth rat does not hesitate even weeds. During the collection of crops, the pest moves complicate this process. With young trees, the parasite gnaws the bark, which leads to freezing of plantations in winter.
Pest control: effective methods
It is possible to destroy an earthen rat in a gardening plot in several ways: by catching, by baiting, exile. The choice of a particular method depends largely on the size of the parasite, the individual preferences of the person (some strongly oppose the use of poisons against any living creatures). Next, we consider each method separately, examine the pros and cons of each method of dealing with an earthen rat.
Everyone knows that rats are afraid of cats, but not many suggest the presence of another enemy of rodents — dogs. Before using this method, consider the fact that earth rats are voracious, can reach a weight of 500 grams. Not every cat will be able to master such prey. In addition to this fact, pay attention to the pet: many domestic seals are completely devoid of the hunter’s instinct, accustomed to feast on the bowl. Making them catch mice on the site or in the house is quite problematic.
A more effective method is to hunt earth rats with the help of special dog breeds. A great option for your own homes — dachshund. This breed of dog willingly chases rats. Biological weapons are a way for lazy people. After all, a person is required only to acquire a predator. The animal itself will feed on rodents, some add prey to the owner as a sign of loyalty.
Humane extermination methods
Recently, there are more and more supporters of humane methods of combating parasites. Some cannot kill rodents because of religion. It doesn’t matter what makes you abandon the killing of an earthen rat, but you just need to get rid of it. Especially for such cases developed many humane methods:
- use of an ultrasonic repeller. The product is not affordable for everyone, but it generates ultrasound, which is unpleasant for many rodents. Remember that the method is not always effective, the earth rats are very tenacious, they can adapt to new living conditions. One hundred percent guarantee ultrasound devices do not give, often leaving up to 80% of pests,
- flooding of holes Unlike other rodents, the earth rat is able to swim, therefore during the flooding the pest will not die, but will definitely run away,
- smoking of parasites from holes. In rats, a sensitive sense of smell, a strong aroma of combustible agents will force the rodent to leave its dwelling. Use the smell of the stinging wool of the same rodent or rabbit. Rats have a negative attitude to the aromas of wormwood, peppermint,
- planting on the site of black elderberry, its roots release a rather large dose of cyanide into the soil, which is detrimental to rodents, but does not affect the plants in any way, even contributes to an increase in yield.
During the beginning of the fight with a rodent, remember the features of an earthen rat, some dig up small pits, put a stick in there, a few cans are tied on it, which make a loud sound. Regarding the pests, regular activation of loud music is effective. You can try various methods, no matter how ridiculous they may seem. The main thing in the fight against parasites — performance!
Many when they first met a rat in the garden comes to mind — you need to buy poison. The modern economic market offers a huge amount of funds aimed at the destruction of pests. All of them act in different ways: some are aimed at the challenge of suffocation, others are paralysis, there are even such drugs that make rats crazy.
Chemicals — a reliable way, but requires special care. During the harassment of rodents, follow the rules of safety, never spill the preparations near food. For the reliability of the method for several days, feed the animal, only after the parasite loses vigilance, enclose the poison.
A huge minus of the method is that other animals can get poisoned, the poison willingly penetrates the soil where vegetables grow. In some cases, you can poison yourself with infected fruits. Additionally, dead animal carcasses are difficult to find; they can be located under leaves in secluded places. To avoid the deplorable situation will help a detailed study of the instructions for the insecticide, the impeccable implementation of all regulations.
The popular methods include the sprinkling of mink of earth rats with special plants: chamomile, peppermint, St. John’s wort, melissa and others that have a strong aroma. Excellent help rags soaked with kerosene, gasoline, grease. A sharp smell will force the rodent to leave their home. Such methods are actively used as an additional means of struggle.
The use of traps is the oldest method of getting rid of uninvited living creatures not only in the house, but also on the land plot. Currently, advanced traps are being produced that do an excellent job with the task. In relation to earth rats effective arc traps. Products are placed at a depth of 20 centimeters, it is not necessary to fall asleep on top of the ground.
For such a method, self-made traps or purchased in a store (electronic, to which current is conducted) will do. After falling into such a trap, the rodent dies on the spot. The method is quite effective, but not always. Rodents are considered to be intelligent animals: if one individual died in this way, others can bypass the trap.
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The main bait for an earth mouse is the presence of food, it is impossible to get rid of it. There are useful recommendations that reduce the risk of a rodent in the garden plot many times:
- Get a cat, a dog. Pets will not only please the eye, they will be able to scare away uninvited guests, even with their own specific smell,
- inspect your property regularly, if you find several individuals, immediately engage in their destruction,
- sometimes turn up loud music in the garden or hang tin cans on sticks. During a strong wind, they will create a buzz that will scare away many parasites,
- an important role is played by order in your own home. Immediately throw away unnecessary boards, old rubbish, gardening waste. All the hidden places can quickly fall in love with a variety of pests.
From the following video you can learn how to deal with rodents in the garden, in the garden and in the house:
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How is a water rat worse than a mole?
The water rat brings a lot of trouble to gardeners and gardeners, whose plots are near water. Her home is a mink, which she settles in the bumps on the shore, in the reeds, hollows of tree trunks lying near the water.
The invasion of these animals can be frightening, because during the summer they breed up to 4 times, and the young growth begins to bring young after 2 months after its birth.
When autumn approaches, these rodents move to land, closer to the crops of root crops and grain. Именно в это время они наносят максимальные потери, сооружая в земле норки с многочисленными ходами.
Если грызуны поселились в огороде, с ними придется начинать настоящую войну, так как избавиться от водяной крысы на участке можно лишь жесткими методами. О том, что они появились, можно догадаться по перекопанной земле.
Иногда владельцы участков думают, что землю роют кроты, но они не поедают овощные культуры, а водяные крысы опасны тем, что могут уничтожить весь урожай картофеля, моркови, свеклы. They don’t necessarily eat everything in place.
Moles and water rats get along well with each other, therefore both can settle on the plot. However, it is necessary to fight with rats, as they are responsible for crop losses.
Many folk methods are aimed at the expulsion of these rodents, but before you destroy the water rat, you must deliberately choose one of two options. First: rodents can be poisoned, but this method may not work. The second method is more humane and effective. It is based on the complete expulsion of rodents from the site.
Gardeners suffer from water rats no less than gardeners. They devour young shoots, flowers, literally devastating everything in their path. Many plants do not die because the animals eat them. The very reason for the death of flowers, shrubs and trees is the fact of digging minks with water rats. They plow the ground, the roots turn out, dry out and die.
If there are few of them on the site
You can catch a rodent with a trap. However, this method is suitable if a small amount of them started up. For them, an arc trap is used, which is used for fur-bearing animals. It is installed in the ground at a depth of about 20 cm from the surface.
Pits with traps from above do not cover and do not fall asleep with earth.
Harassing rat poison
The method is not very humane, but it works for sure. Rat poison must be decomposed near the burrows. However, before you destroy the water rat, it must be attracted to this poison, for this it is frayed with bait. It may be special additives, which offers a trading network.
You can also use the bread crust. This method can harm pets if they are not kept in aviaries. Etching minuses: water rats after death begin to decompose, and not all can be found and burned.
How to drive water rats from the site forever?
A humane way to get rid of these rodents offers a trading network. Ultrasonic repellers cause the animals to throw mink forever. Many summer residents believe that rats will get used to a certain range of sound and come back.
This can be avoided if you purchase a repeller, which automatically and regularly changes the range of sound, not allowing the animals to get used to them.
The advantages of this method: it expels all rodents from the site, and not just the water rats.
Folk ways of expelling these animals are forever based on their sensitivity to unpleasant smells. The most effective are the following:
- set fire to the rabbit skin (can be cut into several pieces) and clog the holes in the burrows with it,
- Dilute the furnace soot with water to a viscous consistency and pour the entrances to the holes.
How to prevent the return?
After getting rid of rodents, one can defend oneself from an invasion of new ones by erecting a fence on a deep, solid foundation. It should go into the ground at least 40 cm. It is important that the sections of the fence and their attachment to the supports do not have gaps into which the animals could crawl. It is better to build a capital fence of natural or artificial stone, the sections should be quite high.
How to deal with a water rat in the garden that is harmful
Rodent pests, which can be found in the garden, differ in diversity. Among them can be found as ordinary mice, and their larger relatives. For example, a water rat in the garden is not such a rare phenomenon in those places that border water. Learn how to deal with a pest, and which methods are more effective.
The water rat is a mammal of the hamster family. It looks like an ordinary rat, but differs from it in a more elongated body, covered with soft, smooth and silky hair. A water rat has a shorter muzzle than that of an ordinary rat, topped with short ears, and shorter legs, hiding in long fur.
The water rat differs from the muskrat by the fact that its tail is not flat, but round in cross section, thin and not completely naked, but covered with sparse hairs and ends with a kind of brush half a centimeter long. Also, the water rat can be distinguished by its smaller eyes and yellow-brown middle incisors.
Weigh rats from 120 to 330 g with a body length of 11 to 26 cm, while the tail accounts for half or even two-thirds of the length of the rat body. The coat consists of a clearly demarcated thin but thick undercoat and a coarse awn.
Coat color is uniform, dark brown with a slight red or almost black. It does not depend on the change of seasons. The fur of a water rat, thick and long, is good enough to be used for sewing outerwear and women’s hats.
Habitat and lifestyle
Water rats are so named because they live near water and know how to swim. You can meet them near large streams and rivers, ponds and lakes with poorly flowing or stagnant water and swamps. But these animals are not limited to the aquatic environment. They like to enter the territories adjacent to the water, including the fields, gardens and vegetable gardens.
Rats live in burrows dug under the ground, characterized by considerable length and complex branching system. Near the entrance to them you can see piles of soil thrown to the surface.
The offspring of the water rat is born warm in spring and summer. Pregnancy in females lasts only 20 days. During the season, each female brings from 4 to 6 litters, which can be from 6 to 14 babies. The rat pups leave their burrows as soon as their weight reaches half the mass of adults.
What a water rat feeds on is not hard to guess. These rather cute animals are omnivorous, their diet includes both aquatic plants and small fish, mollusks, crayfish, adult insects and their larvae. If there are vegetable gardens or gardens nearby, they are visited where they are damaged:
- young fruit plantations,
- berry bushes.
Young trees and shrubs attract rats with their bark and roots, which they are not averse to eat. In winter, they feed on what they have stocked in summer.
Water voles live in the northern part of Eurasia. The southern boundary of the habitat passes along the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, Asia Minor and Western Asia, and northern regions of Mongolia and China. In Russia, it lives in the nonchernozem zone, the Stavropol Territory, the Lower Volga region, and Siberia.
Water vole is considered a massive pest of agricultural land — pastures, hayfields, orchards and fields, as well as garden and dacha plots. Moreover, the most significant damage to rats is applied to cultivated plants in places located in the floodplains of rivers and adjacent to water bodies.
The damage done by rats is as follows:
- In the grain fields, they make holes in the ground, pull the ground to the surface, and fill it with ripening cereals, which makes harvesting difficult.
- Carrots, potatoes and beets are eaten in the vegetable fields. Do not touch the garlic and onions, legumes.
- In gardens and forestry bark bark in the trees, from which they dry up.
- In private owners in suburban areas spoil the harvest of vegetables and fruits.
- They also visit warehouses where finished vegetable products are stored.
But the harm caused by water rats to humans is not limited. They can infect humans with pathogens of hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, plague, tick-borne encephalitis, and leptospirosis. Therefore, the fight against these animals is carried out not only because of the agrarian cultures, but also for the sake of public health.
Methods of struggle
They try to fight water voles in various ways. Methods of dealing with them include the destruction of physical, chemical and biological methods.
Physical methods involve the destruction of water rats using:
- mechanical rat traps,
- glue traps
- electric barriers
- ultrasound emitters.
They destroy the rat and chemical means, for which they use rodenticides (for example, rat poison) and repellents. They fight rodents and biological methods — infect them with pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, release predators on them.
In the garden and suburban areas to get rid of water rats in the following ways:
- Lay the entrance to the mink pests with a rag soaked in acetone, kerosene, naphthalene alcohol solution, gasoline. To keep the pungent smell a little longer, place the cloth in the bags and make small holes in them.
- Set a piece of wool on fire and drop it near the hole. An unpleasant smell will make rodents run away.
- In the garden plant plants that repel water rats — garlic, beans, mint and onions.
- For the same purpose, scatter mint, chamomile, tansy and wormwood over the plot.
Sprinkle the roots with ashes. After contact with the skin of animals, it will cause irritation, and in the stomach — an eating disorder. In addition, it is a good feeding for the plants themselves.
- Scatter the baskets of the burdock around the grounds of the water rat garden so that they fall on the long hair of the rodents.
- Coat the tree trunks with a solution of lime and copper sulfate. Or put on them protective belts made of felt, plastic bottles, needles, etc.
- If possible, do not use bait with rat poison, as domestic cats, dogs and other animals can suffer from them.
All these measures are humane and are aimed at expelling pests from the site, not physically destroying them, and also to prevent their subsequent settlement.
In order not to care about how to bring water voles from your garden or garden, you need to prevent their occurrence there.
To do this, install a metal mesh fence on their perimeter on a deepened cement or brick foundation. This will create an obstacle in the path of rodents.
In order to prevent the emergence of water rats on farmlands, storage facilities and forest areas, a number of preventive measures are being carried out, the purpose of which is to eliminate the favorable conditions for feeding and reproduction of pests, as well as their destruction.
- Autumn deep plowing of fields, which destroys the holes of rats.
- Installation of various automatic devices that prevent the penetration of water rats in warehouses, granaries, cellars and communications in them.
- Maintain cleanliness in the territory of these objects.
- Cultivation of forest areas and their release from dead wood, weeds and fallen leaves.
- Preventive disinfection with the use of pesticides and mechanical traps for rats.
Such a set of measures allows you to control the number of pests and prevent them from spreading to new territories.
So that they do not damage the trees and beds, all measures should be taken to ensure that the pests do not penetrate the plot, and if they appear, drive them away. Only in this case, you can count on the fact that in the fall it will be possible to harvest the entire grown crop.
Ground rat in the garden
The earth rat (water vole) prefers to settle along the banks of rivers, lakes, irrigation canals, on irrigated lands. The rat is an excellent swimmer, and at the same time it is adapted to the underground life.
Like a mole, an earth rat digs underground tunnels. It feeds mainly on plant foods. Undermining the roots of plants, the earth rat ruins crops of barley, wheat and rice, perennial grasses. Vegetables and gourds suffer from its activity.
How to get rid
An earth rat in the garden breaks through an extensive system of moves at a depth of 60 cm. The rodent prefers cluttered areas where you can hide under a pile of peat, branches or manure.
Arc traps are set against the pest. To do this, the found hole is digged out a little, the device is installed and sprinkled with earth on top.
Earthen rats are caught by trapping cylinders. Such a trap is made of galvanized sheet. The diameter of the trap cylinder is 15 cm and its height is 50 cm.
- On the perimeter of the site to dig deep extended grooves.
- In the middle and along the edges of the grooves to dig into the sleazy cylinders so that the edges of the cylinders are located at the level of the bottom of the groove.
- Cylinders regularly inspect and remove the rats caught in them.
Inspection of traps and the destruction of animals can be replaced by a more humane way of struggle: install an ultrasonic repeller in the garden. Inaudible to the human ear, high-frequency sound is unbearable for the rodent.
With a highly contaminated area, rodents spread ready poisoned baits throughout the territory:
- Corn bait «Difa-Neo».
- Paraffin briquette «Difa». Briquette is used in conditions of high humidity.
- Ratron Giftweizen is a fast acting granular preparation.
- Put poisoned bait in holes. The bait can serve as a wheat grain impregnated with Ethylphenacin (30 g of the drug are taken for 1 kg of grain). In burrows of 10 g of bait put a spoon with a long handle.
- Ditch up to 10 cm deep grooves around tree trunks. Fill the grooves with peat crumb soaked in kerosene.
- Ignite a piece of rabbit skin and place it in a hole. Smoking against rats is effective.
We fight with water pest
This species of rat is the largest among voles. The standard habitat of water rats are the banks of rivers, lakes, ponds, however, it often lives in drier areas, for example, in your garden or vegetable garden. A water rat migrates here, most often during high water.
The water rat digs shallowly underground intricate passages, destroying the fertile soil layer, it throws out a part of the earth. The water rat comes to the surface, usually, along the edges of the site, as well as in the most cluttered sites, often in landfills.
If you had to meet with a water rat, you will certainly have a question: how to get rid of rodents? To begin with, getting rid of rodents by folk methods is not a matter of one day.
First of all, you need to put your site in order and throw away all unnecessary garbage from its territory in order to prevent the rodent from reaching the surface unnoticed. Trees should be tied up for the winter with branches of spruce or polyethylene bottles cut along.
Even to get rid of rodents, you can use special bait with poisoned food, most often use grated carrots, but you can also use poisoned grains, zucchini, oats, potatoes, and peas. The rats are most vulnerable to this method at the time of stockpiling for the winter.
When making poison baits, you should not forget that, despite their low toxicity for people and domestic animals, you should nevertheless take care of their use by rodents, and pour the bait into special feeders.
Let’s say no to rodents
Rodent control is an urgent problem for any gardener. No matter how much you poison them, you kill them with poison, you catch them with traps — and they don’t care! Disappear for a couple of months, but then return in the same quantity and with the same appetite.
Red vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). Body length 8-11 cm, tail length 4-6 cm, red fur. The vole’s nest is located in a hole under the surface of the earth or in a shelter on the ground. Red vole feeds on plants, seeds and invertebrates, damages the bark of young trees. Brings 3-5 cubs up to 3 times a year.
Field vole (Microtus agrestis). The length of the body is 10-12 cm, the length of the tail is 3-5 cm. The fur is brownish, longer and flatter than that of the common vole. Vole plow makes its tunnel tunnels in thick grass. It feeds mainly on plants, damages the bark of young trees.
Vole ordinary (Microtus arvalis). Body length 9-12 cm, tail length up to 4 cm, gray fur. He lives in colonies, digs a complex system of moves with a nest chamber and storerooms at a shallow depth.
It feeds on plants and grain. It multiplies rapidly: in the summer, every 3 weeks brings up to 13 cubs, which, while still feeding on mother’s milk, can already mate. Many voles destroy predatory animals and birds.
Water voleor water rat (Arvicola terrestris). The largest of the voles is: body length 12–20 cm, tail length 6–13 cm, fur color changeable (there are also black individuals). He lives in gardens, fields and meadows, near water (swims and dives well).
It feeds on green parts of plants, seeds and roots, roots of young trees. A wide network of water rat passages with a nest chamber and storerooms is located directly below the soil surface. The female 3-5 times a year brings up to 14 cubs.
Forest mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). The body length is 9-11 cm, tail length is 7-10 cm. It lives in forests, gardens, meadows and fields, digs a deep hole. The forest mouse moves irregularly, as does the yellow-necked mouse. It feeds on green parts of plants and their seeds, insects.
Field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Body length 8-12 cm, tail length 7-9 cm, characterized by a black stripe on the back. He lives in forests, gardens, in the fields, in the winter is found in barns. It feeds on plants and earthworms. The female gives birth to 6-7 cubs up to 4 times a year.
House mouse (Mus musculus). Body length 8-11 cm, tail length 8-9 cm, has a strong peculiar smell. He lives in large families. It is found in gardens and fields, in homes. Eats almost any food — both vegetable and animal. Builds a nest of various nibbled materials. In only three weeks, it breeds up to 8 cubs, gives a lot of litters per year.
Pasyuk swims and dives perfectly, digs a network of shallow holes in the ground. The gray rat is polyphagous, eats both plants and animals, the bearer of many dangerous diseases. Лишённая возможности бежать, она нападает даже на крупных животных и людей. Рождает 2-3 раза в год по 6-9 детёнышей.
Крыса чёрная (Rattus rattus). Длина тела 16-24 см, длина хвоста 19-24 см, хвост длиннее тела. Мех серовато-коричневый или чёрный. It perfectly climbs, lives in houses, in the nature in summer it builds nests in trees. It feeds mainly on plant food. Propagated less actively than Pasyuk.
TOEuropean mouth, or common mole (Talpa europaea). Body length 13-15 cm, tail length up to 3 cm. Black velvety fur, tiny eyes, a wonderful sense of smell. It lives in almost any soil, except dry, sandy and too damp.
It also feeds on earthworms. Plants do not gnaw, but dig in their roots, making their moves in the soil.
Physical method of struggle
Among the various physical methods of extermination of rodents, the most common is the use of traps and traps, which can be divided into two main types:
- live traps — traps
- kills — dies and traps
Traps and traps are used both indoors and in non-built areas. Catching rodents with arc traps is fundamentally different from catching traps with baits in that it is not based on attracting animals, but on using the stereotype of their movements in the most frequently visited places.
This method of extermination of rodents is safe for people and pets. To the positive sides, it is necessary to attribute the fact that the results of the use of fishing gear (that is, the effectiveness is detected (unlike chemical and bacteriological agents) immediately.
Due to its objectivity and clarity, it is used not only to kill rodents, but also when examining objects in order to establish the presence of rodents and their species.
The use of traps is not very suitable for the destruction of the population of rodents, but it is suitable for eliminating a small number of individuals who did not take the poisoned bait. The most effective capture of rodents can be carried out if they are tame for a long time to non-alert traps, updating the bait for 7-10 or more days, and then alerting them and in a short time to catch.
Among other physical means of destruction, noteworthy is the use of electrical devices — “electrosterers”. Apparently, for protection from rodents of objects where there are no people and animals, such electrical devices can be useful.
By the mechanical means of extermination should also include the use of sticky masses for catching rodents. You can recommend the use of EFM (environmentally friendly mousetrap). The mechanical means of rodent control is also filling their holes with water. This technique, in particular, is used to destroy gophers. In this case, the greatest success is achieved with boiling water injection.
Unfortunately, all methods of extermination of rodents known to date are inferior in their effectiveness not only to chemical, but also to biological methods of control, since they do not cause mass death of animals.
The undoubted advantage of the physical method of deratization is a high degree of selectivity with respect to a particular species, and it also does not lead to environmental pollution by pesticides. In general, the physical method is recommended to be combined with chemical and biological methods.
The use of ultrasonic rodent repeller is the most modern highly effective method of rodent control. For each species of rodents a device has been developed that works at a frequency determined for each animal. Devices do not harm people and pets.
The use of special tools (traps, tops, etc.). The method has a fairly low percentage of efficiency and a very high level of injury. Since the use of traps requires certain skills, in addition, rodents know about the tricks of people (this is the most ancient method) and carefully bypass the exhibited pressure.
They have a sufficiently thin surface so that when placing around the perimeter of the premises, they do not stand out too much from the floor surface, suspended ceiling, etc. But the glue used has so viscous and durable properties that, stepping on a trap, there is no chance for a rodent to break away or run away with it.
The essence of the chemical method of deratization is poisoning of rodents with poisonous substances — rodenticides (from the Latin. Rodentis — gnawing and caedo — I kill). These substances act upon admission to the intestines or lungs (fumigants).
The forms of application of deratization drugs are varied. These can be powders consisting of a single drug or a mixture of poison with various inert fillers (talc, starch, road dust, etc.), solutions and suspensions, fat-based pastes, waxed briquettes, biscuits, rusk-flour mixtures and other
By the nature of the origin of poisons are divided into plant and synthetic. The most widely used throughout the world are numerous preparations of synthetic origin, their main advantage is the possibility of obtaining large batches of a standard and stable drug, the relative availability and low cost of raw materials, a high effect when used.
All synthetic ropeptides unite in two large groups, each of which is characterized by the specificity of the action of its constituent drugs on the animal body: these are drugs of acute and chronic action (anticoagulants).
Poisons of acute action cause the death of rodents after a single bait. These include: sodium cremifluoride, barium carbonate, arsenic compounds, yellow phosphorus, zinc phosphide, thallium sulfate and other inorganic compounds, as well as organic plant poisons: strychnine, scillyroside (red sea onion preparation), sodium fluoroacetate (1080), organic synthetic poisons: rat, thiosemicarbazide, propomur, fluoroacetamide, barium fluoroacetate, monofluorin, glyfluoro, shoxin (norbomid), vacor (RH = 787), etc.
In order to overcome the secondary avoidance reaction of the poisoned bait, you should alternate the food base, attractants, as well as poisons. The best result of bait with poisons of acute action is given in cases where the rodents are first offered some time without food for the poison, and then the same food with poison. This technique is called pre-feeding.
Zinc phosphide (ZmPa) is the most widespread of the acute poisoning group, which, when it enters the stomach, reacts with hydrochloric acid and releases phosphorous hydrogen (PH3), which penetrates the blood, brain and acts on the respiratory center.
Poisons of chronic (cumulative) action are characterized by a long latent period, the slow development of the poisoning process with the regular introduction into the body of very small doses. These drugs accumulate (accumulate) in the animal’s body and gradually lead to significant biochemical and pathological changes and death.
The greatest proportion of poisons of chronic action are blood anticoagulants from the coumarin group: warfarin (zoocoumors), cumchlor, dicumarol, etc., and indadione: difenacin, phentolacin, etc. The discovery in 1942 of the coumarin compound, and later indadione, made a real revolution in deratization
When small amounts of these poisons are ingested by a rodent, the symptoms of poisoning practically do not manifest, however, with repeated consumption of anticoagulants, their toxicity significantly increases as a result of accumulation of poison in the body that causes disturbances in the blood coagulation system, which is accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability, hemorrhages in many internal organs and skin and subsequent death.
No less important feature of anticoagulants is the relatively slow development of the phenomena of poisoning, as a result of which conditioned-reflex connections are not formed in rodents, i.e. they do not associate painful sensations with eating the bait.
This is primarily due to the lack of alertness to these drugs. Symptoms of poisoning, judging by the behavior of animals, are not very painful and have little or no effect on their appetite.
At present, the following methods are widely used in deratization practice:
- Food poisoning bait — poison is mixed with food that is attractive enough for rodents.
- Liquid poison bait — the use of solutions or suspensions of poisons in water, milk and similar liquids.
- Dusting — the use of powdered poisons for pollination out of the holes, trails and paths of movement of rodents, nesting material, etc.
Gassing — delivery of poisons into a rodent room or hole in a gaseous state.
Among all these methods, the most versatile is the use of food poisoned baits.
Poisoned bait can be divided according to the moisture content of the food base to dry and moist, with the latter being eaten much better, but deteriorate more quickly. In all cases, only fresh, benign foods are best eaten.
The rodent consumption of the food base of poisoned baits largely depends on the composition and abundance of feed in their usual habitat conditions.
On objects with a homogeneous food supply, the most preferred is the food base, which compensates for the lack of individual components of their diet. In the meat processing plant and in the refrigerator, the animals are clearly deficient in carbohydrates. The use of flour bait with sugar would free these objects from them.
In the warehouses of grain, flour, cereals, rodents feed on high-calorie feed, containing most of the necessary components, but there is a lack of moisture, so the most effective are liquid baits — milk, water with sugar. As a rule, the additive to food-based attractants (5-10% sugar or 3% vegetable oil) significantly improves its palatability.
After determining the type of rodents and finding out their habitats, the bait is laid out in holes, draw boxes or openly. Poisoned baits are laid out in habitable, or so-called “residential burrows”, i.e. into those holes and crevices that rodents use. The lures are laid out as deeply as possible into the outlets from the holes and crevices, put them in paper bags or “funtikah”.
The layout of poison baits in bait boxes is as effective as the previous method. In addition, it is safe for others. Bait boxes should be clean, no odor, they should not be painted.
The bait is placed on the bottom of the box. The boxes are placed near the exit points of the rodents, along their paths, which most often pass along the walls, in quiet, secluded places. 2-3 days after the layout of the bait, the boxes are checked, and if it turns out that the rodents are eating the bait, then add the same bait.
In warehouses and production facilities where there are few people and no pets, you can openly lay out poisoned baits with zookumarin, randindan and other low-dangerous rodents for people and pets. It is better to place bait in paper bags or “fatties”. Such «fakti» left in the same places where put the baiting boxes.
Pastes are a sticky composition based on petrolatum, rodenticide, attractants (vegetable oil) and talc. The ratio of these components in the paste may be different. Used for the manufacture of poisonous coatings (destructive sites), poisoned baits, smearing the entrance holes of the holes of rodents.
Liquid poison bait. Rats absorb a large amount of moisture, and therefore water is used as bait, for example. In places where rodents do not find water, they put drinkers with water pollinated by rodenticides. Absorbing water pollinated by poison, rats swallow rodenticide.
Poisons used for pollination should not dissolve in water and be light (with low relative density). Water-soluble rodenticides do not use baits in their lives, since rodents distinguish poisonous solutions and usually do not drink them.
Pollinating This method is based on the fact that the animals, passing through pollinated places, stain fur, legs, and muzzle with poisonous powder. When rodents lick their outer covers, the poison enters the mouth and then is swallowed. When shaking off the poison can get into the lungs.
Unlike the bait method, when success is largely determined by how well fed, rodents and how lures attract them, pollination is a more effective way, as the poison enters the body of both hungry and well-fed rodents. Of rodenticides for pollination, zoocoumarin, randindan, zinc phosphide are most acceptable.
Pollination is subjected to exits from burrows, trails, garbage receptacles and other places where they find droppings, bites. However, with insufficient efficacy of dusting, this method leads to intensive contamination of surfaces, to the separation of poison by animals and to the possibility of ingress of poison on food products.
Much less environmental pollution is obtained when using artificial shelters — boxes with holes or tubes filled with nesting material, dusty with poison — straw, hay, cotton, paper. By themselves, artificial shelters do not always attract rodents, so it is advisable to put bait in them.
Gasation A variety of gases were tested for rodent control: sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, chloropicrin, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen phosphide, and ethylene oxide. All poisonous gases caused the complete death of animals, provided that the animals could not escape from the poisoned zone.
The time of their death at the same time ranged from several minutes to several hours. But these gases have the same high toxicity in relation to people and other animals, which requires very large costs and efforts to ensure safety during processing.
Before gassing the buildings, people are removed from them, the production is stopped and all the holes are carefully sealed. Gas treatment can not be carried out if there are nearby homes and businesses. The second disadvantage of aeration is the absence of residual action after the end of treatment.
At present, gasation is used only for the treatment of special objects: ships, airplanes, railcars, elevators, less frequently refrigerators. The undoubted advantage of this method is the ability of gases to simultaneously destroy almost all rodents in closed rooms and other containers with a complex internal architecture, where the use of other methods is impossible or inefficient.
Water voles: appearance and distribution
Water voles are sometimes called water rats or mice, but, strictly speaking, they have a very indirect relation to these rodents, despite the resemblance with them. These animals actually belong to the family of hamsters, although they do not resemble the familiar domestic hamsters. Water voles look about the same as ordinary voles, but they are much larger. An adult individual can reach 15–25 cm, with the tail making up most of its length.
Water voles prefer to live in wetlands
This animal has a thick, fluffy dark gray fur from the beginning of the short muzzle to the base of the tail, covered with wool and having a small tassel at the end.
You can meet voles almost all over Eurasia — up to Siberia and the North Caucasus. Most of all she likes the marshlands and the banks of water bodies, but fields, meadows and even vegetable gardens are also excellent for their life. These animals are very tenacious and prolific, so that nothing threatens their spread.
However, the latter hardly belongs to the number of good news — people connected with agriculture know firsthand the voles and do not in vain seek to destroy them. These rodents spoil the crops of grasses and gnaw trees, which cause considerable damage. Voles are not attacked by humans and will most likely try to hide when they meet. However, if you catch an animal with your bare hands, it can bite you. But such an experience is better to avoid: rodents spread leptospirosis, tularemia, Omsk hemorrhagic fever and other dangerous diseases.
Damage done by voles
If your summer cottage is located in a rural area, especially near rivers, lakes and marshes, get ready for the appearance of uninvited guests. Water voles, despite their name, live well in more dry areas, including farms, vegetable warehouses, granaries, homestead gardens and vegetable gardens.
On your site there will be small depressions (holes), if water voles are created there.
With the onset of cold weather, these rodents necessarily migrate from frozen water bodies. Your site is perfect for burrow holes, and your landings are for their nutrition. The pest will gladly eat your crop and ask for supplements. At the same time he gnaws and stems with roots in your flower garden. Moreover, fruit trees will also be in danger: teeth grow very quickly in voles, and in order to grind them in time, they have to constantly gnaw something hard. The bark seems to them the most appropriate dental material. Naturally, trees without bark, subsequently die. This is the fate that can grasp your apples and cherries.
Ways to combat water vole
Few of the villagers or gardeners are willing to share their crops with rodents. Поэтому люди стараются избавиться от них как можно скорее. Хорошо, если в вашем доме живет натренированный кот-мышелов или хорёк. Эти хищники способны переловить тех вредителей, что успели набежать на участок, а также заставить других обходить ваш сад стороной.
Но что делать, если питомец не интересуется охотой или у вас его вовсе нет?
Химия против полёвок
Один из самых популярных и доступных вариантов — использовать ядохимикаты против полёвок, а вместе с этими грызунами потравить и прочих. Typically, manufacturers produce universal rodenticides. It is very simple to apply them: it is enough to buy in the store and act strictly in accordance with the instructions. As a rule, to lay out such a rat poison is offered next to the holes of rodents. It is not difficult to find them: the places where the animals emerge to the surface look like heaps of earth, towering in the middle of grass or beds. The poison is usually mixed into the bait. Vole eats it, and then dies from poisoning.
There is another option for the use of chemicals. In the spring you can lay cotton wool or dry grass treated with poison near the burrows. Voles drag her to their homes to decorate the «interior», while the poisoned dust gets on the wool of the pests, after which they lick themselves.
Photo Gallery: Popular Rodenticides
There are two serious arguments against using rodenticides in the garden. Firstly, this method is unacceptable if you or your neighbors keep pets. Your pet can either get caught by a poisonous bait, or get poisoned by catching and eating a vole that tasted chemistry. Secondly, poisoning animals is still very cruel. Think, really you will not feel sorry for a small furry animal, writhing in terrible agony? However, if your answer is negative, then it is certainly worth a try.
Folk ways to get rid of the problem
Folk remedies against voles can be divided into two large groups according to the principle of action. The first is the poisoning of animals with household chemicals. The bait is made by the gardener with his own hands from such products as bread, vegetable puree, cheese. Then they are mixed with a toxic component, such as zinc phosphide or arsenic acid calcium and sodium. In the «pure» form, wood ash is most often used, in mixtures — flour with gypsum or sugar with quicklime. They also suggest mixing finely chopped wine cork with vegetable oil and bread crumbs. All this leads to poisoning or indigestion in the rodent, and then to its death.
The second group of folk remedies is aimed at scaring animals. And here you can use the following options:
The smell of chemistry. Many people advise to soak pieces of rags or cotton wool with strongly smelling household liquids and plug them with vole turns. Usually for impregnation use gasoline, kerosene, turpentine and Vishnevsky ointment. A strong smell discourages rodents.
Felt wool. It is believed that garden pests, including voles, do not tolerate this smell. Some gardeners burn the corpses of caught rodents and enclose the burnt remains in the burrows of those who are still alive. But it is enough just to singe the pieces of some unnecessary, old fur and put them on — the effect will be the same.
Fresh manure. Another option in the treasury of unpleasant odors. The tool is recommended to lay in the burrows of rodents, closing them all exits that can be found on the site.
Unpleasant sounds. In the region of the vole holes, 1.5–2 meter hollow reed stalks or ordinary glass bottles are dug deep into the ground. In windy weather, these improvised «pipes» begin to vibrate and make sounds that frighten the animals.
Bottles are driven into the ground with the neck upwards so that the wind can easily penetrate inside.
A great way to scare away water voles and to prevent the emergence of new ones is the correct seating of garden crops and the planting of special plants against rodents. To do this, different types of legumes (beans, beans, peas), sweet peppers, onions and garlic should be planted around the vegetable beds that you want to protect from pests.
Some vegetable crops are real enemies of water voles.
Under the trees, around the shrubs and in the flower garden it is worth planting fragrant herbs. Best of all, wormwood, mint, celandine, elderberry and black root will cope with the task of scaring off voles (it is even called a ratman by the people). Coriander, camomile, wild rosemary and lovage will suit as well.
Prevention of appearance
Now you know a lot of tools to combat vole, but it would be best if they do not appear at all in your garden, is not it? There are a number of specific preventive measures that should be taken for this:
- Harvest. It is worth carrying out it in due time and carefully: on beds there should not be any remains of vegetables and root crops, the spoiled fruits and tops. All this must either be thrown away or buried in the compost.
- Processing plants. In order not to suffer the trunks of garden trees, coat them with a solution of lime and copper sulfate. You can also build for them a protective «belt» of roofing material, plastic or prickly branches.
- Digging. In the fall, when you close the summer season, be sure to dig deep beds. This will help the earth to rest, and will destroy the rodent burrows, and will destroy some insect pests.
- Cleanliness and tidiness. Take care of your garden plot. Ensure that no weeds, fallen leaves, carrion and other organic wastes accumulate on the beds and under the trees. Put all this into compost, for which you must take a fenced plot somewhere in the far corner. In addition, the remains of grass and tops should not be stale in the intestines; the water should not be allowed to stagnate.
- Cats. Even if your cat is a lazy fat man who doesn’t care about mice, his smell can scare away voles. Let the pet run around the garden. If you do not have a cat, you can imitate his presence by scattering cat litter over the area. This remedy is impregnated with an elusive scent, which rodents will also perceive as an alarming signal.
Reviews on pest control methods
The first, as I see it, one of the most effective is to cut rabbit skin into pieces, set fire to it and plug rat holes with it. This will scare them off the plot.
Hedgehogs really help. Since bred behind a plot in the bushes there are no vole mice. True, they were not very many, but still traces of their activities in the garden were noticeable.
In our country, too, there were mice with black stripes before — these are voles, and pure gray ones are burglar houses)). And ultrasound does not help (proven by experience) — rodents never leave their offspring to the mercy of fate . Most reliably — special glue on plywood 50 * 50, smears around the circumference, in the middle — seeds.
Water voles continue to cause significant damage to agriculture each year. These are dangerous pests, if you meet them, you should take the fight seriously. But it would be better if you protect your plot in such a way that the voles do not even have the desire to climb there. As we see, it is quite capable of every gardener.
Clean area — preventing the appearance of rats
Water rats have excellent fur coat and the ability to swim. Usually they lodge on the shores of reservoirs, but in search of food they go deep into gardens and vegetable gardens, causing considerable damage to plantings. These rodents live in burrows, digging whole passages underground. They damage the root system of fruit trees, and in winter they gnaw their bark, eat roots, flowers, and other crops.
But just because these pests in the garden usually do not appear. If the site is neat and not cluttered up, the possibilities for safe living there in rats are much less. When the ground is overgrown with small bushes, and garbage heaps are everywhere, then all this serves as an ideal shelter for rat holes. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of your site — to take out garbage in a timely manner, not to store rotten grass, to clean the coastal line of water bodies from thickets, then it will not be too comfortable for these rodents to settle there.
Effective ways to combat rats
When water rats appear on the site, of course, I want to get rid of them quickly, before they cause much damage to the dachas. There are quite effective ways to combat these pests:
- traps and traps — with their help you can quickly get rid of rats, but this method will bring effect if the population of rodents is not too large yet. But it must be remembered that after the rat gets, it will need to be killed or carried somewhere far away from the site. Therefore, those people who can not do this, this method is unlikely to work,
- the use of poisons — laying out on a plot near the rat holes of poisoned baits brings a good result in the fight against rodents. For the manufacture of such baits use special purchased poisons that fill the vegetables loved by rats — carrots, beets, potatoes, pumpkins, zucchini and others,
- use of ultrasound — there are special devices for sale — rodent repellents. When working, they publish an ultrasound that causes discomfort to the rats, as a result of which they leave their habitat.
Attention! It is better not to use traps and poison in getting rid of rats in case your or neighboring pets freely roam the plot, which may become an accidental victim of rodent control. When there are small children in the country, it is also necessary to use such tools with caution.
Pets in the fight against rodents
If there is a cat-rat-cat in the house, the problem with rodents can be solved very quickly. One or two cats who love to hunt, in a short time will catch a part of the livestock of rats, and the rest just prefer to leave this area.
True, not all cats are able to take a rat. Dogs cope with this more often, especially those with well-developed hunting instincts. But, of course, it is not worthwhile to specifically start an animal in the house just because there were rats in the dacha. It is better to borrow from the neighbors of such a pet for a while.