Pediculosis (Discharge Care) — What You Need to Know

Pediculosis

Contents

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 3, 2020.

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:

Pediculosis is a lice infestation of the hairy areas on the body. Lice are tiny bugs that bite into the skin and suck blood to live and grow. The most common areas of infestation are the scalp or genitals. Eyebrows, eyelashes, chest hair, or underarm hair may also be infested.

DISCHARGE INSTRUCTIONS:

Self-care:

  • Comb your hair to remove all nits. Lice medicine may not kill or remove all the nits. Use your fingernails or a fine-toothed comb to remove dead or dying lice and nits that are stuck to your hair. Nit combs come in some lice treatment packages. To make it easier to comb out nits, soak your hair with a solution of ½ white vinegar and ½ water. Cover your hair with a bathing cap or towel for 30 minutes. Then remove the cap or towel and comb from the scalp outward. You may also use a gel that loosens nits. This may be bought over-the-counter.
  • Clean clothes and bedding. Clean all items that you have used since 2 days before you learned you had lice. Wash items like sheets, clothes, and towels using the hot water cycle. Dry on the hot cycle for at least 20 minutes. Dry clean items that cannot be washed in a washing machine. You can also hang these items outside for 2 days. Or, you can put them into a closed plastic bag for 2 weeks if you have head lice. Keep items in a closed plastic bag for 4 weeks if you have body lice or pubic lice.
  • Disinfect all hair items. Soak combs, brushes, and all hair items in rubbing alcohol, an antiseptic, or anti-lice shampoo for at least 1 hour. You may also put them in boiling water for at least 10 minutes.
  • Vacuum carpets, rugs, car seats, and furniture.
  • Tell anyone who has been close to you to be checked for lice. This includes friends, classmates, family, or sex partners.
  • Do not share personal items , such as combs and brushes, clothes, and hats.

Medicines:

  • Medical shampoos, creams, or lotions will kill the lice. They may be prescription or over-the-counter. Ask your healthcare provider for help choosing the right lice medicine. Do not use lice medicine on children younger than 2 years old. Instead, use regular shampoo and pick the nits or lice off the scalp and hair. Never use gasoline, kerosene, or other oil products to treat lice.
  • Take your medicine as directed. Contact your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him or her if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.

Return to work or school:

You can return to work or school after you complete treatment, even if you still have nits. If your child has lice, tell his school or daycare center.

Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:

Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

Contact your healthcare provider if:

  • The lice bites become crusty or fill with pus.
  • You have matted, foul-smelling scalp and hair.
  • You see live lice or new nits more than 2 days after you use lice medicine.
  • You have trouble sleeping due to itching
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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Ectoparasitic Infections

Pediculosis Pubis

Persons who have pediculosis pubis (i.e., pubic lice) usually seek medical attention because of pruritus or because they notice lice or nits on their pubic hair. Pediculosis pubis is usually transmitted by sexual contact (849).

Treatment

Recommended Regimens
  • Permethrin 1% cream rinse applied to affected areas and washed off after 10 minutes
    OR
  • Pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide applied to the affected area and washed off after 10 minutes
Alternative Regimens
  • Malathion 0.5% lotion applied to affected areas and washed off after 8–12 hours
    OR
  • Ivermectin 250 ug/kg orally, repeated in 2 weeks

Reported resistance to pediculcides (permethrin and pyrethrins) has been increasing and is widespread (850,851). Malathion can be used when treatment failure is believed to have occurred as a result of resistance. The odor and long duration of application associated with malathion therapy make it a less attractive alternative compared with the recommended pediculcides. Ivermectin has limited ovicidal activity (852). Ivermectin might not prevent recurrences from eggs at the time of treatment, and therefore treatment should be repeated in 14 days (853,854). Ivermectin should be taken with food because bioavailability is increased, in turn increasing penetration of the drug into the epidermis. Adjustment of ivermectin dosage is not required for persons with renal impairment, but the safety of multiple doses in persons with severe liver disease is not known.

Lindane is recommended as an alternative therapy because it can cause toxicity, as indicated by seizure and aplastic anemia (855); it should only be used when other therapies cannot be tolerated or have failed. Lindane toxicity has not been reported when treatment was limited to the recommended 4-minute period. Lindane should not be used immediately after a bath or shower, and it should not be used by persons who have extensive dermatitis, women who are breastfeeding, or children aged Top of Page

Scabies

The predominant symptom of scabies is pruritus. Sensitization to Sarcoptes scabiei occurs before pruritus begins. The first time a person is infested with S. scabiei, sensitization takes up to several weeks to develop. However, pruritus might occur within 24 hours after a subsequent reinfestation. Scabies in adults frequently is sexually acquired, although scabies in children usually is not (856,857).

Treatment

Recommended Regimens
  • Permethrin 5% cream applied to all areas of the body from the neck down and washed off after 8–14 hours*
    OR
  • Ivermectin 200ug/kg orally, repeated in 2 weeks †

*Infants and young children should be treated with permethrin.

Alternative Regimens
  • Lindane (1%) 1 oz of lotion or 30 g of cream applied in a thin layer to all areas of the body from the neck down and thoroughly washed off after 8 hours

† Infants and young children aged 2 weeks can be attributed to several factors. Treatment failure can occur as a result of resistance to medication or faulty application of topical scabicides. These medications do not easily penetrate into thick, scaly skin of persons with crusted scabies, perpetuating the harboring of mites in these difficult-to-penetrate layers. In the absence of appropriate contact treatment and decontamination of bedding and clothing, persisting symptoms can be attributed to reinfection by family members or fomites. Finally, other household mites can cause symptoms to persist as a result of cross reactivity between antigens. Even when treatment is successful, reinfection is avoided, and cross reactivity does not occur, symptoms can persist or worsen as a result of allergic dermatitis.

Retreatment 2 weeks after the initial treatment regimen can be considered for those persons who are still symptomatic or when live mites are observed. Use of an alternative regimen is recommended for those persons who do not respond initially to the recommended treatment.

Management of Sex Partners and Household Contacts

Persons who have had sexual, close personal, or household contact with the patient within the month preceding scabies infestation should be examined. Those found to be infested should be provided treatment.

Management of Outbreaks in Communities, Nursing Homes, and Other Institutional Settings

Scabies epidemics frequently occur in nursing homes, hospitals, residential facilities, and other communities (865). Control of an epidemic can only be achieved by treating the entire population at risk. Ivermectin can be considered in these settings, especially if treatment with topical scabicides fails. Epidemics should be managed in consultation with a specialist.

Special Considerations

Infants, Young Children, and Pregnant or Lactating Women

Infants and young children should be treated with permethrin; the safety of ivermectin in children who weigh Top of Page

www.cdc.gov

Pediatric Pediculosis (Lice)

Background

Lice are ectoparasites who live off of human hosts. Lice feed on human blood after piercing the skin and injecting saliva. The injected saliva often causes pruritus. Lice can survive away from a human host for short periods of time. However, lice die of starvation within 10 days of removal from their human host. A mature female lays 3-6 eggs, also called nits, per day. Nits are white and less than 1 mm long. Nits hatch in 8-10 days, reach maturity in 12-15 days, and live as adults for about 10 days.

Different species of lice prefer to feed on certain locations on the body of the host. Types of lice include Pediculosis capitis (head lice), Pediculosis corporis (body lice), and Pediculosis pubis (pubic lice, sometimes called crabs). See images below.

The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has an elongated body and narrow anterior mouthparts. Body lice look similar but lay their eggs (nits) on c.

The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, is identified by its wide crablike body.

Epidemiology

Mortality/Morbidity

Body lice can be vectors for disease such as epidemic typhus and relapsing fever. Violation of the integrity of the skin from a bite can lead to bacterial infection, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). More commonly, infestation with lice produces social embarrassment and isolation rather than medical disease.

People of all races are affected. Reported incidence in African Americans is relatively less than in other American races.

Males and females are equally at risk for infestation.

People of all age groups are affected. Head lice infestation is common among young school children in the United States. One study estimates that 12-24 million days of school are lost because of «no-nit» school policies. [1]

History

Patients may present after discovering lice or nits indicative of infestation.

Children may be brought to their pediatrician when concerned parents learn about a case of lice at the child’s school or daycare center.

Pruritus is the most common symptom of infestation.

Affected children are often asymptomatic.

Physical

Pruritus may lead to secondary excoriations that predispose to secondary skin infection and regional lymph node enlargement. However, these are nonspecific findings.

Pediculosis capitis: Although head lice are found on any part of the scalp, they are most commonly found in the postauricular and occipital areas. Eggs depend on body warmth to incubate; a sticky substance attaches nits to the hair shafts within 3-4 mm of the scalp. Because hair grows approximately 10 mm per month, the distance of nits from the scalp can be used to estimate the duration of infestation. Wet combing is an accurate method to diagnose active lice infestation. [2]

Pediculosis corporis: Bites from body lice can be found in any area of the body. Because nits are laid in the host’s clothing (especially along inner seams of clothing), nits are not found on the hair as with head lice and pubic lice.

Pediculosis pubis: Pubic lice can be found in hairy areas throughout the body, but they prefer the perineum and pubic areas. Occasionally, the infestation may be present in the eyebrows and eyelashes.

Causes

Pediculosis is usually caused by direct contact with an infested person.

Fomites such as clothing, headgear, combs, and hairbrushes may play a role in the spread of head lice.

  • Differential Diagnoses
  • Anxiety Disorder: Generalized Anxiety
  • Child Abuse & Neglect: Sexual Abuse
  • Impetigo
  • Scabies

Other Tests

The diagnosis of pediculosis (lice) rests on the observation of nits, nymphs, or mature lice. Wetting the hair and using a fine-toothed comb can aid in observation.

Observing lice is difficult. Nymphs and mature lice, despite being unable to hop or jump, can move rapidly through dry hair.

Mature lice are 3-4 mm long, approximately the size of a sesame seed. Nits are much smaller, about 1 mm. The pubic louse is about the same length, but has a wider body than the head or body louse.

The use of a magnifying glass and the knowledge of where to look aid the diagnosis.

Nits are fluorescent under a Wood lamp.

Medical Care

Therapy in patients with pediculosis (lice) consists of 2 parts: medications and environmental control measures.

Medical treatment should include contacts of infested patients, especially sexual partners.

Medications are less essential than environmental measures in the treatment of body lice. Many infectious disease authorities recommend only environmental measures to treat body lice. Patients with body lice should have infested clothing removed and treated. If medical therapy is prescribed as an adjunct to environmental measures, one of the therapies below may be selected.

Recently, resistance of lice to the most commonly used medications for treatment of infestation (permethrin and pyrethrin) is increasing. This resistance has been reported in the United States as well as countries in South America and Europe. Studies have noted both genetic mutations and an increase in monooxygenase enzyme activity as causing increased resistance. [3, 4, 5, 6] Studies have showed that lice are more susceptible to malathion and treatment is more reliable. [7] Malathion has proved to be more ovicidal than permethrin and has a higher lethal effect and decreased amount of reinfestation, if used properly. However, resistance to malathion is now starting to be reported in Great Britain. Using medications as directed is extremely important.

Benzyl alcohol lotion needs to be applied twice but may be an easier and safer alternative to lindane and malathion. With all treatments used to eliminate live lice, careful combing and removal of all nits from the hair, as well as cleaning of other articles (ie, hair accessories, towels, bedding, clothing), are essential steps to prevent reinfestation. The safety and effectiveness of benzyl alcohol lotion 5% was demonstrated in 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies of 628 people aged 6 months and older with active head lice infestation. Individuals received two 10-minute treatments of either benzyl alcohol lotion or topical placebo one week apart. When observed 2 weeks following the final treatment, more than 75% of those treated with benzyl alcohol lotion were lice-free compared with the placebo vehicle (4.8-26.2%). [8]

Other treatment options include the following:

Proper treatment with medication is advised.

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children and adults with pediculosis have been established. [9]

Medication Summary

Proper treatment with medication is advised.

Permethrin (Elimite, Nix)

Clinical Context:В DOC recommended by most authorities. Very effective in killing adult lice and nymphs, but not as effective in killing nits (eggs). Neurotoxin that causes paralysis and death in ectoparasites. Available as 5% cream prescription strength (Elimite) and a 1% OTC cream rinse (Nix). Recently, resistance to treatments has been observed. Strict adherence to the treatment regimen is essential.

Pyrethrins (A200 Pyrinate, Rid Mousse, RID Shampoo, End Lice)

Clinical Context:В Used as an alternative to permethrin. More likely to require repeated applications.

Lindane

Clinical Context:В Treatment has been associated with seizures; therefore, it is usually recommended as second-line treatment for patients who do not respond to permethrin or pyrethrin. Neurotoxin that causes seizures and death in parasitic arthropods.

Mercuric oxide ophthalmic ointment 1%

Clinical Context:В Use for louse infestation of eyelashes.

Malathion (Ovide Lotion)

Clinical Context:В Approved by FDA in 1999 for the treatment of head lice. Irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor hydrolyzed (and therefore detoxified) rapidly by mammals but not by insects. This drug is both oviducal and pediculicidal. Also binds to hair and may provide some residual protection after therapy.

Benzyl alcohol (Ulesfia)

Clinical Context:В Benzyl alcohol inhibits lice from closing their respiratory spiracles, allowing the lotion to obstruct the spiracles, which ultimately results in asphyxiation. Does not elicit ovicidal activity. Contains 5% benzyl alcohol.

Spinosad (Natroba)

Clinical Context:В Causes neuronal excitation in insects, followed by hyperexcitation, paralysis, and death. Pediculicide indicated for topical treatment of head lice infestations. Available as 0.9% suspension.

Class Summary

Parasite biochemical pathways are different from the human host; thus, toxicity is directed to the parasite, egg, or larva. Mechanism of action varies within the drug class. Antiparasitic actions may include the following:

Further Outpatient Care

Treatment of the environment (control measures) in pediculosis (lice) include the following:

Deterrence/Prevention

To prevent reinfestation, contacts of an infested patient should be treated and re-treated at the same time as the patient.

Prognosis

Treatments are highly effective in killing nymphs and mature lice but are less effective in killing eggs. After proper initial treatment, children may return to school if repeat therapy is administered in 7-10 days.

Author

Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH, Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mercy St Vincent Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Neil W Yoder, DO, Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, St Vincent Mercy Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editors

Kevin P Connelly, DO, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Emergency Care, Virginia Commonwealth University; Medical Director, Paws for Health Pet Visitation Program of the Richmond SPCA; Pediatric Emergency Physician, Emergency Consultants Inc, Chippenham Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD, Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH, Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Merrily P M Poth, MD, Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD, Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Ochsner Children’s Health Center; Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine

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Pediculosis: the best treatments for lice and nits

Due to the fact that medicine does not stand still, such a nuisance as lice can be cured in just a few days. Often used for this shampoo, lotion, ointment. However, they have a common contraindication — the presence of scratching on the head. In this case, pills for pediculosis, which are intended for internal use, come to the rescue.

General information

Lice feed on the blood of people. It turns out that they can be saturated with poisonous substances for them through the blood stream. This is the work of pills, they make human blood unattractive for lice.

And in order for the repellent parasites components to enter the circulatory system, it is necessary to use a specially targeted remedy.

Such drugs harm only the blood-sucking. For humans, they are completely safe, subject to dosage and proper administration. They are quite effective under the condition of a large number of parasites or quarantine measures.

Receiving the following medications successfully fights such troubles as pediculosis:

Therapy with the listed drugs is performed at a dosage of 200-400 mg 3 times a day for the first day. The next day, the dose is reduced by half. Moreover, children are assigned a lower dose, as the children’s body is distinguished by its sensitivity. These drugs are distinguished by their effectiveness. But, in order for them to have the necessary effect, it needs to be repeated, a week later.

In addition to these funds, there is a drug Trimethoprim. However, his reception is not shown by doctors because of his weakness.

We recommend to get acquainted with effective shampoo for lice and nits on our website.

Important! Tablets for pediculosis should be taken according to the instructions or the appointment of a specialist, who must control the treatment. Since these funds have a lot of side effects.

Butadion Use

Butadion belongs to the group of anti-inflammatory drugs. To combat pediculosis, it is taken orally in tablet form. In addition, the drug has an antipyretic, analgesic effect.

This medication has a feature of removing urats, the products of the half-life of parasites. In the Russian market is not available analogues Butadion. It is absorbed through the digestive tract, metabolized by the liver. Most of it is excreted through the urinary system, the smaller — through the intestines.

How to apply

Butadion is applied inside with a small amount of water, after a meal. It is usually appointed when an outbreak of pediculosis begins in a team or when it is not possible to use outdoor insecticides for therapeutic purposes.

The drug has a fairly serious anti-pediculosis systemic effect. It contributes to the destruction of head lice and body type lice, killing them after a single use. The following appointment of Butadion is usually used:

  1. In the outbreaks of a pediculosis outbreak, the drug is taken at 0.15 g. Four times a day for 2 days. The blood maintains its toxic effects even within a week. If necessary, the therapeutic course can be repeated after 2 weeks, subject to the supervision of a physician.
  2. Treatment of pediculosis in children younger than 4 years old Butadion is contraindicated.
  3. For children up to 7 years of age, the drug is prescribed with a dosage of 0.05 g three times for 2 days.
  4. Children up to 10 years of age are given Butadion by 0.08 g three times within 2 days.
  5. For children who have reached 10 years old, the medicine is given at 0.12 g 3 times a day for 2 days.

Repeated administration of Butadion is indicated because this drug does not adversely affect the larvae. After the time has elapsed, they hatch and, if not re-administered, lice infection may occur again.

Along with taking the drug, it is recommended to comb the nits with a special comb.that can be treated with insecticides.

Moreover, combing the larvae of lice is best done on wet hair, not treated with conditioners and masks. As the last means envelop nits, thereby worsening the process of combing.

Additional measures

Treatment of lice Butadion must be combined with hygienic measures. To prevent re-infection, it is necessary to treat insecticides with hairpins, hairbrushes, bows, collars, hats, scarves, glasses, washcloths. Since they may remain unnoticed nits that can live without a human body for a week.

If insecticidal treatment is not possible, then the item must be ironed, boiled or placed in quarantine conditions. To do this, the item should be tightly packed in a plastic bag for 2 weeks. During this time, the hatched larvae will die. Bed linen should be changed as often as possible. Boil, wash with powder at maximum temperature, iron.

Blankets, pillows to freeze in the cold or fry in the sun for 2 days. At what temperature lice and nits die, you will find on our website.

Attention! During elimination of lice with the help of Butadion, it is prohibited to use rinses, hair conditioners.

Contraindications

Butadion has a large number of contraindications.which are characteristic of drugs belonging to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory group. This is the presence of:

  • gastrointestinal erosions and ulcers,
  • intestinal, gastric bleeding,
  • combination of nasal polyposis, aspirin intolerance, bronchial asthma,
  • pulmonary insufficiency
  • heart failure
  • cardiopulmonary failure, which is in the decompensation stage,
  • exacerbations of liver and kidney diseases,
  • liver failure
  • renal failure
  • postoperative arterial bypass surgery,
  • hyperkalemia,
  • third trimester of pregnancy
  • children under 4 years.

In these conditions, it is completely contraindicated to carry out the elimination of lice with Butadion. And yet, there are situations where, in case of urgent need, the drug can be taken while being careful. Relative contraindications are:

  • elevated blood bilirubin,
  • diabetes,
  • bleeding disorder,
  • heart ischemia
  • connective tissue pathology,
  • chronic alcoholism,
  • stomatitis,
  • peripheral vascular disease.

Relative contraindications for the treatment of pediculosis Butadion is a long-term therapy with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, hormonal drugs.

A cautious approach is required during a period of exacerbation of chronic diseases. In this case, the treatment is carried out under the strict supervision of a physician with the minimum dosage of butadion. In the presence of exacerbations required mandatory cancellation of the drug.

Side effects

With the incorrect use of Butadion, side effects may develop, manifested in the form of violations of various systems and organs. The digestive tract can react with the appearance of:

  • nausea
  • heartburn
  • vomiting
  • impaired stools that may manifest constipation, diarrhea.

A large dosage of butadion can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, stomatitis, and impaired liver function.Reactions of the cardiovascular system are manifested by increased blood pressure, tachycardia, nervous system:

  • dizziness
  • depressed
  • sleepiness
  • overexcitement
  • headache.

The hematopoietic system reacts to the increased use of Butadion:

  • anemia,
  • leukopenia,
  • thrombocytopenia,
  • agranulocytosis.

The sense organs cause a decrease in the acuity of hearing, the occurrence of tinnitus. An overdose develops an allergic reaction in the form of:

Attention! If you increase the recommended dose, then the overall reaction of the body may manifest increased sweating. In order to avoid undesirable effects from taking pills against lice, they should be taken after consulting a doctor and in their prescribed dosage.

Drug cost

Butadion tablets are an affordable means for the general population. Their price for a package containing 20 tablets in online stores varies within 144 p. The average cost of the drug in pharmacies in Russia is 160–180 p.

For the treatment of pediculosis, the whole family will need to purchase one package of the drug. It is quite economical, especially since it does not require the simultaneous use of shampoos, ointments, creams, lotions and other anti-pediculosis drugs.

Advantages and disadvantages

Oral medications that are used for the extermination of lice have several advantages, which include:

  • long preservation of the result
  • no negative effects on the skin, since there is no direct contact with the epithelium,
  • profitability, since it does not require the simultaneous use of external funds from lice,
  • in order to get rid of parasites, it will be enough to take two tablets of the chosen drug,
  • the ability to fight under the condition of an epidemic of pediculosis
  • the feasibility of treating large numbers of lice and nits,
  • possibility of admission in the case when drugs for external use are contraindicated. Most often this occurs in the presence of wounds, inflammatory foci.

The disadvantages of using Butadion and other lice pills include:

  • the impossibility of treatment for persons suffering from renal, hepatic, heart failure,
  • a large number of contraindications
  • in case of overdose, side effects are possible,
  • inability to use in children under 4 years old,
  • inability to treat pregnant women.

Turns out that This form of chemical agents is used when it is not possible to use external agents. Despite a number of positive aspects, these drugs should not be used without a doctor’s prescription. This is especially true for children.

See also:  How to Properly Comb for Head Lice and Nits so They Don - t Come Back

There are many tools to get rid of head lice. Prescription pills for these purposes should be carried out by a doctor who will help you choose the appropriate dosage.

Learn more about pediculosis thanks to the following articles:

Useful videos

Lice and scab — School Doctor Komarovsky.

Head lice. How to get rid of uninvited guests?

Modern pediculicides

Lice and their nits have excellent adaptability to changing conditions, multiply rapidly and grow rapidly. Therefore, the destruction of parasites is associated with certain difficulties. But modern chemistry successfully copes with the existing task, and pharmacies offer a wide range of drugs that help in the infection.

The active ingredients of the means to get rid of lice and nits can be different. The most common are:

• benzyl benzoate,
• boric ointment,
• butoxide,
• permethrin,
• Malathion,
• Phenotrin,
• clearol oil,
• Chemica tincture,
• Ylang-ylang and lavender oils.

You can also find combination drugs that include several active ingredients or have a neurotoxic effect. For example, permethrin with malatiol and piperonyl butoxide.Or pyrethrin reinforced with vinegar.

Classification pediculicides drugs

Pediculosis, depending on the type of insect that caused it, is divided into head, pubic and dressing. This point should be taken into account when selecting a remedy for lice control: not all drugs are equally effective for different insects.
In addition, you need to decide in what form the drug will suit you best.

Protivopedikuleznye products are produced in such forms:
• Aerosols and sprays.
• Shampoo.
• Ointments, creams, gels.
• Lotions.
• Tablets.

Each option has both advantages and disadvantages. Before using any of them, it is imperative to do a test for allergic manifestations: apply a little of the selected composition to the skin and wait 2 to 3 hours, keeping track of the epidermis and overall health.

Healing Shampoos

Pediculosis remedies in shampoos are convenient to use. It must be remembered that they are produced for different purposes — preventive and therapeutic, this point needs to be clarified when buying. Usage includes the following steps.

• Combing hair.
• Applying shampoo and distribution over the entire length of hair.
• Covering with plastic wrap for the time recommended by the instructions. Polyethylene creates an additional barrier, and disposal is faster.
• Flushing away.
• Rinsing the hair with a weak solution of vinegar.
• Combing parasites and their nits (eggs) with a frequent comb.

Without the last procedure, insect shampoo will be ineffective. Nits will remain on the hair, and a week later relapse of pediculosis will begin.

After the procedure it is recommended to wash the thick hair with ordinary shampoo, for example, Botanicals.

The following list will help determine the choice of this type of tool.

• “Nok”. The active component is permetin, the product is suitable for children from 2 years. Aging time is 30-40 minutes. A well ventilated room is required.

• «Pedilin.» Malathion is the basis. It is cheap, high efficiency, applied for 10 minutes. It has a clear, not very pleasant smell. Allowed for use from 2 years. For the final destruction of parasites require 2-3 treatments.

• Hygia. Works with any pediculosis. It is made on the basis of permethrin. The procedure time is 20 minutes. Not recommended for children under 5 years. Re-processing is allowed no earlier than a week later.

• «Paranit». Country of origin is Belgium. A holding time of 10 minutes is allowed for the treatment of children older than 3 years; in half of the cases, complete removal of lice and nits occurs from the first application.

• “Veda 2”. Age limit — 5 years. Shampoo is effective against head parasites and their nits. Processing takes 10 minutes, the drug has a softening effect on the epidermis. In the case of high contamination re-use is carried out after 10 days.

• «Knicks». Made in Germany, the price is high. It is suitable for the treatment of lice in babies from 6 months.

nyx lice cream

• «Nit Free». Made from natural ingredients, able to get rid of lice in one procedure, allowed for use by pregnant women and for the treatment of babies by the year.

Pharmaceuticals offers other shampoos for parasitic insects and their eggs — nits (for example, Sumitrin or Headring). When purchasing any drug, it is strongly recommended that you carefully study the instructions, especially the section on restrictions on use.

Sprays and aerosols

They are no less popular than the previous ones. Their use is even simpler: the product is sprayed, after a certain period of time it is washed off, combing is carried out. Prohibited for use by people with a diagnosis of «bronchial asthma.»

Such sprays are recognized as effective.

• “Couple Plus”, France. Effective from all types of insects. Processing time 10 minutes, allowed to use from 2.5 years.

• “Avalanche”.Economical: a bottle is enough to treat a family of 4 people. Additional properties: moisturizing the skin, accelerating the healing of scratches, facilitate the selection of nits. Age limit 2 years. Aging time is 30 minutes.

• Pediculen Ultra. Effective against all varieties of lice and nits. Processing takes half an hour. Contraindications: pregnancy, lactation, age up to 5 years.

• «Paranit». A holding time of 15 minutes, allowed for use from 3 years. In the opinion of consumers, it is effective, but it has a significant drawback — excessive fat content, which is why there are difficulties with flushing.

Lotions, emulsions and solutions

This category includes all formulations that do not foam or spray. Users have approved the following tools.

• “Paranit Sensitiv”. It can be used during pregnancy and lactation, as well as suitable for the treatment of insects in children older than a year. They cover their hair to a state of complete moisture, and after rubbing it into the skin for 8 hours. Hair covering is not required. After application does not remain stains, it is easily washed off, facilitates disposal of insects. The only negative is the high price.

• Medilis Bio. The advantages are short processing time (10 min.) And effectiveness at any stage of development. In the disadvantages — the need for rinsing with a solution of vinegar.

• «Full Marx.» Smell is present, but not unpleasant or obtrusive. The procedure lasts 10 minutes, the composition may leave traces on the clothes. One bottle is enough for 3 treatments.

• Medifox. Universal against all kinds. Needs dilution with water according to the instructions. Soak on the hair for 20 minutes.

• “Handicap plus.” It belongs to the budget category of funds, kills insects in 10 minutes. Along with the destruction of lice helps eliminate dandruff. Also in this regard is good «Foksilon» or «Lindane.» Another concentrated formulation with efficacy is Avicin.

• “Dimethicone” is used to mitigate and reduce itching from bites.

External remedies for lice infestation are not used if the infected patient has dermatological diseases or injuries of the skin. They may also be banned in case of pronounced allergic reactions or certain pulmonary pathologies. In this case, you have to resort to treatment with pills. Such therapy may also be needed in situations where other treatment regimens have not yielded the expected results. The final extermination of lice is usually observed 15 days after the start of the use of the drug.

Tablets for lice and nits have a number of contraindications.

• Pregnancy of any period.
• Lactation.
• Pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, especially during exacerbations.
• Some diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
• A number of pathologies of the excretory system.

The treatment of pediculosis with the medication method is carried out exclusively on prescription of the doctor and always under his supervision.

«Butadion» tablets

«Butadion» is listed by doctors as a group of anti-inflammatory drugs. To combat lice «Butadion» taken orally. In addition, «Butadion» also has an analgesic and antipyretic effect.

It removes urates, half-life products of lice. «Butadion» is absorbed in the digestive tract, and the liver metabolizes it. Most of it is excreted by the urinary system, the rest by the intestine.

«Butadion» take with water, after a meal. As a rule, «Butadion» is prescribed in the event that an outbreak of the disease has occurred in the team as well as in the event of the impossibility of using any external insecticide.

«Butadion» has a systemic anti-pediculosis effect. Contributes to the extermination of head and body lice, destroying them after the first use. If necessary, the therapeutic course of «Butadion» is repeated after two weeks (under the supervision of the attending doctor).With caution and in small doses, prescribe «Butadion» for children (older than 4 years).

Repeated reception of «Butadion» is made for the reason that it does not kill the larvae of lice. They hatch, and infection can again be.

Together with taking the tablets «Butadion» you need to comb out the nits with a comb, which is treated with insecticides. During the use of «Butadion» it is prohibited to use ordinary rinses, conditioners.

Butadion also has contraindications. You can not use «Butadion» for people with erosion and gastrointestinal ulcer, with intestinal and gastric bleeding, bronchial asthma. It is not recommended to use «Butadion» in case of intolerance to aspirin, in case of pulmonary and heart failure, exacerbation of renal and hepatic ailments, hyperkalimia.

Relative contraindications of the use of “Butadion” are diabetes mellitus, elevated bilirubin in the blood, poor blood clotting, cardiac ischemia, chronic alcoholism, stomatitis. «Butadion» is contraindicated in case of long-term use of other anti-inflammatory substances, antidepressants, hormonal medicines.

Cautious reception «Butadion» is made during periods of exacerbations of chronic ailments. In any case, the use of «Butadion» is made under the supervision of a dermatologist (or pediatrician — in children’s cases). With exacerbations requires the abolition of the reception «butadion».

All ways of getting rid of insects work only when accompanied by their thorough combing. It is not required only on condition that the patient agrees to shave bald.

Many products are supplied complete with combs, specially made for the selection. If this equipment is not provided by the manufacturer, a thick comb should be purchased at the pharmacy.

In principle, lice can be defeated by combing alone. This technique has undeniable advantages:

• Absolute harmlessness. The method is suitable for children of any age, during pregnancy and lactation, with diagnosed chronic systemic diseases.
• Extreme low cost. Even a person who is seriously limited in money can buy a scallop.
• Means to fight is a reusable tool.

However, there are significant drawbacks here without ancillary equipment.

• It is practically impossible to carry out the procedure on your own. Especially with long hair.
• Serious time is required, from 1 to 2 hours daily, for 7-10 days.
• 100% result is not guaranteed.

Therefore, doctors recommend nevertheless to supplement the procedure with an anti-pediculosis agent.

And for the fight against lice is used hair dryer. Steam temperature of 50-55 degrees, aimed at the strands, has a paralyzing effect on the lice. After applying the dryer, it remains to work with a comb to remove the lice from the strands.

Folk remedies

A wide selection of pharmaceutical compositions for insects does not make the old lice-fighting recipes less popular. If you prefer purely natural methods, popular recommendations will be useful to you. Just remember that they require repeated use. Here are the most popular compositions.

• Salt with vinegar. A vodka spoon is poured into a glass of liquid (it is better to take apple or wine vinegar) and 45 g of ordinary salt is poured. After dissolving with the compound, gauze is soaked, which wraps the scalp all day long. When the compress dries, it should be updated with a solution. Final disposal of the problem will require several treatments.

• Tincture of elecampane. The grass requires fresh and whole, with a root. It is chopped, boiled water is poured (a liter of water is required per 5 tablespoons of raw materials), an hour is drawn by wrapped up or in a thermos. After filtering the infusion is distributed over the skin and hair, after 10 minutes. head rinsed thoroughly. The repellent treatments are carried out 5-7 days before the final destruction.
• Geranium oil.It is added to any hair product — balms, masks, conditioners — which you need to use as usual. One portion of balm — 3-4 drops of oil. Add until the insects disappear.

• Mint and pomegranate. 2 tbsp. l Herbs are poured with a glass of natural pomegranate juice and boiled for 10 minutes. on minimal heat. After cooling and straining, the composition is rubbed into the hair and skin for half an hour, then the head is washed in the usual manner. The procedure is carried out every 5 days until symptoms are eliminated. In addition, lemon and sodium chloride (softening) can be used.

• Old-fashioned recipes recommend using turpentine, kerosene, gasoline, dust, tar soap to get rid of lice. For the cure used angelica — seeds and foliage, ledum. Bird cherry can also have an insecticidal effect.

Means from parasitic insects for children

Children are especially vulnerable to infection with hair insects and at the same time they are the most difficult patients, since they are more susceptible to allergization and poisoning. Doctors recommend the following.


• “Nuda” based on clearol oil.
• “Pediculen-ultra”, in which the active ingredients are an anise extract, enhanced by capric acid.
• “Avalanche”, it contains laevod oil and ylang-ylang oil.
• Effective American liceguard.

The last 2 remedies affect most gently, for example, liceguard. Drugs, including permethrin, and drugs of the combined composition very often provoke the occurrence of allergic reactions. Their use should be avoided at least up to 3 years of age. The compositions have a serious irritating effect on the epidermis, so for therapy in preschoolers and children of primary school age are not recommended. Melationovy theoretically allowed to apply from 2 years, but pediatricians believe that they are too toxic for children.

Lice for pregnant women

Note that most medications can be used to eliminate head lice in pregnant women — they do not enter the systemic circulation, which means they cannot harm the fetus. The clause in the instructions, indicating the undesirability of the use of funds by pregnant women, was introduced only because manufacturers do not wish to pay for expensive and not too ethical tests on this topic.

In this case, future mothers still should refrain from using those on which there is no exact indication that they are allowed for use by pregnant women. Many products have a bright aroma, may initiate the development of allergies or irritate. All these manifestations have a negative effect on the general well-being of the future mother. Doctors recommend to opt for compositions with the most mild effect: «Nittifor», «Pair Plus», «Nyuda», «Lavinal». Under a categorical prohibition are those whose composition includes benzyl benzoate.

What is the most effective means?

Combined compositions and mixtures with malate, permethrin and oils, as well as chemical tincture are recognized as the most effective. These components kill insects at all stages of development — adult lice, matured larvae and eggs. However, hellebore is not recommended because of its toxicity to children and women during pregnancy and lactation.

For therapy, it is desirable to choose based on essential oils. They are no less effective, but safer.

Phenotrin formulations are less effective. They kill adults and larvae, but practically do not affect nits. Therefore, it will be necessary to re-process. On the other hand, compounds with these active substances are quite safe for the human body.
Boric has the smallest effect in the fight against illness. It makes sense to use it only in the absence of other options.

Tips and tricks: what to consider when selecting

When buying, it is recommended to stop at Nettifore, if you also have a problem with fleas and ticks. All insects will disappear after a single use.

If the disease is found in a very young child, the most suitable «Parasidosis +». Its use is allowed from 3 months of age.
Patients who wish to minimize the harm done during treatment can recommend “Paranit”.

Everyone needs to know this.

According to physicians, in general, in the world recorded an annual increase in diseases of the population of pediculosis. The reason for this phenomenon is the doctors believe the biological properties of lice (Latin Pedikula), as well as an increase in the migration process. In addition, head and body lice can transmit infectious diseases. As a rule, more than half of the affected are children (almost all of them are pupils of schools and boarding schools). It should be remembered that defeat is possible through close contact through a hat, a comb (head louse), through bed linen, clothing (wardrobe lice), infection is possible in various places where people stay together: at the station, in public transport, on the train, that is where there are conditions for the transition of lice from an infected person to a non-infected person.

Pathogens

There are 3 types: head, pubic, wardrobe.

• Heads live on the scalp hairs.
• Wards spend a lot of time in clothes, and parasitize on the human body only periods of a few minutes. Most of these lice can be found in places of seals, seams, folds of clothing.
• Pubic lice affect the integument of the perineum, eyebrows with eyelashes, armpits.

Lice breed by laying eggs, which are kept on the roots of hair with the help of sticky excretion. After a few days, lice larvae appear, which after a few weeks develop into full-fledged individuals. The duration of the existence of insects on the human body — from one to two months, outside the body of the «owner» — up to a week.

Main manifestations

• Itching in bite areas.
• Small, bluish or gray spots on the dermis, erythema.
• Combing and pustular diseases.
• The presence of louse eggs on the scalp.

If you have found such symptoms in a baby, you should contact the health facility for advice, and also isolate the child from other children. As well as to treat the scalps with an anti-food composition and to check for nits and lice of other family members.

The composition and packaging of the drug

What components are contained in the preparation «Butadion»? Tablets include an active substance such as phenylbutazone. Also in the composition of the drug are: potato starch, primelloza, magnesium stearate, sodium bicarbonate, talc and silicon dioxide.

The drug «Butadion» (pills) goes on sale in blisters, which are enclosed in cardboard packaging.

Pharmacodynamic characteristics of the drug

Are you aware of what constitutes a drug such as «Butadion»? Reviews of specialists report that it is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that has antipyretic and analgesic effects.

The effectiveness of this tool is related to its ability to suppress the activity of cyclooxygenase. As a result of this effect, prostaglandin synthesis is slowed down.

The medication in question enhances the reabsorption of salts and water in the tubules of the kidneys. It also eliminates pain syndromes and reduces swelling, which often accompanies inflammatory processes.

How is the therapeutic effect of the drug «Butadion»? Tablets reduce pain in the joints (when moving and at rest), and also restore their mobility or increase range of motion.

The anti-inflammatory effect of this remedy is in many ways superior to that of the similar drug Amidopyrine.

With gout, this medication doubles the secretion of urate along with urine, and also reduces their amount in the blood.

It should also be noted that the drug «Butadion» (tablets), the instructions for use of which are included in the package along with blisters, reduces pain and signs of inflammation in thrombophlebitis (postoperative and hemorrhoidal veins).

Tablets rid of pediculosis — a myth or reality?

Fans of such treatment claim that the lice Butadion acts magnificently, namely, it makes human blood unsuitable for parasites, which is why they quickly die of starvation or scatter immediately. Even from nits, this tool helps, in the opinion of these people (not doctors, notice). Is it so?

In fact, the above-described drug does not have such an effect, therefore, it is useless to use it for pediculosis! It is not a non-pediculosal, but a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, in which the main effects are:

The drug is available in the form of ointment intended for external use, as well as in the form of tablets for oral administration. The price of the drug varies from 50 to 150 rubles, depending on the number of tablets and the form of release.

Kinetic features of the drug

Where is Butadion (tablets) absorbed? The instruction reports that the high absorption of this drug comes from the digestive tract. Its bioavailability is about 87-90%, and the maximum concentration in plasma is observed 60-150 minutes after administration.

From the blood, the drug gradually passes into the tissues and organs, and also penetrates into the cavities of the joints and through the blood-brain barrier.

The metabolism of this agent is carried out in the liver. Its half-life is 19-25 hours. Displays medication through the kidneys and through the digestive tract.

So why, then, began to use the medicine against head lice?

If people started using Butadion for lice, then there’s really some point to it. In fact, an anti-inflammatory drug can really get a beneficial effect for a person who wants to get rid of blood-sucking parasites. And what is the effect, what will help a drug that was not originally intended for such purposes?

As is known, pediculosis is accompanied by additional unpleasant symptoms in the form of:

  • itching and irritation
  • puffiness
  • burning sensation
  • inflammation of the skin, etc.

All these symptoms occur due to scratching the bite spots. Small bloodsucking bugs constantly bite, creating terrible discomfort, which even an adult can withstand is difficult, but I keep silence about children.

People suffering from pediculosis, quickly combing the skin of the head, because of what it appears real wounds and abrasions, inflamed and painful.

It is from wounds and abrasions to help get rid of the above preparation with anti-inflammatory action.

By the way, in the list of indications for use of this medicine there is a similar item: “dermatological diseases”.

Thus, we conclude that the lice butadion cannot be considered the main therapeutic measure, but it can be used as an adjuvant against inflammation of the scalp.

If you are going to try, please note that the drug is very serious, very toxic, can provoke various side effects. Do not take anti-inflammatory drugs without first consulting a doctor!

Indications for taking pills

In what cases is prescribed the drug «Butadion»? Tablets effectively manifest themselves in the treatment of:

  • ankylosing spondylitis,
  • osteoarthritis,
  • psoriatic arthritis,
  • rheumatoid and lupus arthritis,
  • bursitis and tendovaginitis,
  • gouty arthritis
  • algomenorrhea,
  • postoperative pain syndrome
  • toothache and headache.

Also, this medication is used to relieve discomfort with neuralgia, burns and radiculitis.

Tablets or ointment: what to choose?

It is more convenient to apply ointment from the head and pubic lice, since it acts directly on the problem areas, and it is safer because the ointment does not act systemically (on the entire body).

However, sometimes in the treatment of pediculosis, it is recommended to take the drug in the form of tablets. What is better in your particular case, the doctor will say.

Instructions for use

If you are prescribed an ointment, then you need to treat the inflamed areas of the scalp according to the instructions (1-2 times a day). It is not desirable that the ointment gets into open wounds (on which there is no crust yet), otherwise it will penetrate into the bloodstream and then it will act systemically.

Tablets, in turn, are taken three times a day at 0.2-0.4 g. The amount of the active substance in the tablets may be different, so check this information with the pharmacy worker or refer to the instructions.

It is impossible to use anti-inflammatory drugs for more than a week (for some diseases, the duration of therapy can be increased, but such decisions cannot be taken independently). Dosages and treatment can only be changed by the attending specialist.

Side effects after taking pills

Taking Butadion tablets can cause the following systemic reactions:

  • nausea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia,
  • vomiting, aphthous stomatitis, heartburn,
  • ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, diarrhea, tinnitus,

  • gastrointestinal bleeding,
  • gingival bleeding and hemorrhoidal,
  • high blood pressure
  • liver failure,
  • headaches, anemia, depression, leukopenia, dizziness,
  • drowsiness, agranulocytosis, agitation, thrombocytopenia.

Side effects from the blood require the abolition of the drug and refer to a specialist.

The retention of water and sodium in the body, associated with taking Butadion, markedly worsens the condition of patients with hypertension and CHF. This point also requires an adjustment in treatment.

Patient reviews about the drug

Now you know what the price for the drug «Butadion» is. Tablets are inexpensive, but with regard to reviews, they will be presented below.

Analyzing the responses of patients about this drug, we can safely conclude that it effectively manifests itself in any joint and muscle pain. But, in addition to positive reviews, patients often make negative reports about him. According to them, Butadion tablets often cause complications on the part of the digestive tract and blood. In this regard, most doctors recommend not taking this medicine and replace it with a safer drug.

Classification of essential drugs against lice and nits

Medicines for the treatment of lice contain powerful insecticides and / or plant components that negatively affect the process of feeding, reproduction of insects and their larvae at different stages of development.

Principles of operation

The therapeutic effect of anti-pediculosis drugs depends on the main active ingredient. Most medications disrupt the transmission of nerve impulses of bloodsuckers, causing paralysis and death of lice.

Medicines with dimethicone and essential oil extracts clog the respiratory system, which also causes the rapid death of the parasites.

General classification of protivopedikuleznyh drugs depending on the main ingredient

Shampoos, creams, sprays from the pharmacy

Protivedikuleznye drugs produced in the form of emulsions, shampoos, creams, sprays and tablets. Do not do in the fight against bloodsuckers and without any special scallops with small teeth.

Shampoos are the most popular products, suitable for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. They are not difficult to apply, no preliminary preparation is required.

Most of them are safe for children, ideal for killing bloodsuckers on long and thick curls.

List of effective anti-pediculosis shampoos

  1. Veda and Veda-2 — shampoos contain permethrin, as a part of the updated version there are emollient ingredients. After application, keep the agent for 10 minutes, but numerous reviews indicate that the drug begins to act only after half an hour.
  2. Paranit — safe remedy based on a silicone derivative. Apply shampoo with light rubbing movements, rinse off after a quarter of an hour.
  3. Pedilin — The best drug for the treatment of children over 2 years old, contains malathion and tetramethrin. Use as a regular shampoo, after applying it can be washed off after 3 minutes, but it is better to wait a quarter of an hour.

Aerosol preparations are easy to apply and wash off, but they have a significant drawback. Due to the fine consistency of the drug particles penetrate into the nose and throat, so they can not be used for asthma and other serious diseases of the respiratory system.

Pair Plus is one of the most effective anti-pediculosis drugs. He contains 3 active ingredientsalready valid after 10 minutes. The tool can be used to kill any type of lice.

Pedikulen Ultra — spray contains anise oil and alcohol base, has a moderate degree of toxicity. Therapeutic effect is observed after half an hour after application.

Full Marks — inexpensive means, contains 2 active ingredients, complete with spray comes a special comb for combing.

Means should treat dry hair, remove rows under the bag and kerchief, hold for 15–20 minutes, comb out dead parasites and rinse the strands with warm water. After removing the drug, you can not use a hairdryer, apply balsams and masks on the hair.

Ointments against pediculosis are presented on the market in a small assortment, since such products are not particularly popular for a number of reasons. They are difficult to apply evenly and hard to wash off.

But an important advantage is the low cost.

Ointments to fight lice:

  1. Nittifor — effective drug contains permethrin, has a strong unpleasant odor. Can be used to treat children who have already turned 5 years old.
  2. Nix — contains permethrin in the minimum dosage, has no age limit.
  3. Lauri — One of the best medicines for getting rid of pubic bloodsuckers.

What is the secret of efficiency?

As you know, lice feed on human blood. Consequently, it is possible to saturate them with destructive and repulsive substances through the blood. And in order for these substances to enter the bloodstream, you need to take a special drug.

Such drugs are toxic only for parasites. For humans, they are absolutely safe if you follow the dosage and take it correctly. There are advantages to oral medications:

  • to get rid of parasites, two doses of the drug are enough,
  • the result lasts a long time
  • such medicines do not affect the condition of the skin, as they do not come in contact with it,
  • they can be taken in cases where the means for external use are contraindicated (for example, if there are sores or inflammations on the epidermis).

And what are these lice pills so convenient and effective? The following are the names of the best oral medications that are suitable for adults and for children. Despite this, do not self-medicate, always consult a doctor first!

The best medicines for oral administration

  • Butadion,
  • Levamisole,
  • Albendazole.

At the moment in the pharmacies the easiest way to find the first drug — Butadion. It costs up to 300 rubles, it is considered the safest, and therefore is popular.

See also:  Lyme disease: Symptoms, transmission, and treatment

What kind of medicine for lice and nits to choose? This question will be answered by the attending specialist, and also he will select the treatment and dosage regimen.

How do I take oral medications against head lice?

Dosages are selected individually for each patient.But often the drugs with the above names are prescribed 200-400 mg three times a day for the first time, and then the dosage is reduced.

Of course, for children, the dosage will be minimal, since the children’s organism is more susceptible and sensitive.

Drugs in pill form are taken at weekly intervals. The fact is that the adult parasites, namely the blood-sucking, they will act, but the nits will not do anything until the larvae come out of the eggs and begin to eat.

That is why the treatment is repeated. But two courses will be enough in any case, regardless of the severity of lice.

To increase the effectiveness of therapy, you can additionally use lotions containing 0.5% Malathion.

When taking drugs orally, you need to follow certain precautions, for example, first carefully examine the list of contraindications and side effects.

Spillover unwanted actions

  • tachycardia, instability pressure, anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks,
  • gastrointestinal disorders — nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heartburn, pain, stomatitis, etc.,
  • hearing defects, namely noise, confusion, unconsciousness,
  • decrease in visual acuity and hearing
  • anemia,
  • thrombocytopenia,
  • throat swelling of an allergic nature, bronchospasm, tearfulness and rhinitis,
  • urticaria and other allergic rashes on the body,
  • uterine and other bleeding,
  • excessive sweating.

Reviews of doctors and ordinary people

Doctors consider this method of treatment effective, but they warn that it is very dangerous if you do not follow the recommendations of the attending specialist: break the dosage, take the medicine if there are contraindications, take too long, etc.

Judging by the reviews of doctors, allergic reactions most often occur in people with asthma and Aspirin intolerance.

Judging by the reviews of ordinary people, it is better to use drugs for external use, as they are safer.

Many claim that after treatment they have experienced mild side effects in the form of nausea, indigestion and insomnia. These effects passed instantly after cessation of therapy.

What to do after such treatment?

After the above treatment, a person can return to normal life the very next day. Nits in the hair are likely to remain, but will be completely harmless.

For prevention in the future, you need not to give other people things and not use other people’s things.

Now you know exactly which oral lice pills exist now and when they need to be taken. If you have already tried the drugs listed in the article, then leave your review on this site.

Write everything, even if you do not like the effect, and also advise your medicines that have helped you.

Subscribe to updates of the information portal in order not to miss new interesting information, and share it with friends through social networks. Good health to you and your loved ones! All the best!

Article author: Ksenia Borisova (dermatologist)

Testimonials: Is it worth trying, and how should pediculosis be treated?

Judging by the reviews, some of the above remedy helps, while others provoke side effects.

Therefore, this method of treatment can be called questionable and risky. If you have not been prescribed by a doctor, then you should not experiment yourself.

It is better to treat pediculosis with special insecticidal drugs. What kind of drug to choose and try?

Read about it in separate articles that you can easily find on this site.

And also do not forget about the procedure of combing parasites, it really significantly speeds up the treatment, therefore it is very important.

Lice destruction: how to get lice out?

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Preventive measures include:

  • personal hygiene of the person and the hygienic maintenance of the dwelling — regular body washing with soap (at least 10 days later) with a simultaneous change of underwear and bed linen, cleaning of clothes, bedding, household items,
  • sanitary inspection of crowded places (marinas, train stations, trains, commercial and passenger ships, cinemas, dormitories, hotels, rest houses, sanatoriums, hospital wards, etc.) and compliance with the established sanitary regime,
  • sanitization of organized people transported at assembly points along the way and at places of arrival of trains, for which sanitary passports are organized at major railway stations and ports,
  • proper organization of work of baths, laundries, hairdressers,
  • wearing insecticide-impregnated laundry.

    Lice control measures are made up of physical, mechanical and chemical methods.

    Physical way to kill lice — boiling things, ironing clothes and clothes with a hot iron, disinsection of clothes and clothes in disinfection chambers of various types at special temperature conditions.

    Mechanical way includes the removal of parasites from the body, underwear and clothing. Body lice are easy to remove from the body by simple washing with soap and shower. Head lice are combed out with frequent scallops and removed with short hair cut. If there is a pubic louse, it is obligatory to shave all the hair areas of the body with the subsequent treatment with insecticidal ointments. Lice are removed from clothes and linen with a brush or vacuum cleaner, and the parasites removed must be burned.

    To destroy the lice on the human body is used to wash with hot water with insecticidal soap — 5% DDT or 3% HCCH. Apply to kills of head lice: karbofos (1%), dicresyl (25%), soap-kerosene emulsion (containing 45% kerosene), insecticidal soap DDT and HCH, 3-5% insecticidal ointment methyl acetophos, shampoo containing 5% methyl acetophos, shampoo on diphos and others

    To combat pubic lice, shave the hairy skin, treat them with 5% ointment methylacetophos.

    Lice on bedding and bed linen, clothes and bedding are destroyed in dry heat, steam or steam baths. In the absence of disinfection chambers, bedding to be washed is soaked in 1% DDT emulsion, 0.15% karbofos emulsion or 0.06% sulfidophos emulsion for 20-30 minutes, followed by washing in the usual way. Clothes and bedding are watered or wiped with brushes moistened with karbofos or sulphidophos emulsion, collars, cuffs, seams and belt folds are carefully treated or evenly pollinated with Sulpholan dust at a rate of 150 g / set. After processing, things are put in a bag or wrapped in a blanket for 30 minutes, and then shaken out and aired.

    During mass processing of people, clothes are treated once, without removing them, pollinating DDT with dust from the sprayer through the collar, the sleeves, the unbuttoned belt, the unlaced shoes, the bottom of the trousers, and under the headdress.

    For the impregnation of underwear using an emulsion of karbofos or sulphidophos, respectively, 0.15% and 0.25% concentration at the rate of 2.5 liters per 1 set of underwear or 5 l per 1 kg of dry linen. The property is soaked for 5 minutes, and then squeezed and dried. Insecticidal properties of such clothes are maintained for 15 days during the process of wearing and 3 months. when stored.

    If pediculosis occurs in groups and if insecticides are not available or it is impossible to use them, the synthetic therapeutic drug butadion can be used to kill lice. Possessing a strong systemic pediculicidal effect on head and body lice, it ensures their complete death after a single meal on the person who took this drug.In the foci of pediculosis, butadion is taken in 0.15 g 4 times a day for 2 days, after which human blood remains toxic to lice for 7-8 days. If necessary, this course can be repeated in 10-14 days under the supervision of a medical professional. Children up to 4 years old are not suitable for butadion, children from 4 to 7 years old should be given 0.05 g butadiene, from 8 to 10 years old — 0.08 g each, and over 10 years old — 0.12 g 3 times a day for 2 days. .

    Types of funds from lice and nits

    In the XXI century, pediculosis is much less common, but in any pharmacy, and now you can find five to ten items of funds for lice and nits.

    This suggests that pediculosis in our time is not uncommon. Reviews cured encouraging that modern means against nits and lice are effective enough.

    In addition, a completely new means of dealing with these parasites, allowing to reduce the number of treatments to one and bring the blood suckers with a 100% guarantee.

    Pediculosis treatment

    Human lice are of three types: head, pubic and ward. Pubic can not live on the head or in the seams of clothing and vice versa.

    They are different in structure, physiology and developmental cycles insects, adapted to different lifestyles.

    So, for example, the hooks with which the insect is held by the hairs have different diameter for the pubic and head lice, so the parasites simply can not be held by the hairs not on “their” body part.

    The main thing in the treatment of pediculosis of any type is thoroughness. To finally remove the lice, it is desirable to understand what and why you have to do.

    Treatment activities consist of the processing of medicines, hygiene, treatment of the patient’s things, his bedding and underwear and outerwear, sanitary treatment of the room and the implementation of preventive measures.

    When ward pediculosis sanitary processing of individual items and clothing is more convenient to carry out in sanitary-epidemiological organizations, as they use professional equipment and tools.

    But it is almost always possible to completely get rid of lice of any kind at home, using the head lice and nits that are in the usual pharmacy.

    Tip: Old folk remedies for lice and nits, such as tar and kerosene, can damage the skin and lead to general poisoning.

    For example, kerosene can be absorbed through the skin and cause damage to internal organs — affecting the liver and kidneys, provoking a narrowing of the bronchi, which can be taken as a sign of asthma.

    Vinegar can simply burn the skin, while the nits will survive and after a while it turns out that it was not possible to remove the lice.

    Preventive measures

    Pediculosis, like any disease, is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, if a sick person has already appeared in the family, then it’s time to start prevention.

    The head of each family member should be carefully inspected daily. The first lice can not be seen, but on the skin under the hair, you can see their bites, and sometimes you can see the first nits.

    Each family member should have an individual comb, women and girls should have their own hairpins, hairpins, as head lice are first of all transmitted through hair care products.

    Needless to say, everyone’s clothes should also be individual, and bedding should not only be washed, but also ironed with a hot iron — these are elementary hygienic requirements that are already complied with in adequate families.

    Children 3 — 12 years old are sick more often than other categories of the population, so you should be especially careful about child prevention.

    If a child complains about a classmate constantly scratching his head, then it is definitely worth informing the school nurse or class teacher.

    Pediculosis is distributed in children’s groups instantly, since children spend a lot of time together, and their outerwear, on fur collars and hoods of which adult insects can move, is in close contact with the school wardrobe.

    Medications for lice and nits

    If lice is diagnosed, treatment should begin immediately. Lice are not only inconvenient, but also carry dangerous diseases.

    In addition, constant scratching of the skin leads to infection with bacterial infections.

    Drugs that kill insects are called insecticides.

    Insecticides that «work» against lice and nits are called pediculicides.

    If a patient with pediculosis turns to a doctor, the specialist will individually select a remedy for him, depending on the degree of infection, age and sanitary-epidemiological situation in the area.

    The last condition is worth a little more. The fact is that each population of parasites is resistant to certain means and information about this will allow you to avoid unnecessary expenses and efforts, save time.

    Of the many tools currently sold in pharmacies of the village, the doctor will prescribe a remedy against parasites and nits, to which insects do not yet have immunity.

    Immunity to pediculicides arises from the misuse of homemade lice and nits that are sold freely at the pharmacy.

    Incorrectly diluted emulsion, insufficient exposure time on the head means do not lead to the destruction of parasites, but to their addiction.

    The following treatment with the drug with the same active ingredient will be completely ineffective.

    Each treatment with lice and nits is completed by combing half-dead and dead individuals. For this fit comb or comb with very frequent teeth.

    After washing off the means and drying the strands, the scalp is mentally divided into segments and combed out each strand separately, spreading white fabric under it to notice the surviving parasites in time.

    There are combs designed specifically for combing lice and nits, for example, ANTI-B medical comb with long and dense teeth of medical steel.

    The manufacturer promises that the comb will provide 100% combing of parasites and their eggs thanks to special notches on the teeth, capable of separating the nits stuck to the hairs.

    To destroy pubic parasites at home, it is enough to completely shave the hair on the genitals.

    By the way, you can destroy head lice, just shaving your head, but not every guy is ready for this method, but there’s nothing to say about women.

    Fortunately, modern tools can do without such drastic measures.

    Do not use insecticides on eyebrows and eyelashes. When these areas are infested by parasites (pubic lice), they are removed with vaseline oil, repeating the treatment twice a day for 1-2 weeks. From fatty oil lice suffocate.

    Lacy lice are treated by treating items of wardrobe and body with insecticides that kill lice and nits.

    At the same time have to use a good pharmacological remedy for skin irritation, dermatitis and dermatosis, which certainly lead to the bites of these parasites.

    Insecticidal products

    If you look at the reviews, the most popular anti-pedicular drugs are now — drugs with insecticide of synthetic origin permethrin.

    Medifox, Nittifor, NOC — in the composition of shampoos, creams and lotions produced under these trademarks, there is permethrin, which paralyzes the nervous system of adult lice and larvae.

    Permethrin does not work “well” against nits, so after 7–10 days it is necessary to repeat the treatment.

    Malathion is an active substance in insecticidal agents, the second most popular after permethrin.Included in the funds «Karbofos», «Pedilin», «Novaktion» and others.

    These drugs kill lice and nits due to the ability to accumulate in the body of an insect every time it is in contact with the product.

    Judging by the reviews, means with malathion help, even if permethrin does not work on bloodsuckers anymore.

    Combined preparations for lice and nits. In their composition there are several active substances, including contact action.

    These are shampoos and aerosols “Reed”, “Para-Plus”, “Sprey-Paks”, “Sumitrin”. Poisons in their composition act simultaneously on the nervous, respiratory and enzyme systems of insects and enhance the action of each other.

    Such a strong tool is used to treat only healthy adults, if there are no scratches and other skin damage. The feedback on this treatment is always positive.

    Due to the immunity developed by the parasites against most lice and nits poisoning agents, drugs that have a completely different mechanism of action become popular.

    New means against nits and lice — complexes with dimethicone (so called mineral oils of artificial origin, silicones).

    Their effectiveness is still being investigated, but drugs with dimeticon are already on sale and have good reviews.

    Mineral oils clog the respiratory system of insects that are not poisoned, but choking.

    Almost the same principle works masks from vegetable oil, which are sometimes used against head lice in traditional medicine.

    Means against nits and lice with dimeticon is, first of all, spray “Nyuda”, consisting of 92% of dimethicone, spray “Paranit” and others.

    Since the drugs of this class do not contain insecticides, they can be used to treat absolutely all categories of patients, including pregnant women and babies.

    Other treatment options

    There are remedies against nits and lice, in which the active substance is not chemicals, but tinctures of plants or essential oils derived from them.

    Such are, for example, spray and lotion «Pediculin Ultra» with anise oil of anise and shampoo with tea tree oil to prevent the appearance of lice.

    The most well-known remedy of this class of drugs is cemerichnaya water (alcohol tincture of hellebore roots). Reviews claim that insects do not get used to it.

    A completely new method is the treatment of pediculosis not by external means (ointments, shampoos, sprays), but by ingestion of drugs.

    They do it in exceptional cases when other lice and nits do not help or they cannot be used.

    The drug is absorbed and enters the blood. The parasite dies after drinking blood with medicine. By means of lice and nits in this direction are pills «Butadion».

    How to remove lice folk remedies?

    Folk remedies against nits and lice are not as effective as industrial insecticides, but many of them can be used to remove lice in young children, pregnant women, and people with weak immunity and a tendency to allergies.

    These methods include acetic acid salt masks.

    Vinegar (and any other acid) is detrimental to adult lice and nymph larvae, but it is powerless against nits.

    But vinegar dissolves the secret with which the female attaches the nits to the hair. After that, it is possible to comb it out.

    Therefore, when treating with vinegar, it is more important than ever to get a good comb.

    A vinegar mask is made like this: a tablespoon of salt and a tablespoon of alcohol or vodka are added to a glass of 6% vinegar.

    First you need to check the skin’s reaction to allergies, especially if you have to treat the child. To do this, a drop of money is applied to the skin behind the ear and wait one hour.

    If there was no burning, sharp pain, discomfort, redness — the liquid can be used without fear.

    The hair is completely wetted in acetic acid, the skin is treated with a cotton swab. The head is covered with foil, wrapped.

    After an hour, you can wash your hair with shampoo and take up the comb to comb. The procedure is repeated every other day throughout the week.

    Hygiene in the treatment of lice

    During treatment, you must comply with certain hygiene measures — it is not enough just to treat the head with lice and nits.

    To eliminate secondary contamination at home, the same insecticides need to be treated with combs, hairpins, clips and hair bows, fur collars, hats, scarves, scarves, shower caps, helmets, glasses, scourers and similar items that have come into contact with infected hair. and on which live lice eggs may go unnoticed.

    If it is not possible to treat any item with a chemical agent for lice and nits and it cannot be boiled or ironed (this could be, for example, a collar made of valuable fur), then the item is placed in “quarantine” — packed tightly in polyethylene for 10 — 15 days

    During this time, adult lice and larvae hatched from eggs will die without food.

    Pillows and blankets for prevention are frozen on the street or fried in the sun for a day or two.

    If this is not possible — sent in a plastic bag in quarantine.

    During the course of treatment, hair conditioner, rinse aid and other conditioning agents that facilitate combing cannot be used, as they wrap the hairs and skin (as well as insects and nits) with a smooth protective film and insecticidal agents cease to act.

    If there is a patient in the family, it is necessary daily:

  • inspect the heads of everyone at home to detect bites, insects and their eggs,
  • comb the hair of the patient for two weeks,
  • change linen
  • wash your body with a washcloth when wearing
  • change bedding, wash and iron it.

    Clothes for the patient. Louse can get on the head with the wave of a sick person’s hair.

    Therefore, a family member who is undergoing treatment for pediculosis must walk around the house in a headdress to prevent the further spread of the disease — this will save the rest of the household.

    Clothes should be changed daily, while in the case of infection with body lice items of clothing should not be worn for at least 14 days. The linen should be with a minimum of folds so that it can be easily ironed.

    How to disinfect clothes at home? All toilet articles used during treatment for lice of any kind must be disinfected — treated with insecticides, hung out for two days in the open air, and then ironed with a hot iron.

    After this treatment, there will not be any living nits on the clothes.

    What a remedy for lice and nits apply for cleaning the house? Disinfection in the house should be carried out only under certain conditions: strong lumpiness of someone or when lice hit all households.

    Under normal contamination, wet cleaning with a weak vinegar solution will be sufficient. Carpets, carpets better dry-cleaned.

    If this is not possible, the carpets and carpets are washed with a 5% aqueous solution of chlorophos or karbofos.

    Of course, social and housing conditions are now better, and hygiene and prevention play an important role in reducing this disease.

    But the means against nits and lice are relevant as before, because to destroy head lice, you need to destroy the lice as a species.

    At the present stage of development of science, this is impossible, therefore, in pharmacies, anti-nits and lice remedies will long remain a popular product.

    Pediculosis (lice) is a parasitic disease that is quite common among children and is caused by insect lice. There are three types of lice adapted to different conditions of habitat, each of which causes a special type of lice: lice of the head (lice parasite in the hair of the head), pubic lice (lice parasite in the pubic hair and hair covering the genitals),wardrobe lice (lice survive on people’s things). Infection with head lice occurs upon contact with a person infected with these parasites. The main symptoms of lice are itching at the site of parasite bites, the presence of the parasites themselves and their eggs (nits). Treatment of lice is carried out by special means, which are used strictly according to the instructions and under the supervision of a physician.

    Diagnosis of pediculosis. To identify pediculosis, it is necessary to detect lice or live nits. When lice can be used fluorescent method under the lamp Wood. With this diagnostic method, live nits fluoresce white (or blue), empty gray nits.

    Features of the treatment of lice in children As mentioned above, children are most often infected with lice. A child infected with lice should be immediately isolated from healthy children and, before treatment, be forced to wear a hat (scarf, hat, which is then boiled). Treatment of lice in children is carried out carefully. It should be remembered that all anti-pediculosis drugs are toxic, so they should not be allowed to enter the eyes, nose or mouth of a child. If, after applying lice, the child suddenly felt unwell, you should immediately rinse the product and call a doctor.

    Prevention of pediculosis. Prevention of pediculosis is hygienic measures. Personal hygiene. It is necessary to regularly change clothes and underwear (at least 2 times a week). It is also important to constantly wash the bedding at a high temperature (someone else’s bedding should be avoided). It should be carefully ironed clothing (especially in the area of ​​the seams). Preventive activities in children’s groups (kindergartens) are carried out by educators and doctors attached to the children’s institution.

    Memo for parents who have found a pediculosis in their child

    Please calm down and start acting!

    1. Buy in the pharmacy any means for the treatment of pediculosis (scarring).

    2. Treat the scalp of the child with a means strictly in accordance with the attached instructions.

    5. Put the child on clean clothes and clothes.

    7. Inspect and, if necessary, treat all family members. Do not forget about yourself.

    Repeat examinations of the child and all family members after 7, 14, 21 days and carry out the need for repeated processing until the complete extermination of insects and nits.

    Pediculosis! Memo for parents.

    What can be complications with pediculosis? Secondary bacterial infection (pyoderma) on the scalp, the ear areas, face, impetigo (impetigo is a disease characterized by the presence of superficial bubble-pustular eruptions on the skin) Blepharitis, conjunctivitis. Lymphadenitis Typhinus — lice are carriers of typhus Sepsis Treatment of pediculosis.

    How to get rid of lice? In the treatment of pediculosis, it is necessary to ensure the destruction of both nits (eggs) and adult lice. Depending on the type of lice, the method of treating pediculosis is different. How to get rid of head lice? For the treatment of head lice, Medifox and Medifox-super are used. Before treating the scalp, 2ml of Medifox should be mixed with 30ml of water. Then with this solution to treat the hair (using a swab). After that head wash with shampoo. Another effective remedy for lice is Nittifor. For one person you need from 20 to 50 ml of Nittifor solution. The hairy part of the head is treated with this medium using a tampon. Next, you need to cover your head with a kerchief (for 40 minutes). Then Nittifor wash off with warm water and soap. After using Nittiphor, it is imperative to comb the head with a special frequent comb and remove each egg. Normal comb badly remove the nits (eggs), when using them, you must additionally remove the nits with your fingers. It takes several days and a lot of patience.To facilitate this procedure can be applied to the hair balm for hair, fish oil, vegetable oil. Currently, pharmacies have a large number of anti-pediculosis drugs. The main anti-pediculosis drugs include: Lauri. Nyx Veda-2. Butadion. Serortut ointment. Paraplus. When using any means of lice should strictly follow the instructions for their use, because these drugs are very toxic. After processing the head, be sure to wash your hands. The use of such old and highly toxic products as “Dichlorvos” or Dust is strictly prohibited. When dealing with head lice, it is extremely important to boil the patient’s underwear (pillows, towels, pillowcases, sheets). It is also necessary to examine other family members for infection.

    Folk remedies for lice In addition to medication, there are a large number of popular recipes. Examples of such products are: · 50% sunflower oil + 50% kerosene. · Tar soap. · Cranberry juice. · Essential oils (tea tree, lavender). All these tools are applied to the hair and incubated for 20-30 minutes, after which the head and the whole body are thoroughly washed with warm water and soap. If necessary, the procedure is repeated several times.

    3. Wash the baby with baby soap or shampoo. For boys can be bald. 4. Remove mechanically (use your hands or comb with frequent comb) dead insects and nits. To remove the nits need to moisten the strands of hair in a solution prepared from equal amounts of water and 9% of vinegar. Rinse your hair with warm water.

    6. Wash bedding and baby clothes separately from other things, iron them with an iron using steam.

    8. Report the situation to the doctor (nurse) of the children’s institution, which your child attends, to conduct a complex of anti-pediculosis activities.

    What is Pediculosis (lice) —

    Pediculosis (lice) (from the Latin. pediculus «louse») — a parasitic disease of the skin and its derivative — hair.

    The head louse (Pediculus Humanus Capitis), the body louse (Pediculus Humanus Corporis) and the pubic louse (Phtyrus Pubis) can parasitize a person. Accordingly, head, clothes and pubic pediculosis are distinguished. Mixed pediculosis may also occur when mixed type infestation is present (eg simultaneous infestation of head and wound lice).

    Lice feed on the host’s blood, and the eggs (nits) are glued to the hair (a clothes louse lays eggs in the folds of clothes, less often sticks to the hair on a person’s body).

    Lice are associated with humans since ancient times. The first reports of them are found in Aristotle (4th century BC). Dried lice were found in ancient human graves: in Egyptian, Peruvian and Indian mummies. Lice are also found on the mummified corpses of people in Greenland and the Aleutian Islands (XV century).

    Almost 500 years BC. er Herodot wrote that the Egyptian priests and clerks always had their heads thoroughly shaved, “. so that no louse or other unclean creature could cling to them when they serve the gods . ” Ancient Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria.

    In Europe, outbreaks of pediculosis have been regularly observed for 200 years. The peak of the incidence is at the beginning of autumn, when children return home from camps and boarding houses.

    An increase in the number of patients with pediculosis is observed when people live crowded together and / or in unsanitary conditions, for example, during wars, disasters. Many are convinced that it is easier to get head lice infected with nervous, constantly worried people. Sometimes it is associated with a change in the smell of a person under constant stress.

    What triggers / Causes of Pediculosis (lice):

    Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) — transparent or greyish-yellow insects up to 4 mm long, parasitic, mainly in the temples and occiput, from where they can spread to other parts of the head. For 20-30 days the louse lays up to 10 eggs (nits) per day. After 8-10 days from the nits are formed the larvae, then turning into an adult louse, which after 10-15 days begins to lay eggs itself. Longevity lasts up to 38 days.

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    Lice do not jump and do not fly, they crawl.Consequently, the infection occurs through direct contact of hair, especially long, as well as through a towel, comb, and other things. A louse can crawl from one head to another in an electric train carriage, in a store, on a beach, in a pool.

    When a bite lice secrete saliva, causing quite severe itching. This leads to the appearance of scratching, violation of the integrity of the skin, the development of bloody crusts.

    Head lice are transmitted from person to person through direct contact (or through clothing, underwear, household items, hairbrushes, etc.).

    Hanging Louse (Latin Pediculus humanus corporis De G. var. vestimenti, sometimes just Pediculus corporis) is an insect, a human parasite with strict monoxeness.

    Body lice were known in ancient times.

    It is believed that in 1909 Charles Nicole, in experiments on the infection of body lice in monkeys with typhus, first established that lice are a carrier of typhus. However, in the domestic literature there are descriptions of the fact that this fact was established almost two decades ago (in 1892) before the experiments of Nicolas, Professor of Kiev University G. N. Minh.

    A clothes louse usually parasitizes a person’s clothing. At the same time she lives and lays eggs (nits) in the folds of clothes and on her nap, and feeds temporarily moving from clothes to the skin.

    Lice are well adapted to food on the hosts. In this case, it is believed that the clothes louse, unlike the head, evolutionarily younger species of the parasite, since clothing as a substrate for the residence of arthropod appeared much later than hair on the skin of mammals.

    The parasite insect’s mouth apparatus is a piercing needle, enclosed in a soft tube (proboscis) that everts out of the mouth and whose edges are pressed tightly against the skin to be pierced. Bleeding is carried out by muscular contractions of the pharyngeal pump and pharynx. Saliva lice contains an enzyme that prevents blood from clotting.

    From the short esophagus, blood enters the highly dilated stomach. Usually an adult individual drinks from 1 to 3 μl (0.001-0.003 ml) of blood. The average weight of an insect is 1 mg. Females are bigger in size and weight and drink more blood than males. Through translucent chitin, the process of feeding lice with blood is clearly visible: their abdomen swells, the intestine rhythmically contracts, taking in more and more new blood, and its body becomes dark red.

    In 2010, the gene was wrapped lingerie. Its volume turned out to be the smallest among all known insects — only 108 million pairs of nucleotides.

    Pubic louse or ploshchitsa (lat. Pthirus pubis) is an ectoparasitic insect from the sub-order of lice (lat. Anoplura), living on the human body mainly in the pubic zone, on the genitals, around the anus, less often in other hair-covered areas: in the armpits, on the chest and in abdominal area, eyebrows, eyelashes, mustache, beard. It feeds exclusively on the blood of its owner. Without food dies within 24 hours. However, outside the human body can fall into anabiosis and stay in it for up to several months. The disease caused by the defeat of this insect is called pubic lice or phthyriasis.

    The size of the pubic louse reaches approximately 1-3 mm. Females are 1.5 times larger than males.

    The pubic louse lays its eggs at the base of the hair, and itself is attached by a proboscis to the mouths of the hair follicles, usually on the skin of the pubis and scrotum. Infection occurs mainly through sexual contact. Infection through bed linen is possible.

    It is impossible to catch lice from animals, since these parasites are species-specific and can only live on an animal.

    Symptoms of Pediculosis (lice):

    Incubation period from infection to symptoms may last up to 30 days or more.

    Getting on the hairy part of the skin, and attaching to the hair with the help of mites located on the legs, the louse inserts its mouth apparatus into the skin and sucks blood. At the site of the bite, under the influence of irritation of the skin by the secret of the salivary glands, itchy spots and nodules appear. On the skin of the abdomen may appear bluish spots, they are formed from hemoglobin of the blood under the influence of an enzyme produced by the glands of lice. Also featured pubic lice there may be small red spots on underwear — these are secretions left by parasites. If an infected patient has abundant hair growth, the pubic louse may creep onto the skin of the chest, abdomen, thighs, limbs, underarms, eyebrows and eyelashes. With an increase in itching, scratching occurs, leading to an increase and spread of inflammation, ulcers and crusts form, peeling of the skin. Against the background of scratching an infection can join, then small abscesses appear on the skin.

    Body pediculosis with personal hygiene is rarely observed. But if it does occur, then skin lesions are more often seen on the shoulders, buttocks, and abdomen. With such symptoms, you should immediately check the clothes (most often the folds of underwear), in the seams of which adult lice can live and lay eggs. The most common symptom is itching, leading to scratching the skin and attaching a secondary infection. Uninfected bites look like red spots between 2-4 mm in diameter.

    As a result of the infection of the combs, pustular skin diseases can develop.

    It is worth noting that body lice are the main carriers of typhus and a number of other rickettsioses. Much less often typhus is transmitted by head lice, in isolated cases — ploschitsy.

    Diagnosis of Pediculosis (lice):

    All persons who seek medical help and undergo routine medical examinations are subject to examination for pediculosis.

    When examining a patient, lice can be seen with the naked eye. Insects are better distinguishable after drinking blood. With pubic lice, lice look like gray-brown spots located at the root of the hair. Lice are completely immobile, but when trying to tear them off, they show signs of life and even more actively cling to the hair, which they tear off with great difficulty. More often find nits attached to the hair.

    Treatment of Pediculosis (lice):

    For the treatment of pediculosis, an integrated approach is needed that will destroy both nits (eggs) and adults. Wrestling methods are different for different types of lice.

    Pubic lice

    To get rid of the ploshchitsy (pubic lice), you can use the following method:

    • Shave all hair where possible (pubic, armpit), in order to avoid infection of the bite site, disinfect with 10% white mercury ointment.

    • Remove eyelids from the eyelashes and eyebrows.

    Body lice

    Linen and clothing should be boiled or steamed. a simple low-temperature wash may not be enough. After high-temperature treatment, hang out the laundry for a week, preferably in the sun in a ventilated place.

    Another method involves treatment with an insecticidal preparation, followed by washing and weekly airing in the sun.

    The most effective is the decontamination of clothing and linen in the steam-formalin chamber. This method is more effective because combines high temperature and chemical treatment.

    When processing clothes, it should be noted that nits can be deposited in thick folds and seams of clothing, where they can withstand insufficient heat treatment.

    Considering the special epidemiological significance of ward lice and the possibility of fixing nits not only on the nap of clothing, but also on the pubescent hair of a person’s skin, with a common process it is necessary to decide not only about the disinsection of clothing, but also about the treatment of a patient with one of the pediculocid preparations.

    Head lice

    I. The best way: to comb out adult lice, then 3-4 days, as itching appears — hot hair dryer. until you dry all new ones.

    Ii. Pharmacies now sell a wide range of anti-pedicular drugs — shampoos, ointments, aerosols. The most famous pediculocides (drugs that kill lice and their nits):

    • 20% water-soap suspension of benzyl benzoate (a preparation for the treatment of scabies, previously used also against pediculosis, but now it is not recommended)

    • Butadion (ointment for healing wounds from bites)

    Of these drugs, some do not have ovocidal (killing nits) effect. Even with the oocytic effect, some nits tend to survive, so it’s important to remove them mechanically. Studies in Western Europe, Canada and the United States, Israel, Argentina, Russia found that head lice become resistant to most anti-pediculosis drugs, which complicates treatment with such means as permethrin and phenotrin. Therefore, now all over the world there are natural remedies for lice and nits. In Russia, this tool is “ROSH TOV Double Impact”. Contains plant and oil extracts that are not pesticides and are approved for use in cosmetics. Natural products do not act like chemicals. The respiratory system of lice consists of respiratory tubes or trachea — branching out all over the body and communicating with spiracles located on the sides of the abdomen and chest. Molecules of essential oils penetrate the respiratory system and clog the respiratory openings of lice. Lice are killed by suffocation and dehydration. Due to the physical mechanism of action, as well as the fact that polysaccharides in the composition of oils and extracts are also included in the structure of insects, it is difficult to develop resistance of lice to the ingredients of such preparations.

    When using any means of lice should be as precise as possible to follow the instructions, because these drugs are very toxic. Many of them are contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women, small children.

    There are also numerous popular recipes for getting rid of lice. They are usually less effective compared to pharmacies and not necessarily less toxic. Do not use them just because you are ashamed to buy money from head lice at the pharmacy.

    • 50% sunflower oil + 50% kerosene

    • 50% of household soap + 50% kerosene, dilute the resulting concentrated solution before applying to hair with 1:10 water (100 ml of solution per 1 l of water)

    • Cranberry juice (effective against nits, as it dissolves the upper shell of the egg with its acidic environment)

    • Vinegar (9% table vinegar is diluted twice with water to obtain an acid concentration of 4.5%)

    • Tar soap (valid due to high alkali concentration)

    • Essential oils (tea tree, lavender) — put on the hair a few drops not for treatment, but for the prevention of infection with lice, for example, to uninfected family members.

    Keep in mind the shortcomings of folk remedies:

    • Kerosene is flammable, poorly washed off, spoils hair (it becomes sticky and dirty in appearance), makes it difficult to comb,

    • Vinegar dries hair, and a concentrated solution can cause severe burns,

    • Dichlorvos and similar products are VERY TOXIC. You can get poisoned.

    In addition, the use of such funds is associated with inconveniences: you need to wear a plastic bag on your hair, wrap a towel around your head and keep it in such a form for a long time.

    There is another rather radical way to destroy head lice — this is hair dyeing with synthetic paint. Paints contain many caustic chemicals that kill lice and nits.

    After using any means, it is necessary to comb the head with a special frequent comb and remove each egg manually. It will take several days, as it is not easy to get the nits out. To achieve maximum efficiency, you should comb the hair with a comb with a very small tooth pitch — for example, with a special AntiV frequent comb. Normal comb badly remove nits, when using them, you must additionally remove the nits with your fingers. If the hair is long, then it will have to be cut at least to the shoulders, to make it easier to comb out dead insects and eggs. To facilitate combing can be applied to the hair with a balm, fish oil, oil, giving a «slip effect.» Olive oil eliminates parasites, and geranium oil also has an anti-inflammatory effect and heals wounds.

    When dealing with head lice, it is extremely important to neutralize (boil, iron) the personal clothes of the person who has been tested (pillows, towels, pillowcases, sheets, etc.). Other family members (classmates, children in the same kindergarten group, etc.) should also be examined for infection.

    Prevention of Pediculosis (lice):

    • Compliance with personal and public hygiene: regular body washing (at least 2 times a week), changing of underwear and bed linen, washing bed linen at high temperature, ironing clothes with a hot iron, especially the seams, where head lice usually lay eggs.

    • Preventing the transfer of personal combs to others.

    • Apply fluids from tea tree and lavender to the back of the head and behind the ears to prevent the appearance of lice.

    • Boiling used items (mainly towels, hats, bed linen, clothes with hoods and collars, soft toys) in order to prevent re-infection with lice.

    • To check for lice, brush your head over a light cloth.

    Which doctors should be consulted if you have Pediculosis (lice):

    Is something bothering you? Do you want to know more detailed information about pediculosis (lice), its causes, symptoms, methods of treatment and prevention, the course of the disease and diet after it? Or do you need an inspection? You can make an appointment with the doctor — clinic Eurolab always at your service! The best doctors will examine you, examine the external signs and help you identify the disease by symptoms, consult you and provide you with the necessary help and diagnosis. you also can call a doctor at home. Clinic Eurolab open for you around the clock.

    Diagnosis of pediculosis

    A remedy for lice is used after diagnosis. Mostly carried out physical examination. Diagnosis of difficulties does not cause, as the clinical manifestations are well expressed.

    A remedy for lice is used after diagnosis

    • The main method is a physical examination. Nits in this case is easy to identify, and problems arise with adults. They can be seen with the naked eye, but it is better to use a magnifying glass.
    • Lice that are already nourished with blood are best seen, in this case they acquire a brownish tint. In some cases, parasite excrement may be visible on the skin.
    • When pubic lice nits are attached to the hair with a special composition. Nits are similar to seborrhea and have a scaly form. A microscope will help identify them.

    Albendazole — a popular remedy for head lice in the form of tablets

    Popular drugs

    Popular remedies for head lice in the form of tablets:

    All of them are recognized as effective, but there is a need for a second procedure after a week. There is such a drug as trimethoprim, but it has a weak effect. Lice, like many parasites, feed on human blood. With the help of tablets, it can be made unattractive. This is the principle of action of the tablet form.

    Own method of withdrawing nits and lice

    Good day everyone!

    I have two daughters caught this infection. The younger one has been fighting for the second month. She has very thick hair. Today I tried the NEW METHOD of withdrawing nits. So far, only the eldest (9 years). Tomorrow I will experience the youngest.

    1. Cut the hair to the shoulder blades. Fortunately, the daughter agreed.

    Larisa January 13, 2015

    Deduced both my children with lice with the mousse Neath Free. Loved how it works. And I was very pleased with the effect of its use: the nits started lagging behind so easily that I was just in shock. Previously, I was very agonized with combing, but now everything turned out to be easy and simple. Really worth the money means.

    Alexandra January 10, 2015

    Hello. I decided to help with the fight against lice. My name is Alexandra, I am 11 years old. Long hair (1m. 13 cm)

    At school, lice caught. We treated the pair plus and got rid of lice. A week later, my head itched terribly! The second time squirting steam plus. FIG! Did not help. Nits very much! Cut the hair by 15 cm and sprinkle the steam again with a plus. No effect.

    Mom bought a spray sprinkled on it, held it for an hour, then immediately combed the hair along the entire length with a special comb that was in the set, washed the head. It’s all over! Not one live nits! Not a single louse! Thank you Nude! How many lice do not comb out all dead. I personally helped. Well, it is certainly expensive. We bought for 534 rubles. But we help well.

    And to whom it does not help, try kerasin or cheremical water. Heard cheremical water helps well. And if you do not have lice and nits are not combed out, then I advise you to wash your hair with water with vinegar or cranberry juice, and then comb it with a special comb (preferably with an anti-comb). The fact is that lice do not stick so tightly to the hair from acid and are easy to comb out. Of course, at once everything will not work out, but more or less.

    I hope I helped you with my advice.

    svetlana January 07, 2015

    Do not hesitate to get the right tool at the pharmacy, do not be stingy, ask for the most effective, but if it comes down to finances, it remains to hope for your perseverance (THIS METHOD IS ACTUAL FOR THOSE WHO WANT TO KEEP THE HAIR).

    When my daughter was 5 years old (we lived in a hot spot, we didn’t have the means, everyone just survived) and her hair was thick to the waist — not to cut it, it took almost a week to completely remove lice: every day I combed it out with a special comb for combing head lice (such a comb in our childhood was in every family, and now I look makes sense), then you need to comfortably position the child’s head on the pillow, sit comfortably (because you have to sit for several hours) and go through each hair, inspect the head, and at the same time with every hair remove the nits (if they exist), passing the hair between firmly pressed nails. Such an inspection is necessary every day, combed several times a day, on the fourth day the head was clean, but it is necessary to inspect some more days during the course of a few days. GOOD LUCK.

    Features of use

    To get rid of lice children is very difficult. In this case, it is advisable to use tablets based on pyrethroids or dimethicone. It is worth noting that ivermetkin is more effective than malathion. Head lice disappear in 97% of patients within 15 days. The drug is good when the external treatment has no effect.

    Tablet form remedy is an alternative treatment. Apply them at weekly intervals.

    Tablet form remedy is an alternative treatment. Apply them at intervals of a week. As an additional effect, the contaminated sites should be treated with lotion containing 0.5% malathion.

    The drug for lice is applied 3 times a day, 200 mg. After improvement is observed, the dose must be reduced.

    How to save a child from lice (video)

    The tool is contraindicated for people with:

    • stomach ulcer,
    • impaired kidney, liver,
    • heart failure
    • arrhythmia.

    The drug against lice can not be used during pregnancy and in case of hypersensitivity to any components.

    Side effects

    When taking funds can be observed side effects:

    • tachycardia, increased blood pressure,
    • nausea, heartburn, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, stomatitis, abnormal liver function,
    • tinnitus, hearing loss,
    • anemia, thrombocytopenia,
    • swelling, itching, bronchospasm,
    • headache, depression, arousal,
    • skin rash, urticaria, angioedema,
    • uterine bleeding, increased sweating.

    Opinion of experts

    Experts say the effectiveness of the drug against lice, but it is recommended not to forget about the rules of admission. So, it is possible to accept means only after food or during food intake. Moreover, the dose will have to be reduced in a few days.It is important to be observed by a specialist, then drug therapy can be carried out during the month.

    When taking an agent, side effects may occur, such as an increase in blood pressure.

    If you have asthma or intolerance to aspirin and similar drugs, your doctor will forbid you to use the drug. The harm from pills is also noted in people suffering from diseases of the mucous membrane of the digestive system, with ailments of the hematopoietic system, and pregnancy. Also, a lice medicine is prohibited to use

    • suffering from diabetes,
    • gastritis,
    • trophic ulcers,
    • allergic dermatitis.

    Post Processing Actions

    A person can return to work, to school, to kindergarten on the second day after treatment. In this case, the hair may remain nits, but it is not so important. There is no need to wear a hat in the room, just don’t give other people your stuff. Also, do not use the personal belongings of colleagues.

    If the child is infected, notify the kindergarten administration. It is important that caregivers check all children, otherwise your child may become infected again. The administration should ensure that all children remain safe; for this, caps and outerwear should be kept separate.

    Caregivers must check all children for head lice, otherwise your child may become infected again.

    Consumer reviews

    Reviews of funds from lice, produced in tablet form, a little. Many people note that if there is pain in the stomach, it is better not to use the drug. Doctors also note the high toxicity of the drug. As a rule, the drug is used if the outdoor options have not helped.

    Do not use tablets without consultation with the attending physician. At the same time, during therapy, one should monitor the state of the body in order to promptly note violations in its work that may occur during treatment.

    Other pharmaceutical preparations

    Pills started to apply for the treatment of lice recently. The essence of therapy is to make the blood unsuitable for feeding lice. When following the instructions for use, these drugs are absolutely safe for people.

    Anti-parasitic drugs are prescribed to get rid of lice. Ivermectin, Albendazole, Levamisole. The dosage on the first day is 200–400 mg three times a day, the next day, the amount of the medicine should be reduced by 2 times, children should be given half the adult dose. A week later, the course should be repeated.

    Butadion — A drug from the group of NSAIDs with pronounced anti-pediculosis action. It is prescribed for outbreaks of pediculosa in children’s and adult groups. Take the tablets after a meal, drink plenty of water.

    • adults — 0.15 g 4 times a day,
    • children 4–7 years old — 0.05 g 3 times a day,
    • children 7–10 years old — 0.08 g three times a day,
    • children over 10 years old — 0.12 g three times a day.

    Duration of treatment is 2 days, repeated medication is required after a week, since the active ingredients of the drug are not capable of destroying blood sucking eggs.

    In liquid form Lice medicines are used infrequently, as they are not very convenient to apply. One of the good ones is D95, possesses an optimum ratio of efficiency and quality, an oily structure considerably facilitates the application process.

    D95 — solution based on dimethicone, contains additional ingredients that improve the condition of the hair, give them a pleasant aroma. Comes with a comb.

    The tool is applied to dry, well-combed strands, in a thin even layer, with special attention, paying close to the root. After 45 minutes, the strands should be washed, combed thoroughly. Reprocessing should be done in 1–1.5 weeks, when nymphs hatch from eggs.

    Methods of traditional medicine

    For many years I have been studying intestinal problems, in particular salmonellosis. It is terrible when people do not know the true cause of their diseases.It turns out that the whole thing in the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori.

    These bacteria are able to live and reproduce not only in the intestine, but also in the stomach. Being introduced deep into its walls, the larvae are distributed through the whole body by the blood flow, getting into the heart, liver, and even into the brain.

    Today we will talk about the Notoxin natural product, which turned out to be incredibly effective in treating salmonellosis, as well as participating in the federal program “Healthy Nation”, thanks to which the product can get for FREE when applying until November 27th.

    Recipes for alternative medicine are easy to use, safe, rarely cause negative reactions during treatment.

    The only drawback — low efficiency, for complete disposal of lice treatment will have to be carried out repeatedly.

    1. Pour 5 tbsp. l crushed elecampane 1 liter of boiling water, leave in a sealed container for an hour, filter. Moisten the strands with a solution, rinse with warm water after a quarter of an hour. Processing done weekly.
    2. Pour 20 g of chopped mint with 220 ml of lemon or cranberry juice, stew the mixture over low heat for a quarter of an hour, cool. To rub a means in integuments, to moisten well strands, to leave for 35 minutes, to wash off in the habitual way. Sessions hold every 3-5 days.
    3. Chemerichnaya water — an inexpensive pharmacy remedy of plant origin, is highly efficient. Apply the liquid on clean wet strands over the entire length with a sponge or hair brush, cover the head with a bag or a polyethylene cap, a handkerchief, wash hands thoroughly with soap and water. Wash off the drug after 10-30 minutes with shampoo, rinse curls with plenty of warm water.

    Mechanical ways to get rid of parasites

    Combing is the safest, but rather time-consuming method of dealing with lice. The procedure should be carried out every day for a week, and sometimes a month.

    The stages of combing parasites:

    1. The person who carries out the combing should take care of his own safety — remove all the hair under the cap.
    2. Prepare in advance a deep container with a weak acetic solution for rinsing the comb or comb.
    3. For combing you need to use only special fine-toothed combs, you can purchase them at the pharmacy.
    4. It is better to carry out the procedure in a room with good lighting; cover the shoulders with a white cloth in order to see well the falling insects.
    5. Divide all the hair into thin strands, carefully comb each 5-10 times.
    6. Processed and untreated curls should not be in contact with each other, clean strands should be immediately stabbed or grabbed with rubber bands.

    The most radical, safe way to treat head lice, which helps with a 100% guarantee to get rid of lice and nits immediately — shave.

    Paws of lice can not cling to the smooth skin, so in the absence of hair immediately fall. This method is ideal for treating young children and for dealing with pubic lice in adults.

    Funds «for five kopecks»

    If you do not have drugs on hand, you can get rid of blood-sucking insects with the help of some improvised means. As a rule, they are effective only at the initial stage of the development of a parasitic infection.

    There are many cheap ways to kill lice. For example, vodka or medical alcohol diluted to 40 degrees. The liquid should be poured into a container with a spray, thoroughly treat the skin and hair along the entire length, the strands should be well moisturized.

    Then remove the curls under a dense plastic cap, heat the top with a towel, hold for 40–45 minutes, wash off in the usual way. Within a quarter of an hour after application, itching and burning are felt, which are caused by the increased activity of the dying insects.

    Sunflower oil or mayonnaise — due to the oily structure, these products penetrate into the respiratory organs of insects, which leads to their quick death.Any means to apply dry strands, cover the head with polyethylene and a warm scarf, you need to keep the compress for at least an hour, but you can leave it overnight.

    Rinse off the product in the usual way, but the shampoo will have to be used several times to eliminate excess fat.

    In 220 ml of apple or wine vinegar, you can add 45 g of ordinary salt, 5 ml of any alcohol-containing liquid, mix. Put the thin natural fabric into the solution, cover the head with it, fix it with a film.

    Compress need to wear a day, periodically re-wetting fabric. The next day, wash your hair in the usual way, the procedures carried out every 3-4 days until the complete destruction of bloodsuckers.

    For lice, it is useful to use a dust or tar soap for washing the head, after applying the strands to hide under the cap, wash off after 40–60 minutes. Typically, this tool helps to eliminate all the lice and their larvae at a time, and if necessary, repeat the session after 5 days.

    Low-cost or low-temperature exposure to parasites is also considered an inexpensive way to control lice, since parasites can only multiply effectively at a temperature of 25–30 degrees.

    Already with an increase in performance to the level of 40 units, the process of reproduction of parasites stops, and at 45 degrees nits cease to develop. Therefore, to get rid of lice in clothes, things should be washed at a temperature of at least 70 degrees, and then ironed things with an iron.

    Upholstered furniture can be steamed. Using a hair dryer or curling iron can not get rid of insects, but they will weaken for a while, which will greatly facilitate the process of combing.

    Infected clothes can be placed in the freezer for a day, hung out in the cold or the sun. With a small number of parasites, this method of control is quite effective.

    ls.palomasalon.net

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