List of diseases spread by deer tick grows, including malaria-like problems and potentially fatal encephalitis — ScienceDaily

List of diseases spread by deer tick grows, including malaria-like problems and potentially fatal encephalitis

Contents

An emerging tick-borne disease that causes symptoms similar to malaria is expanding its range in areas of the northeast where it has become well-established, according to new research presented November 12 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH).

Researchers from the Yale School of Public Health reported that from 2000 to 2008, cases of babesiosis — which invades red blood cells and is carried by the same tick that causes Lyme disease — expanded from 30 to 85 towns in Connecticut. Cases of the disease in Connecticut, where it was first reported in 1991, also have risen from 3 to about 100 cases per year.

The findings on babesiosis presented at the ASTMH annual meeting were accompanied by discussions of a range of other investigations into newly emerging tick-borne diseases, which include afflictions that can cause fatal encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain.

«Today’s findings underscore the shifting landscape of tick-borne diseases, whose rapid emergence can challenge the best efforts of science and medicine to diagnose, treat, and prevent their occurrence,» said Peter Krause, MD, a researcher at the Yale School of Public Health in New Haven, Connecticut.

ASTMH President James W. Kazura, MD, FASTMH, said: «This is a real-time illustration of the inter-connectedness of human and animal health that many people don’t often think about. Ticks are a major carrier for many human diseases and efforts like this offer timely information that is of regional and clinical importance.»

Lyme disease — with 20,000-30,000 cases reported each year in the United States — is still the best known example of a recently emerged tick-borne disease. But research points to a growing number of pathogens carried by the deer tick, all of which are expanding their range.

Malaria look-alike in United States

A prime example is babesiosis, which is caused by the parasite Babesia microti. It has similarities to malaria in that it invades and destroys red blood cells. In the United States, this parasite is the most common pathogen transmitted through blood transfusions.

Acute cases are commonly associated with fever, fatigue, chills, headache, sweats and muscle pain. Infection can be asymptomatic or severe, causing death in about 6 to 9 percent of patients hospitalized with the illness. If transmitted through a blood transfusion, the mortality rate is about 20 percent. However, if properly diagnosed, babesiosis generally is promptly cured with antibiotics.

Its range is expanding:

  • Krause’s colleague at Yale, Maria Diuk-Wasser, PhD, said that as Babesia has expanded its range. In some northern Connecticut towns the current rate of deer tick infection is now similar or even higher than in coastal Connecticut or the highly-endemic Nantucket Island, where about 10 percent of deer ticks are carrying the B. microti parasite.
  • The expansion of Babesia‘s range in Connecticut follows a similar explosion of the parasite in New York’s Lower Hudson Valley, where the number of cases diagnosed in residents increased 20-fold from 2001 to 2008, from 6 cases to 119 cases per year during 2001 to 2008.
  • Babesiosis is now considered endemic in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. And cases have turned up in at least 8 other states, from Washington to northern California in the West and from Maine to Maryland in the East.

In a separate study, Krause, Diuk-Wasser, Durland Fish, MD, and colleagues found evidence that Lyme disease and babesiosis parasite co-infection in mice appears to increase the transmission of Babesia microti and enhance its ability to become established in new areas.

They studied mice that had been deliberately infected with either one of the parasites that cause the diseases — B. microti in the case of babesiosis and B. burgdorferi for Lyme — or both at the same time. They allowed ticks to feed on the mice, and then each week over a six-week period they measured the percentage of ticks infected with each pathogen. They found ticks that fed on the mice infected with both the Lyme and babesiosis parasites were more likely to be carrying Babesia — and at higher concentrations — than ticks that fed on the mice infected only with the babesiosis parasite.

«This suggests that Lyme disease is somehow intensifying transmission of babesiosis,» Krause said.

Encephalitis-causing Ticks Emerging in Northeast

Marc El Khoury, MD, with New York Medical College in Valhalla, New York, reported on two related diseases: deer tick virus, which, as its name suggests, is carried by the hard-bodied deer tick, and Powassan virus (POWV), which is carried by a soft-bodied tick that feeds on groundhogs and woodchucks. But the two diseases share a common ancestor and are difficult to tell apart in standard antibody tests.

Until recently, however, deer tick virus was not considered a threat to human health. The first clue that deer tick virus could cause human disease came in 2001 when deer tick virus RNA, taken from the brain of a man who died in 1997 shortly after a presumed Powassan encephalitis infection, was sequenced.

Now, El Khoury reports that, in Lyme-endemic areas, many, if not all, cases previously diagnosed as POWV are likely deer tick virus. Furthermore, the number of cases appears to be rising rapidly. Between 1958 and 2003 — a span of 45 years — only about 40 cases of POWV were reported in the United States and Canada. Then, in four years, from 2008 to 2012, 21 cases were reported from Wisconsin and Minnesota, and 12 cases from New York State.

«Almost all of these cases are in Lyme country, where humans are much more likely to be preyed upon by deer ticks carrying deer tick virus than ticks carrying Powassan virus,» El Khoury said. «Now it appears that in Lyme-endemic areas, people can not only get Lyme disease or babesiosis, but also a deer tick virus-related meningoencephalitis.»

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Many infections are probably mild or asymptomatic. But more severe infections can progress to encephalitis, which can have a case fatality rate of up to 15 percent and cause permanent nerve or brain damage in about 50 percent of diagnosed cases. Powassan virus infections (that may in fact be deer tick virus) have been reported in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Maine, Vermont, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

There’s Nothing Like Family

And that’s not all. Deer ticks also are known to transmit a bacterial disease known as HGA (human granulocytic anaplasmosis) Also known as ehrlichiosis, HGA has become the third most frequent vector-borne disease in North America and Europe, and is now emerging in Asia, according to J. Stephen Dumler, MD, at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland.

HGA attacks white blood cells, and while milder forms cause fever and muscle pain, it can also cause serious disease and immune system malfunction that can lead to opportunistic infections. It is related to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (transmitted by another tick species) and typhus (transmitted by lice.)

HGA’s rapid spread has been abetted by an expanded family of deer tick relatives, with different, closely related tick species carrying the disease in the Western United States, Europe and Asia, Dumler said. But as in the case of POWV and deer tick virus, limited information can sometimes lead to incorrect conclusions when it comes to the growing menagerie of tick-borne pathogens.

Dumler reported on an unusual outbreak of life-threatening HGA in China between 2007 and 2010 that affected hundreds of patients. But when scientists looked more closely, scrutinizing patients’ blood for foreign DNA and sequencing whatever they found, the culprit was identified not as HGA but as a novel tick-borne virus — one that had a 30 percent case fatality rate. And just this summer, a novel, closely-related and dangerous tick-borne virus infected two Missouri men.

Sam Telford, SD, MS, of Tufts University in Massachusetts noted that one of the biggest challenges posed by the emergence of new tick-borne diseases is the ability to match surveillance capabilities with the discovery of new diseases.

«We increasingly need to apply the most sophisticated genetic tools to identify the numerous new tick-borne microbes that have the theoretical capacity to infect humans,» Telford said. «Only by raising awareness among health professionals of what to look for, publishing case reports with good laboratory details, and doing good epidemiology will we be able to truly understand and appropriately respond to emerging disease threats.»

www.sciencedaily.com

Consequences after a tick bite

Medical expert of the article

The period of activity of mites is observed from the end of spring to the middle of summer. The probability of getting a bite rises from May to July. The risk is not only people, but also animals. To detect a tick bite is simple. But sometimes people do not notice it before the appearance of a certain symptomatology. Usually, the bite is accompanied by reddening of the skin, in the center of it is the mite itself. It is important to remove the insect correctly, thereby saving the body from negative influences. The fact is that the consequences after a tick bite can be burdensome. More information will be provided below.

[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]

Pathogens

Consequences after a tick bite in humans

It is necessary to understand that the tick bite can have tragic consequences. This is not an easy insect. The tick is a carrier of many infectious diseases. Even if nothing has happened after the removal of the insect, the terrible symptomatology can develop a month later, leading to disability. Modern methods of treatment can eliminate all the consequences after a tick bite and protect a person from a terrible fate.

The most dangerous complication is the infection of a disease. It can happen during insect feeding. By releasing its proboscis, the mite provokes salivation. The glands that produce saliva are quite large. It is through them that infection occurs. Attaching your proboscis to the skin of a person, begins infection.

The main consequence of a bite may be viral encephalitis. This disease manifests itself as a cold. A person can be pestered with a headache, the state of health deteriorates sharply, an ache in the body is not excluded. Usually, no one thinks that the problem is caused by a tick bite. Therefore, the treatment is slightly different. Meanwhile, the situation begins to deteriorate. The incubation period lasts about a week. Detect the presence of encephalitis can be up to 3 weeks after the bite. Only after 21 days you can breathe a sigh of relief, if none of the symptoms began to manifest itself.

Another serious consequence is borreliosis. This disease is known to many as Lyme disease. It is caused by bacteria spirochetes. Mites, carriers of this disease are several times larger. It is impossible to get an inoculation against Borrelia. The disease can occur without obvious symptoms for a month, which is the main danger. You can notice a slight malaise, fever and body aches. A clear symptom is the wandering erythema. It is characterized by the appearance of a red patch in the form of a ring. Confuse him with anything you can not. Therefore, when you have erythema, you should immediately seek help. Lyme disease can lead to heart failure and provoke the development of other serious diseases. It is important to examine the body after walking in nature and seek help when strange symptoms appear.

[7], [8], [9], [10], [11]

Consequences after a tick bite in a child

The most dangerous complications for the baby is encephalitis and borreliosis. If an adult organism is able to resist these conditions, the child is not at all ready for such attacks. Therefore, while relaxing in nature, it is worthwhile to dress the baby correctly. Moreover, after returning home, it must be examined. Parents should understand that the consequences after a tick bite for a child can be really burdensome.

Tick-borne encephalitis. This is a viral infection, which is characterized by the appearance of intoxication. Often there is damage to the brain and spinal cord. As a result, a person can remain disabled. Often, the disease ends with neurological and psychiatric complications. Cases of death were recorded. You can determine the presence of encephalitis and yourself. It is characterized by muscle weakness, fever, severe headaches and muscle pain. It is not excluded temporary anorexia. This symptomatology can manifest itself within 2 months after the bite. Therefore, the state of the baby should be monitored.

Tick borreliosis. This is a serious bacterial disease. Several specific bacteria can trigger it at once. They easily enter the body after a bite. This type of disease is one of the most common. The consequences of a bite in this case are not so terrible. Symptomatics is almost the same as with encephalitis. But borreliosis is characterized by the appearance of erythema. If there are red spots on the child’s body, you should immediately go to the hospital.

[12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17]

Consequences after a tick bite in a dog

Not only people but animals can suffer from the tick bite. Most often, insects infect dogs. The consequences of a bite do not appear immediately, sometimes it takes several weeks or months. To avoid this, investigate the coat and skin of the pet after each walk. It should be noted that the dog can have consequences after a tick bite, showing himself in the most unexpected way. The most interesting thing is that it’s enough to swallow an insect to get infected.

  • So, a bite can lead to the development of Bartonella. It is characterized by the defeat of macrophages, erythrocytes and endothelial cells by bacteria of the genus Bartonella. Symptoms of the disease are varied. They can prove themselves in a few years, or instantly. The main signs are: weight loss of the animal, inflammation of the joints, drowsiness, inflammation of the eyelids and vascular diseases. Often there are nasal bleeding, swelling of the lungs and even meningitis.
  • Another consequence is hepatosonosis. Disease is not at all dangerous to humans. Its causative agent is the protozoa of the genus Hepatozoon. Parasites spread mainly in leukocytes. The disease occurs in most cases due to the ingestion of the tick, and not because of a bite. Symptomatics may not manifest itself at all. Sometimes it takes a year to determine the disease. It is characterized by weakness, joint pain and discharge from the eyes.
  • Ehrlichiosis. The causative agents of the disease are the rickettsia Ehrlichia. Basically, they parasitize inside cells. Their negative effects are susceptible to platelets, monocytes and granulocytes. This condition is characterized by the appearance of fever. To the subsidiary signs include weakness, dyspnea, the presence of blood in the urine.
  • Borreliosis. This disease is dangerous for both animals and humans. It manifests itself in the form of arthritis. First of all, the joints that are in the immediate vicinity of the bite are inflamed. Over time, you can develop limp. Symptomatic manifests itself in a couple of weeks after the bite. The main signs: lameness, apathy, weakness, poor appetite.
  • Pyroplasmosis. This disease is the most common among dogs. Its causative agent is various kinds of babesias that destroy erythrocytes. For man it is not at all dangerous. After a bite, the dog becomes sluggish, does not want to eat. Over time, jaundice may appear, the temperature will rise and develop shortness of breath. Do not exclude disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, inadequate functions of many organs and systems. If you have any symptoms, you should immediately go to the vet.
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[18], [19]

Consequences after a bite of an encephalitis tick

There are several options after the bite. The first thing to consider is a favorable outcome. It is characterized by the appearance of chronic weakness. She manifests herself for 2 months. After the expiration of the specified period, the functionality of the organism is restored. If the condition is characterized by a severe degree of development, the recovery period can last up to six months. In this case, after a bite of the encephalitis mite, serious consequences can develop.

Naturally, there is an unfavorable outcome. It is characterized by an organic syndrome with a significant decrease in the quality of life. There is a defect in motor functions. The symptomatology is able to progress. It happens against the background of stress, alcohol consumption, pregnancy and severe overwork.

The most terrible consequence is disability. The third group of disabilities are characterized by moderate paresis of the extremities. A person is extremely rarely seized with epileptic seizures. Labor skills are significantly reduced. The second group of disabilities are characterized by pronounced paresis. A person has a pronounced change in the psyche, a decrease in labor activity. The victim is unable to self-service. The first group of disabilities are characterized by severe motor disorders. Epilepsy manifests itself quite often, there is dementia, a person is not able to move without help.

Happens irreparable, can at any time. Therefore, it is worth taking care of your own health. After a walk, you should examine the body. If a tick is present, it is necessary to correct it correctly and carry it to the examination. In the hospital, preventive treatment is prescribed. Usually take the drug Rimantadine for 3 days for 2 tablets daily.

[20], [21], [22], [23], [24]

m.iliveok.com

Diseases Transmitted by Ticks

In the United States, some ticks carry pathogens that can cause human disease, including:

  • Anaplasmosis is transmitted to humans by tick bites primarily from the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern U.S. and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) along the Pacific coast.
  • Babesiosis is caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells. Most human cases of babesiosis in the U.S. are caused by Babesia microti. Babesia microti is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and is found primarily in the northeast and upper midwest.
  • Borrelia mayonii infection has recently been described as a cause of illness in the upper midwestern United States. It has been found in blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Borrelia mayonii is a new species and is the only species besides B. burgdorferi known to cause Lyme disease in North America.
  • Borrelia miyamotoi infection has recently been described as a cause of illness in the U.S. It is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and has a range similar to that of Lyme disease.
  • Bourbon virus infection has been identified in a limited number patients in the Midwest and southern United States. At this time, we do not know if the virus might be found in other areas of the United States.
  • Colorado tick fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). It occurs in the the Rocky Mountain states at elevations of 4,000 to 10,500 feet.
  • Ehrlichiosis is transmitted to humans by the lone star tick (Ambylomma americanum), found primarily in the southcentral and eastern U.S.
  • Heartland virus cases have been identified in the Midwestern and southern United States. Studies suggest that Lone Star ticks can transmit the virus. It is unknown if the virus may be found in other areas of the U.S.
  • Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern U.S. and upper midwestern U.S. and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) along the Pacific coast.
  • Powassan disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the groundhog tick (Ixodes cookei). Cases have been reported primarily from northeastern states and the Great Lakes region.
  • Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis is transmitted to humans by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum).
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is transmitted by the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), and the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sangunineus) in the U.S. The brown dog tick and other tick species are associated with RMSF in Central and South America.
  • STARI (Southern tick-associated rash illness) is transmitted via bites from the lone star tick (Ambylomma americanum), found in the southeastern and eastern U.S.
  • Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected soft ticks. TBRF has been reported in 15 states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming and is associated with sleeping in rustic cabins and vacation homes.
  • Tularemia is transmitted to humans by the dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), the wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), and the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). Tularemia occurs throughout the U.S.
  • 364D rickettsiosis (Rickettsia phillipi, proposed) is transmitted to humans by the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis ticks). This is a new disease that has been found in California.

This list shows the most common tickborne diseases outside the United States, but does not list every disease.

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is found in Eastern Europe, particularly in the former Soviet Union; in northwestern China; central Asia; southern Europe; Africa; the Middle East; and the Indian subcontinent.
  • Imported tickborne spotted fevers (rickettsial infections) have caused infection in returning travelers. In the U.S., the most frequently diagnosed rickettsial infection associated with international travel is caused by Rickettsia africae (the agent of African spotted fever).
  • Kyasanur forest disease is found in southern India and is typically associated with exposure to ticks while harvesting forest products. Additionally, a similar virus has been described in Saudi Arabia (Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus).
  • Lyme disease can be contracted in temperate forested regions throughout Europe and northern Asia, although it is more common in eastern and central Europe than western Europe. Lyme disease outside the United States is often caused by different genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and may have somewhat different symptoms. Antibodies to Borreliaburgdorferi sensu lato species that cause infection outside the United States may not be reliably detected by all tests used for Lyme disease in the United States. Providers who suspect internationally-acquired Lyme disease should use diagnostic tests that have been validated for these species.
  • Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever (OHF) occurs in the western Siberia regions of Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan, and Tyumen. It may be also be acquired by direct contact with infected muskrats.
  • Tickborne encephalitis (TBE) occurs in some forested areas in Europe and Asia, from eastern France to northern Japan and from northern Russia to Albania. TBE is caused by TBE virus, a flavivirus that is closely related to Powassan virus. TBE virus has three subtypes: European, Siberian, and Far Eastern. TBE virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Ixodes species ticks. It can also be acquired by ingesting unpasteurized dairy products (such as milk and cheese) from infected goats, sheep, or cows.
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Note: Anaplasmosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, tickborne relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Powassan disease can also be acquired internationally.

www.cdc.gov

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