Insect Pests in Potato

Chapter 25 — Insect Pests in Potato

Publisher Summary

This chapter details the insect pests in potato with their management. There are various insect pests of potato capable of causing tuber yield or quality reductions of 30%–70% if not routinely controlled. Losses of this magnitude can occur in potatoes unprotected from Colorado potato beetle, aphid-transmitted viruses, e.g., potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY), potato tuber moths (potato tuberworm), Guatemalan moth and tomato leafminer, pea leafminer, Andean potato weevils and potato leafhopper. Considerable progress has been made in understanding pest biology and ecology and applying this knowledge to the management of the crop. Examples include establishment of economic thresholds for key pests, development of strategies for managing insecticide resistance, increased understanding and quantification of multiple pest interactions and elucidation of vector–virus relationships. Integrated pest management (IPM) has been defined variously, but the common theme is that reliance on pesticides should be reduced by use of alternative control measures substituting a coordinated, systems approach. For potato, IPM measures may include the use of resistant or tolerant varieties, introduction or enhancement of natural enemies, cultural manipulations of the crop and pest environment and careful selection and timing of chemical applications. The argument is often advanced that in developing countries there usually is not enough information available on the various components to formulate IPM programs. A counterpoint to that argument is that IPM implementation efforts often reveal knowledge gaps that in turn serve to focus on research resources where they are most needed.

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Insect Pests of Potato

Book • 2013

Andrei Alyokhin, Charles Vincent and Philippe Giordanengo

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Insect Pests of Potato: Biology and Management provides a comprehensive source of up-to-date scientific information on the biology and management of insects attacking potato crops, with an international and expert cast of contributors providing its contents. This book presents a complete review of the scientific literature from the considerable research effort over the last 15 years, providing the necessary background information to the subject of studying the biology management of insect pests of potatoes, assessment of recent scientific advances, and a list of further readings. This comprehensive review will be of great benefit to a variety of scientists involved in potato research and production, as well as to those facing similar issues in other crop systems.

Insect Pests of Potato: Biology and Management provides a comprehensive source of up-to-date scientific information on the biology and management of insects attacking potato crops, with an international and expert cast of contributors providing its contents. This book presents a complete review of the scientific literature from the considerable research effort over the last 15 years, providing the necessary background information to the subject of studying the biology management of insect pests of potatoes, assessment of recent scientific advances, and a list of further readings. This comprehensive review will be of great benefit to a variety of scientists involved in potato research and production, as well as to those facing similar issues in other crop systems.

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Top Five GMO Failures

Once permits are approved, Florida field trials will begin for the latest bioengineered crop—oranges. Designed by scientists at Cornell University, this new variety of Hamlin orange is similar to other genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in that it creates its own pesticide.

Depending upon the interest generated from farmers and industry, GMO oranges could be the next big crop—or flop. Genetically altered versions of crops have proven wildly successful in American agriculture—nearly all U.S. grown soy, corn, and cotton are bioengineered according to the Department of Agriculture (USDA)—but the industry also has a history of franken-failures.

Flavr Savr Tomato

Bioengineers manipulate plant genetics to produce all kinds of advantages. Flavr Savr tomato, the first GMO to enter the U.S. market, focused on taste and travel.

From farm to supermarket, tomatoes are often green. The method works well for shipping, but is not so great for taste. In the 1980s, researchers at Calgene, Inc. (now owned by Monsanto) designed a tomato that could withstand the rigors of transport, even after vine ripening, and still have a long, attractive shelf life.

The Flavr Savr tomato was approved for sale in 1994, and GMO tomato paste soon outpaced conventional. However, after Dr. Arpad Pusztai revealed on British television that several test rats developed gut lesions and died after consuming GMO potatoes, public opinion turned and sales plummeted. Government and industry painted Pusztai a fraud, but Flavr Savr was defeated.

NewLeaf Potato

In 1995, Monsanto completed U.S. regulatory requirements for the NewLeaf potato, a Russet Burbank variety designed to ward off the Colorado potato beetle. But a 1998 study from the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences showed that rats consuming NewLeaf experienced considerable organ damage—observations similar to those of Pusztai.

By 1999, U.S. farmers had planted about 50,000 acres of NewLeaf potatoes. The bioengineered spud was intended to be a big seller in the fast food and snack markets, but the food industry lost interest quickly. In 2000, Proctor & Gamble, McDonald’s, Frito-Lay, and others told suppliers that they preferred non-GMO potatoes.

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By 2001, sales and marketing of NewLeaf was suspended. But according to a statement from the Monsanto website, “the products remain fully approved in the United States and Canada,” and may be released again once market demand returns.

Starlink Corn

One of the top GMO success stories is corn. Eighty-eight percent of U.S.-grown maize is now genetically engineered, but one particular strain released in 1998 caused big problems for conventional farmers.

Analysts determined that Starlink—a transgenic variety of yellow corn designed to rupture the stomach cells of pesky caterpillars—showed a potential for allergic reaction in humans. So when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved Starlink, it was restricted exclusively to animal feed and fuel.

Despite precautions, the new corn soon wormed its way into the food supply. In just a few years, Starlink DNA was found in several corn varieties, and its widespread contamination was responsible for the recall of dozens of products. Starlink has been out of production for over a decade, but contamination was found in the Saudi Arabian food supply as recently as August 2013.

In 2003, Aventis CropScience paid a group of U.S. farmers $110 million in a class-action lawsuit for the drop in corn prices associated with the Starlink contamination. The EPA later granted Starlink temporary approval for human consumption, but Aventis withdrew the registration.

LibertyLink Rice

In another case of genetic contamination, Bayer AG paid $750 million to thousands of U.S. farmers in 2011 after regulators determined that the company’s experimental LibertyLink rice had infested conventional long grain. The LibertyLink contamination not only caused a substantial drop in rice futures, but an entire strain of rice was lost for good.

Wheat

GMO corn and soy have dominated American agriculture, but a genetically altered variation of the nation’s third-largest crop, wheat, never took off.

In 2002, biotechnology giant Monsanto submitted an application for a wheat strain engineered with the same herbicide-resistant signature found in its other successful seed crops. But wheat growers backed away because foreign buyers were not interested and instead feared possible contamination with GMO varieties.

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Involvement of LvSID-1 in dsRNA uptake in Litopenaeus vannamei

Highlights

LvSID-1 mRNA in the hepatopancreas was higher than in gills or muscle.

Injection of long dsRNA induced LvSID-1 in gill and muscle, but not hepatopancreas.

Uptake of Cy3-labeled dsRNA was significantly improved in hemocytes of LvSID-1 induced shrimp.

Gene silencing was significantly improved in gills of LvSID-1 induced shrimp.

LvSID-1 may participate in the uptake of injected dsRNA into shrimp cells.

Abstract

In the past decade, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a successful tool for functional genomics and anti-viral applications in shrimp. However, the mechanism of extracellular dsRNA uptake into shrimp cells has not been determined. Systemic RNA interference defective-1 protein (SID-1) is a transmembrane protein which is required for dsRNA transport between cells in several organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans but not in Drosophila and some insects. Recently, a SID-1 homolog (LvSID-1) was identified in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether LvSID-1 is involved in the uptake of dsRNA into shrimp cells. LvSID-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in gills and muscles but not in hepatopancreas of the shrimp that received long dsRNA introduced by injection. To elucidate the role of LvSID-1 in dsRNA uptake, a strategy of sequential introduction of dsRNAs was employed. Shrimp were initially injected with a long dsRNA to induce LvSID-1 mRNA expression. In a first experiment hemocytes of the LvSID-1 induced shrimp were then collected and seeded in a chamber slide before incubation with Cy3-labeled dsRNA to monitor cellular uptake. Under a confocal microscope, the Cy3 signal in the LvSID-1 induced hemocytes was significantly higher than the signal in naïve hemocytes. In a second experiment, LvSID-1 induced shrimp were separately injected with a second dsRNAs specific to a shrimp endogenous gene (signal transduction and transcription protein (STAT) or clathrin heavy chain (CHC)). Levels of STAT or CHC suppression in the LvSID-1 induced-shrimp compared with the control shrimp reflected the efficiency of uptake of the second dsRNA. Significantly, improved suppression of STAT and CHC was found in gills of the LvSID-1 induced shrimp. These results suggest that LvSID-1 participates in the uptake of injected dsRNA into shrimp cells. This study reports for the first time the involvement of the LvSID-1 in dsRNA uptake in shrimp, which could help to improve the potency of RNAi mediated anti-viral approaches in shrimp in the future.

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Spinosad

What is Spinosad?

Spinosad (pronounced «spin-OH-sid») is an active ingredient pesticide derived from fermentation of naturally occurring organisms found in soil samples. It is very similar to other fermented pesticides but lasts more than twice as long and has a faster speed of control. Spinosad is valued for uniquely combining the best properties of both synthetic and biological pest control products and boasts broad-spectrum control over some of the more difficult vegetable pests.

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Spinosad controls a wide variety of pests including fleas, caterpillars, fruit flies, spider mites, fire ants, leaf beetle larvae, thrips, leaf miners and leaf beetle larvae to name only a few. It is recommended as one component of Integrated Pest Management for greenhouses because it does not target beneficial insects such as ladybugs and predatory mites. Another common use of Spinosad is as an anti-flea medication for dogs and cats.

Mode of Action

When target pests ingest or simply come into contact with the active ingredient Spinosad, it causes rapid excitation of that insect’s nervous system. It will then die within one to two days. Spinosad is valued as an active ingredient in part because it has little effect on non-target predatory pests.

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Toxicity

Spinosad carries the signal word CAUTION on its label. There is little known risk to workers and applicators and no specific protection requirements are listed. Spinosad shows very low toxicity to mammals if ingested.

Products Containing Spinosad

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We sell professional do it yourself pest control (diy), exterminator and
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Prestige from the Colorado potato beetle: instruction and application features

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