Chicken Fleas — Ceratophyllus Gallinae Bites

Chicken Fleas – Ceratophyllus Gallinae Bites

Fleas are ectoparasites that affect not only mammals such as dogs and cats, but also wild birds and domestic poultry.

Chicken fleas or Ceratophyllus Gallinae are a common problem in Europe and North America, affecting nearly 75 species of birds and mammals. They are known to infest bird cages, poultry shelters and other building structures where animals and birds are housed. Both the male and female Ceratophyllus Gallinae are known to bite their hosts, leaving behind red bite marks and spots. In case of very large infestations, it is not uncommon to see a decrease in egg production owing to chicken fleas.

Other common poultry fleas include the Sticktight flea and the Western Chicken flea (Ceratophyllus Niger), which you may also encounter depending on the area you live in.

Appearance and life cycle of Ceratophyllus Gallinae

Morphologically, chicken fleas can be identified based on the 4-6 bristles present on the surface of the hind femur. The adults are 2-2.5 mm long. They have a pair of eyes and 24 teeth. There are no spines on the basal section of the legs. The life cycle consists of eggs, three larval stages, pupa stage followed by adult chicken fleas.

The adult fleas spend the majority of their time hiding in the host’s nests and come out and latch onto the birds to feed for short durations.

Symptoms of chicken flea bites

Chicken fleas and their bites can bring about varied responses depending on the sensitivity of the host animal.

  • These ectoparasites leave hemorrhagic saliva on the victim that can lead to severe itching, irritation and rashes.
  • The size of each blood meal of the Ceratophyllus Gallinae is generally small. However, repeated feedings and very large scale infestations can sometimes lead to fatal iron deficiency or anemia, especially in very young fowls.
  • Pruritis, allergic dermatitis and secondary skin infections from chicken flea bites are common. These can lead to decreased egg production.
  • Primary lesions, crusted papules and alopecia are also common due to chicken flea bites.
  • Ceratophyllus Gallinae are known vectors of serious diseases like plague, tularaemia etc.

Treating bites on chickens and other birds

If you discover symptoms of chicken flea bites, proper treatment needs to be initiated.

  • It is important to identify which animals have been bitten. This is generally done by observing the birds for signs of agitation, extreme itching etc. Younger fowls will look disheveled and restless.
  • Isolate the affected birds and treat them with dry fowl shampoo. Aloe Vera lotion, chamomile or other soothing lotions containing Calamine etc. can be applied to the bird’s bodies. This will help soothe the bitten area.
  • It is important to follow the cleaning procedures explained below in order to prevent further bites on the body.

Getting rid of chicken fleas

To get rid of chicken fleas and avoid further infestations, follow these steps.

  1. The first thing to do is to keep the chicken coop clean and tidy. Clean and replace the bedding and nesting boxes regularly. Periodic inspection of the boxes, roosts and beds, especially around the corners, can help prevent large Ceratophyllus Gallinae infestations down the line. Throw away or burn infested beds if required.
  2. Food grade diatomaceous earth powders can be sprinkled liberally around the coop. These are readily available in gardening supply stores. The powder works by dehydrating the chicken fleas and shredding their insides. The chicken flock can also be regularly dusted with the powders.
  3. Apple cider vinegar is especially beneficial in treating chicken fleas on the host bird’s body. Diluted ACV can be sprinkled directly on the birds, taking care not to hit the bird’s eyes or mouth.
  4. It is important to avoid using dog or cat flea products. Permethrin, Carbaryl or boric acid powders can be fatal to the chickens.

There are many effective products and methods available in the market for preventing and treating Ceratophyllus Gallinae infestations. However, many of the treatments described above need to be repeated every 10 days in order to break the flea life cycle. This is especially important to prevent re-infestation of chicken fleas.

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www.fleabites.net

Top 11 Ways to Accidentally Kill Your Chickens

Posted by The Happy Chicken Coop on July 5, 2016 Posted In: Features

Last updated on March 25th, 2020 at 12:35 pm

Over recent years, many people have taken the plunge and decide to keep chickens.

Unfortunately, some people have done so without doing even basic research into the care and upkeep of their flock.

Subsequently, some birds languish or die simply from lack of appropriate care or attention.

This is certainly something you don’t want and something which can be easily avoided.

We have put together some of the most common ways in which chicks or chickens health and survival can be severely impacted and what you can do to avoid these things.

Coop Fires

This is the number one cause of death for many chicks. Setting up the heat lamp safely is very important, not only for the safety of your birds, but your property too. The number of coop or barn fires caused by heat lamps that have not been secured correctly is depressing.

In springtime people get ready for the chicks- preparing the brooder, bedding etc. and of course, a heat lamp. Heat of some type is needed to keep the chicks warm through their first few weeks of life.

I cannot stress enough to double and triple check the securing of the heat lamp. If the lamp should fall into the bedding, it will start a fire in less than two minutes as the heat from the lamp is that intense.

I have recently used a heating plate for my chicks with great success and little fear of fire. I do, however, use a heat lamp on occasion. I use a metal chain to suspend the fixture, duct tape to secure the wiring and an extra securing with strong twine for securing all!

We have talked in our complete guide to raising chickens in winter about heating the coop during winter. Adult chickens do not need extra heat over the winter. They are able to keep themselves warm enough, adding a lamp is not necessary.

Family Pets (Dogs!)

Dogs love to chase things- rabbits, cats, the mailman, and baby chicks.

It is their nature to do this and expecting them to not chase chicks is a bit optimistic. Dogs can be trained to interact with chickens, but it takes time and patience on everyone’s behalf.

You need to train them young!

Many folks have dogs and cats happily co-existing with their flock.

Training a puppy is best since they can be trained easily at this age. An older dog can learn but the process will be longer and many folks do not have the time or patience for correction training.

If you simply don’t have the time, ensure that your chickens are safe from your dog. Be aware that smaller terrier type dogs will dig under wire, so you need to protect against that possibility by burying your wire mesh.

Lack of Security

Chicken is a favorite dinner for many predators- foxes, raccoons, hawks and so forth, so you need to have top notch security for your birds.

This is a good place to note that chicken wire keeps chickens in- but will not keep predators out! Many people have found this out the hard way thinking their birds are secure and safe only to find it wasn’t so.

Your coop should be able to withstand assault from many different sources. Rats for instance will gnaw through the base or side of a run to access the feed, eggs or small chicks. Always check your coop perimeters weekly for signs of damage.

A good way to ensure they don’t eat through the floor of the coop is to cover it with half inch hardware cloth. This prevents them from gaining access to your flock.

We all know how cute raccoons are right? You won’t think so if one gets into your coop.

They are incredibly smart and can figure out how to open simple locks. It has been said that if a three year old child can open the lock, so can a raccoon. Use locking mechanisms that require an opposable thumb to open- raccoons can’t open these.

Foxes, coyotes, weasels will all try to dig into your run and coop. Be sure that your perimeters are safe and remember to bury your hardware mesh.

Hawks are difficult to protect against if you pasture your chickens.

Birds of prey are protected species so cannot be trapped or harmed. If you have an outside run, try to cover it over with wire mesh (chicken wire will do here). If that isn’t possible, string a thick twine or similar across the top of the run in a random fashion.

The idea is to disrupt the flight path of the bird and make it extremely difficult to enter and leave the run from above.

Poison

It is said that if you have poultry you will have vermin. Rats, mice, voles and chipmunks will all visit the henhouse looking for food.

There are several ways to deter these visitors and one of them is the use of poison. Bait stations can be enclosed so that chickens cannot reach the poison itself, but the rodent will leave the station and go to die somewhere else.

If the carcass is found by the chickens they will peck at it and possibly eat it- they can become very ill or simply die themselves.

There are three different types of poison in common use:

  • Bromethalin: This is a very potent neurotoxin that kills within twenty four hours. This type of poison has no antidote, so should not be used around livestock, pets or small children.
  • Vitamin Based: Will kill within twenty four hours. This does have an antidote but should be used cautiously when animals, birds and small children are present.
  • Anti-Coagulants: Probably the most widely used poison around. It is slow acting so takes time to be effective. Again, this needs to be used cautiously around livestock. If you suspect an animal has ingested any of these, call the veterinarian immediately.

Always use poison with extreme caution around any livestock, pets and children. Animals can and do eat poisoned meat and become sick themselves.

Chickens and Chemicals Don’t Mix!

If you house your chickens in a barn or some other multi-purpose building, make sure any chemicals are safely stored away.

Chickens are plain nosey and will investigate just about anything if they think its food!

Bleach, gasoline, oils, antifreeze should all be contained within a cupboard or placed out of reach for your hens.

Livestock medicines are potentially deadly to hens if they can access an open container. They are incredibly curious creatures and will investigate almost anything, so be sure to close all containers tightly.

I told you chickens were curious!

Glass, Wire and Nails

Whilst they are pecking around for grit and tidbits they may pick up small pieces of glass, wire, nails or other metal odds. The item is likely to lodge in the gizzard where it can cause bleeding, infection or even death.

If you are working on a project make sure you clean up all your stuff. Have a small container on hand for any detritus to go into so the hens can’t eat them!

Dehydration

In the summer heat, each hen can drink around a pint of water a day. They absolutely must have access to clean, fresh water at all times.

I use three separate one gallon drinkers for thirty hens and I fill these daily at least once. If you are unable to check on the status of your drinkers frequently, simply buy bigger drinkers. It’s quite easy to figure out how much water they will need- one hen = one pint.

It is important to have more than one drinking station. Occasionally you will get a hen that will guard her drinker so the lowest in the pecking order may get deprived.

Dehydration can quickly overcome a hen, eventually leading to death. If a hen has not had consistent access to water through the day, she will not lay eggs well for the next couple of weeks.

Dangerous Foods

We all love to spoil our girls with treats and special ‘tidbits’. Please make sure you aren’t giving them something that is bad for them!

Here are some of the foods they should not be given.

Absolute no-nos’- chocolate, caffeine, alcohol, raw dried beans, moldy produce, avocados’ and salty stuff.

There is controversy over the humble potato– some people say absolutely no, others will feed cooked peelings or mashed potato to their flock. The potato and tomato are both members of the nightshade family so if you’re cautious it’s wise to stay away from them.

If you feed apples to your girls, do try to remove the seeds as they contain trace amounts of cyanide.

Having said that, chickens have been trawling through orchards for years and few have died from eating apple seeds.

Rhubarb leaves are also toxic to chickens. I have two hens that ate all of my rhubarb leaves last year! They are still alive, but I’m not sure what the long term effects may be.

The rhubarb is better protected this year!

Neglect

If you are reading this, you are unlikely to be neglecting your birds!

There are people who expect their hens to be completely self- sufficient and do not buy any feed believing that the chicken can find enough to live on in the yard.

Certainly in earlier times this was the norm for chickens.

They would scratch around on the farm and gather enough substance to stay alive. It should also be noted that in the ‘old time’ hens laid considerably fewer eggs because their diet was so bad.

Chickens can also be ‘hoarded’ just like cats and dogs. In these instances usually animal rescue services get involved. In fact, many bird rescue places will try to rehome hens with responsible owners.

Garden Plants

We all love to let out girls out to patrol the yard and dispatch unwelcome guests such as caterpillars and bugs. Are your garden plants safe for them to nibble at?

I think most people know that foxglove gives us digitalis, a potent medicine that lowers the heart rate. It is most definitely not for chicken consumption!

Some of the other toxic plants on the list are: holly, lobelia angels’ trumpet, jimsonweed, pokeberry, sweet pea, honeysuckle, bleeding hearts, myrtle and elderberry.

This is by no means a comprehensive list these are just a few of the many toxic plants out there.

Interestingly, many of those plants mentioned are also poisonous to humans too! Chickens are pretty smart (mostly) and avoid things they should not eat.

Lack of Health Care/Checks

As we all know chickens aren’t much bothered by HMOs’.

They do however, need regular health checks. They can suffer from a variety of pests and parasites, so it is up to the responsible keeper to do regular checks on each bird.

Parasites such as mites can make a bird become so anemic that the bird will die. A worm infestation can cause birds to drop weight, become lethargic and non-productive- gapeworm can even cause a bird to suffocate!

Every day when you see your girls, you should be making mental notes- Emily seems depressed today, Betty is preening excessively etc. Each of these mental notes will guide you when you check your hen over.

Sometimes there isn’t anything obvious wrong, but you get the feeling somethings ‘up’.

This is being in tune with your flock and catching problems before they get out of hand. To ignore subtle warning signs is not a good policy and can be detrimental to the wellbeing of your entire flock.

Too Much Diatomaceous Earth

There’s a truth to the saying, too much of anything is a bad thing. And when it comes to diatomaceous earth (DE) there isn’t any better way of saying it.

While DE is thought to rid chickens of external, and internal parasites, too much can cause respiratory problems.

It’s easy to go gung-ho on the DE in your coop, especially when you know there are mites present, but it’s best to remove your chickens before dusting the entire coop. The particles (the silty silica) in DE are easily inhaled and can cause your chickens to have breathing problems, and even die if they’ve inhaled too much.

This is especially concerning if you keep your chickens in a confined area, where they can’t escape the dust from DE.

Mixing DE with other types of dirt and soil can be helpful in avoiding problems, but whenever using DE take care not to overdo it and suffocate your chickens.

Summary

Even if you are a diligent and caring flock keeper, accidents can and do happen. You cannot be perfect all of the time.

Many of the things mentioned here you are likely already doing because you love your ladies!

We hope that this article has opened your eyes to a few potential hazards to your flock and made you think about your own situation and how it can perhaps be improved or changed.

Do you have any other accidents to add to the list? Let us know in the comments below…

  • How to choose the perfect breed of chicken for you- including our top 5 beginner picks.
  • What to feed them for optimal health and egg laying, including if you’re on a tight budget.
  • From bringing your chicks home for the first time to putting eggs on the table, we’ve got it all covered.

www.thehappychickencoop.com

Safe Ways to Treat a Fever

Kristina Duda, BSN, RN, CPN, has been working in healthcare since 2002. She specializes in pediatrics and disease and infection prevention.

Sarah Rahal, MD, is a double board-certified adult and pediatric neurologist and headache medicine specialist.

There are a lot of myths surrounding fevers, how dangerous they are and how to get them to come down. Many people are surprised to learn that it often isn’t necessary to try to bring a fever down at all. But if a fever is making you or your child uncomfortable, there are things you can do to bring it down safely—and a lot of things you shouldn’t do.

Worried about the new coronavirus? Learn about COVID-19, including symptoms and how it’s diagnosed. Plus, answers to common questions, including whether ibuprofen is safe when COVID-19 is suspected.

How You Can Help

Fevers most often occur when our bodies are trying to fight infections. The internal body temperature goes up as a defense mechanism, trying to make the body hot enough so the germs that are invading won’t survive.   In this way, fevers are a good thing.

Of course, they can also make us feel pretty terrible. We often feel achy and miserable when we have fevers and just want to be as comfortable as possible.

Children often deal with fevers better than adults do. If your child has a fever but is still playing and for the most part is still acting like himself, there is no need to do anything to bring his temperature down.

  • Try Fever Reducers. Fever-reducing medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin) is one of the simplest and most effective ways to bring down a fever. Acetaminophen can be used in children as young as 2 months old. However, if your baby is younger than 3 months and has a fever — contact his Pediatrician before giving any medicine. Ibuprofen can be used in children as young as 6 months old. Aspirin should not be given to kids but can be used in adults over age 18.   These medicines work relatively quickly and can make you feel better for 4-8 hours.
  • Drink More Fluids. Staying hydrated is really important all the time but even more so when you have a fever. A higher body temperature can lead to dehydration more quickly. Drinking cool liquids can decrease the chances that you get dehydrated and can even help cool off your body.  
  • Take a Bath. Taking a bath can help bring down your fever, but the really important part is that it can’t be a cold bath. Although that might seem like it would help more than taking a warm bath, getting in cold or ice water will cause shivering which can actually increase your internal temperature.   Getting into a bath that is a comfortable temperature for you will help you relax and could bring down the fever as well.
  • Cool Packs Under the Arms. A commonly used first aid technique to bring down high temperature, or hyperthermia, is to put cool packs under the arms and in the groin area. This is most often used in cases where a person is overheated because of outside factors (such as exercising or being outside for extended periods of time in high heat) but it might also help if a fever is high.   It’s important to know that the fever may return after removing cool packs. You also shouldn’t use ice packs — cool washcloths are sufficient.

What You Shouldn’t Do

Unfortunately, many people are fearful of fevers and may make dangerous mistakes attempting to get the temperature down. These are the things you should never do to try to get a fever down.

  • Rub Down with Alcohol. This old fever-reducing remedy is a really bad idea. If someone recommends that you use rubbing alcohol on yourself or your child to bring down a temperature, please don’t. Not only is it ineffective, it can cause alcohol poisoning.  
  • Get In an Ice Bath. As discussed above, taking a bath is okay as long as it is warm. Taking an ice bath may bring your body temperature down (very) temporarily but it will quickly cause shivering, which actually makes your core temperature rise.  
  • Double up on Medications. Taking too much fever-reducing medicine or taking two different kinds at once is not only ineffective, it’s dangerous. It can damage your organs and won’t bring your temperature down any faster. Because acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose is one of the most common reasons kids are seen in the emergency room, health care providers recommend that you don’t alternate fever-reducing medications, write down when you last gave the medication, communicate with other caregivers so extra medicine is not given unknowingly and keep all medicines out of the reach of children. It’s also really important to check the ingredients of all of the medicines you are using. Many multi-symptom cough and cold remedies contain acetaminophen. You should not give extra fever-reducing medicine if you are also giving one of these multi-symptom medications that contains acetaminophen or another fever reducer.

Fever Facts to Know

Understandably, people are often concerned about fevers. And there are times when you should see a doctor for a fever, but it is very rare because of the number on the thermometer. The exception to this rule is fever in young infants. Any child under 3 months old with a temperature over 100.4 degrees F needs to be evaluated by a healthcare provider (preferably a Pediatrician).   Babies between 3 and 6 months with a temperature over 102.2 degrees F should be seen by their doctor as well.   This is not because the fever is going to hurt them, but infants can have very serious illnesses that cause fevers and they may need special tests performed to make sure they are treated properly.

If you are worried about your temperature or your child’s temperature, it is always okay to contact your health care provider to discuss symptoms and get recommendations for treatment.

www.verywellhealth.com

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