11 amazing Dates nutrition facts and health benefits
Dates nutrition facts
- 1 Dates nutrition facts
- 2 Health benefits of dates
- 3 Drupe millipede — nutrition, reproduction features
- 4 THIS IS HOW IT WORKS
- 5 reproduction
- 6 QUIZZES
- 7 Origin of reproduction
- 8 SYNONYMS FOR reproduction
- 9 OTHER WORDS FROM reproduction
- 10 Words nearby reproduction
- 11 Words related to reproduction
- 12 Example sentences from the Web for reproduction
- 13 Explore Dictionary.com
- 14 Reproductive Biology
- 15 Millipede
- 16 Millipede Facts
- 17 Millipede Location
- 18 Millipede
- 19 Diplopoda: Characteristics, Definition, Habitat & Examples
- 20 What Animals are in Class Diplopoda?
- 21 Characteristics of Diplopods
- 22 Habitat of Diplopods
- 23 Unlock Content
- 24 Millipedes, Class Diplopoda
- 25 Habits and Traits
- 26 All About Millipedes
- 27 The Millipede Diet
- 28 The Millipede Life Cycle
- 29 Special Adaptations and Defenses of Millipedes
- 30 Praying Mantis: Class, Characteristics, Reproduction
- 31 KEY FEATURES
- 32 BASIC FEATURES
- 33 DIET & COMBAT STYLE
- 34 REPRODUCTION
- 35 GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
- 36 CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
What nutrients are there in dates? A lot indeed! Here are sweet, delicious fruits from the tropical oasis, brimming with much-needed minerals and energy to help stay fit and healthy.
Botanically they are the «drupe» (single pitted) fruits, grow on the palm tree belonging to the family of Arecaceae, in the genus: Phoenix, and scientifically named as Phoenix dactylifera. The tree is believed to originate in the lands on the banks of Nile and Euphrates Rivers of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Date palm is now grown extensively for its edible fruits under warmer climates across all the continents.
|Delicious Arabian dates.|
The date fruit is a «drupe,» in which its outer fleshy part (exocarp and mesocarp) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. The fruit is oval to cylindrical in shape, 3вЂ“7 cms long, and 2вЂ“3 cms diameter, and ripe dates range from golden yellow, amber, bright-red to deep-brown depending on the cultivar type.
There are many varieties of date palm cultivated. вЂAmir Hajj,вЂ™ вЂSaidy,вЂ™ ‘Khadrawy’ and ‘Medjool’ are some of the important varieties popular for their rich taste, flavor, and superior quality.
Health benefits of dates
Wonderfully delicious, dates are one of the most popular fruits packed with an impressive list of phyotnutrients, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for normal growth, development, and overall well-being.
Fresh dates compose of soft, easily digestible flesh and simple sugars like fructose and dextrose. 100 g of mejdool dates hold 277 calories. When eaten, they replenish energy and revitalize the body instantly. For these qualities, they traditionally served to break the fast during Ramadan month since ancient times.
The fruit is rich in dietary fiber, which prevents LDL cholesterol absorption in the gut. Additionally, the fiber diet works as a bulk laxative. It, thus, helps protect the colon mucous membrane from cancer-causing chemicals binding to it in the colon.
They contain health benefiting flavonoid polyphenolic antioxidants known as tannins. Tannins are known to possess anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hemorrhagic (prevent easy bleeding tendencies) properties.
They are minor sources of vitamin-A (contains 149 IU or 5% of RDA per 100 g), which is known to have antioxidant properties and essential for vision. Additionally, it is also required maintaining healthy mucosa and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A is known to help protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
They compose antioxidant flavonoids such as Гџ-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. These antioxidants found to have the ability to protect cells and other structures in the body from harmful effects of oxygen-free radicals. Thus, eating dates found to offer some protection from colon, prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers.
Zeaxanthin is an important dietary carotenoid that selectively absorbed into the retinal macula lutea, where it thought to provide antioxidant and protective light-filtering functions. It thus offers protection against age-related macular degeneration, especially in the older adults.
Dates are excellent source of iron, carry 0.90 mg/100 g of fruits (about 11% of RDI). Iron, being a component of hemoglobin inside the red blood cells, determines the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
Further, they are excellent sources of potassium. 100 g contains 696 mg or 16% of daily recommended levels of this electrolyte. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help regulate heart rate and blood pressure. They, thus, offer protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases.
Date fruits are also rich in minerals like calcium, manganese, copper, and magnesium. Calcium is an important mineral that is an essential constituent of bone and teeth and required by the body for muscle contraction, blood clotting, and nerve impulse conduction. The human body uses manganese as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Copper required for the production of red blood cells. Magnesium is essential for bone growth.
Further, the fruit has moderate levels of the B-complex group of vitamins as well as vitamin-K. It contains healthy amounts of pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), niacin, pantothenic acid, and riboflavin. These vitamins are acting as cofactors help body metabolize carbohydrates, protein, and fats. Vitamin-K is essential for many coagulant factors in the blood as well as in bone metabolism.
See the table below for in depth analysis of nutrients:
Dates (Phoenix dactylifera), medjool, Nutritive Value per 100 g.
(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
Published-Apr 04, 2019, © copyright 2009-2020 @ Umesh Rudrappa. All rights reserved.
Drupe millipede — nutrition, reproduction features
Swipe any contact/group to the chosen app, always the same way. Simple.
There are many ways to communicate on your mobile. Which one is best? We bring both your contacts and apps together, getting rid of the hassle.
We bring your apps and contacts to one screen, cutting the maintenance hassle. So natural that you won’t
believe it wasn’t always this way.
Look for the “drupe dots” on your lock screen, home screen or any in-app screen. Just swipe to drupe and you are done.
Use drupe to reach out to your contacts, dial anyone, record your incoming or outgoing calls, view caller ID and more.
THIS IS HOW IT WORKS
“Drupe reimagines the address book with $3 million in funding”
“Drupe is a must-have to help you connect with people faster”
“…They are playing on the edge of mobile innovation”
«Make your iPhone friends jealous»
Forget about address book apps. drupe mobile app for Android presents a new way to communicate with your contacts. drupe brings your contacts and communication apps together to one place, that’s accessible from all your screens. Want to contact someone? Just swipe the contact to the right app and get in touch! Use drupe cross-app smart dialer to dial anyone or WhatsApp someone that’s not on your contacts list. Use drupe call recorder for incoming or outgoing calls. Forget about unknown numbers, drupe’s caller ID will help you find out who is calling or SMSing you. Send instant audio messages using the drupe Walkie -Talkie and set smart contact-based reminders.
Using drupe, you can reach any one of the contacts on your address book, using your preferred communication app, with just one swipe. Whenever you need to contact someone, just swipe the icon that accompanies you across all apps and screens to the left, and drupe’em. WhatsApp, SMS, Facebook Messenger, phone… are all in, and there are more.
drupe also organizes your address book chaos by keeping it up-to-date and solving the duplicate contacts issue. Although drupe is not just an address book mobile app, its address book management capabilities are brilliant!
Use drupe to interact with groups across communication apps – You can either create a new group or replicate existing ones, but this time enjoy WhatsApp, mobile conference calls, group emails or even group calendar invites. Same group across all apps.
Finally you can view your recent communications log of your contacts, in one place: Phone call log, SMS, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger and more.
SOW THE SEEDS OF KNOWLEDGE WITH THIS PLANT QUIZ FOR KIDS!
Origin of reproduction
SYNONYMS FOR reproduction
OTHER WORDS FROM reproduction
Words nearby reproduction
Example sentences from the Web for reproduction
Perhaps every reproduction of a piece of art steals a part of its soul.
In a best-case scenario they cover the mechanics of reproduction , STD awareness, and contraceptive use.
Schaeffer remembers his father squirming when Pat Robertson talked about burning a reproduction of a nude by Modigliani.
Music “residuals” are shared by publishers and composers via “mechanical” reproduction .
If reproduction is a biological necessity for our species, then why is parenting so damn hard?
Deprived of friction with other minds, he was slower than his social prototype in the reproduction of the epochs.
The mode of the increase, reproduction and death of these animals is still unknown to naturalists.
Again, we find that early maturity, the season of reproduction and longevity are transmitted to corresponding periods of life.
For it would seem to be a law of vegetal growth that reproduction should begin in decomposition and decay.
In some forms (Cœnurus, Echinococcus) reproduction by budding takes place at this stage.
“Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time
What Is The Difference Between “Quarantine” And “Isolation”?
What Is The Difference Between A “Respirator” And A “Ventilator”?
Check submitted paper
Due to migration of article submission systems, please check the status of your submitted manuscript in the relevant system below:
Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EVISE
Track accepted paper
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article.
- CiteScore: 1.93 ℹ CiteScore:
CiteScore measures the average citations received per document published in this title. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year (e.g. 2015) to documents published in three previous calendar years (e.g. 2012 – 14), divided by the number of documents in these three previous years (e.g. 2012 – 14).
- Impact Factor: 1.880 ℹ Impact Factor:
The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years.
Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2019)
- 5-Year Impact Factor: 2.050 ℹ Five-Year Impact Factor:
To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2018 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years.
Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2019)
- Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 0.763 ℹ Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP):
SNIP measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field.
- SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.622 ℹ SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):
SJR is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the journal’s impact.
- View More on Journal Insights
- Author Stats ℹ Author Stats:
Publishing your article with us has many benefits, such as having access to a personal dashboard: citation and usage data on your publications in one place. This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus.
- Researcher Academy
- Author Services
- Try out personalized alert features
Reproductive Biology is an international, quarterly, peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality original research articles, short communication, technical notes, reviews and mini-reviews dealing with all aspects of reproduction.
Reproductive Biology covers a broad scope of reproductive biology and.
Reproductive Biology is an international, quarterly, peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality original research articles, short communication, technical notes, reviews and mini-reviews dealing with all aspects of reproduction.
Reproductive Biology covers a broad scope of reproductive biology and reproductive medicine translational research articles, providing a platform for scientific exchange of knowledge. The journal publishes state-of-the-art articles on reproductive physiology, endocrinology with a special attention to endocrine related cancers, receptor studies, andrology, embryology, infertility, assisted reproduction, contraception, obstetrics and gynecology, as well as animal breeding and animal reproduction (with a special emphasis to farm animals).
Papers from both basic and clinical research areas will be considered.
The millipede is a medium to large sized invertebrate that is found under rocks and in decaying logs all around the world. The millipede has a long and narrow body which is made up of segments.
The millipede is from the same family as the centipede, but the millipede generally has more legs for its body length than the centipede. The average millipede has between 80 and 400 legs, not a thousand as the name suggests.
The millipede is found all over the world but is more common in the southern hemisphere where the millipede has been known to get to nearly 40cm long. Some species of millipede have a poisonous bite which they use to kill their prey before eating it.
Millipedes are most commonly found in the cooler, damper and darker places within their environment. Millipedes inhabit areas under rocks, in the leaf litter, in rotting logs and occasionally in burrows which are all known as micro-habitats.
The exact number of legs and segments that make up the body of the millipede, depend on the millipede species. However, all millipedes are made up in a similar way with the first sections of the millipede’s body having one pair of legs and the later sections of two pairs of legs. The legs of millipede all work together and move in a wave-like motion.
The millipede is an omnivorous animal but primarily feeds on dead plant material and decaying matter on the forest floor. Millipedes are also known to eat some species of plants (that are alive) and the larger species of millipede also hunt insects.
The millipede has a number of different predators in its natural environment including birds, badgers, foxes and small rodents such as shrews and rats. When the millipede feels that it is in danger it curls up into a spiral and some species of millipede even release a disgusting smelling liquid that deters many of the animals that prey on the millipede.
The female millipede can lay up to 1,000 sticky eggs at once although the number of millipede eggs laid is usually closer to 500. When the baby millipedes hatch they only have 3 pairs of legs but they shed their skin as they grow. Each time the baby millipedes shed their skin they develop more body segments and legs.
Diplopoda: Characteristics, Definition, Habitat & Examples
Betsy teaches college physics, biology, and engineering and has a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering
Want to watch this again later?
Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.
What Animals are in Class Diplopoda?
If you go for a walk in a wooded area and look around on the ground, you are very likely to find a member of a class of animals known as Diplopoda. It will probably be crawling around and eating the decaying leaves that litter the ground.
Members of Class Diplopoda are more commonly known as millipedes, and they are found throughout the world, especially in damp, wooded areas, but also sometimes in grasslands and other environments. The word millipede comes from combining milli which means one thousand, and pede, which means feet, so millipedes are commonly believed to all have a thousand feet. However, although they do have lots of legs, no millipede has quite that many! Most usually have only 100-300 legs, although some species can have up to 750 legs.
Millipedes play an important role in the ecosystem, and they have been incredibly successful, adapting to life throughout the world. In fact, they are believed to be one of the very first land animals that evolved, first appearing on Earth over 400 million years ago!
Characteristics of Diplopods
Although they live all over the world in a variety of habitats, all members of Class Diplopoda have some features in common. First, all millipedes have two pairs of legs attached to each body segment. Other similar animals, like centipedes, have one pair of legs on each body segment. Millipedes are different because each segment is really made up of two segments fused together. These fused body segments are called diplosegments, which explains why the class is called Diplopoda!
All members of Class Diplopoda are arthropods, a group of animals that also includes insects and crustaceans. Just like other arthropods, they also all have a defined thorax and abdomen, although these are not always easily identifiable. The first three body segments of a millipede make up the thorax, and the rest of the body is the abdomen. If you look closely, you can tell the difference between segments that are part of the thorax and those that are part of the abdomen. The first segment that is part of the thorax doesn’t have any legs, and the next two only have one set of legs per segment. In contrast, the rest of the segments that make up the abdomen always have two sets of legs on each segment.
The legs of a millipede are quite complex. Each leg has more segments than an insect leg, and each set of legs moves independently of all the others. They move in a wave-like fashion with each leg moving a little later than the one in front of it and a little before the one behind it. This helps to propel the animal through the leaf litter on the forest floor where it can get to the decaying plant material that it likes to eat.
Habitat of Diplopods
Most members of Class Diplopoda live in damp, forested environments, although this is not true for all species. Most are also quite small and are primarily nocturnal, so even though they are very abundant throughout the world, they are also rarely seen by people.
Get access risk-free for 30 days,
just create an account.
Millipedes, Class Diplopoda
Habits and Traits
- B.A., Political Science, Rutgers University
The common name millipede literally means thousand legs. Millipedes can have a lot of legs, but not nearly as many as their name suggests. If you compost your organic waste or spend any time gardening, you’re bound to find a millipede or two curled up in the soil.
All About Millipedes
Like insects and spiders, millipedes belong to the phylum Arthropoda. This is where the similarities end, however, as millipedes belong to their own class—the class Diplopoda.
Millipedes move slowly on their short legs, which are designed to help them push their way through the soil and vegetative litter. Their legs remain in line with their bodies, and number two pairs per body segment. Only the first three body segments—those of the thorax—have single pairs of legs. Centipedes, in contrast, have single pairs of legs on every body segment.
Millipede bodies are elongate and usually cylindrical. Flat-backed millipedes, as you might guess, appear flatter than other worm-shaped cousins. You’ll need to look closely to see a millipede’s short antennae. They’re nocturnal creatures that live mostly in the soil and have poor sight when they can see at all.
The Millipede Diet
Millipedes feed on decaying plant matter, functioning as decomposers in the ecosystem. A few millipede species may be carnivorous as well. Newly hatched millipedes must ingest microbes to help them digest plant matter. They introduce these necessary partners into their systems by feeding on fungi in the soil, or by eating their own feces.
The Millipede Life Cycle
Mated female millipedes lay their eggs in the soil. Some species lay eggs singly, while others deposit them in clusters. Depending on the type of millipede, the female may lay anywhere from a few dozen to several thousand eggs in her lifetime.
Millipedes undergo incomplete metamorphosis. Once the young millipedes hatch, they stay within the underground nest until they’ve molted at least once. With each molt, the millipede gains more body segments and more legs. It may take many months for them to achieve adulthood.
Special Adaptations and Defenses of Millipedes
When threatened, millipedes often curl into a tight ball or spiral in the soil. Though they cannot bite, many millipedes do emit poisonous or foul-smelling compounds through their skin. In some cases, these substances may burn or sting, and may even discolor your skin temporarily if you handle one. Some of the brightly colored millipedes secrete cyanide compounds. Large, tropical millipedes can even shoot a noxious compound several feet at their attacker’s eyes.
Praying Mantis: Class, Characteristics, Reproduction
Praying mantis “Praying Mantis” is the name commonly used in English speaking countries to refer to a large, much elongated, slow-moving insect with fore legs fitted for seizing and holding insect prey. The name, “Praying Mantis” more properly refers to the specific Mantid species Mantis Religiosa or the European Mantis, but typically is used more generally to refer to any of the mantid family. The name is derived from the prayer-like position in which the insect holds its long, jointed front legs while at rest or waiting for prey. It is also called the “preying” mantis because of its predatory nature.
Many questions have risen regarding the praying mantis. Such questions include how many different species there are in the animal kingdom. Estimates range from 1500 to 2200 different mantid species WORLDWIDE. The most common figure given, though, is about 1800. The ways the Mantid’s are classified in the Animal Kingdom. There is agreement that the collection of mantid species make up the Mantidae family of insects. The Mantidae family, in turn, is part of the order/suborder Mantodea that includes a variety of mantid-like species. But the existing literature does not reflect a clear consensus about what insect order Mantodea belong in. Some have placed Mantodea in the Dictyoptera Order-with the roaches. Others place Mantodea in the Orthoptera Order-with crickets and grasshoppers. Finally, some believe that Mantodea constitute their own independent order of insects. There seems to be an emerging consensus around this position. The Mantis Religiosa was first named such and classified by the inventor of the modern system of biological taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus. The three common species of mantids in North America are the European mantis (Mantis religiosa), the Chinese mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis), and the Carolina mantis (Stagmomantis carolina) distinguishing features of these three species:
The Chinese mantis is the largest of the three, reaching lengths of three to five inches. The European mantis, however, is a little smaller than the Chinese variety and it only reaches lengths of two to three inches. And finally the Carolina mantis is smallest of the three usually less than two inches in length.
The Chinese mantis is mostly light brown with dull green trim around its wings. The European mantis is more consistently bright green in color. The Carolina mantis is a dusky brown or gray color, perhaps to blend in with the pine forests and sandhills of its native South.
The best way to distinguish the three species is by the shape of their egg cases or ootheca. The egg case of the Chinese mantis is roughly ball-shaped, but has a flattened area on one side. The European mantid’s egg case is rounded without this a this “flat portion” The Carolina mantis has an egg case that looks like a short elongated tube, often spread out along a portion of twig or stem. Range The Chinese mantis can be found throughout the United States. The European mantis is most common east of the Mississippi. And the Carolina mantis makes its home in the Southeastern part of the U.S.
Other Physical Characteristics
One of the most notable features of the Carolina mantis is that their wings only extend about 3/4 of the way down the abdomen. Markings The European mantis is also distinguished as the only of three species that bears a black-ringed spot beneath its fore coxae.
The Carolina mantis is one of 20 mantid species native to North America. The European and Chinese mantids were introduced to America around the turn of the century. The European mantis is said to have first been brought to Rochester New York in 1899 on a shipment of nursery plants. The Chinese mantis arrived in 1895, from China (duh), on nursery stock sent to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Key features of mantid physiology include a triangular head with large compound eyes, two long, thin antennae, and a collection of sharp mouth parts designed for devouring live prey. Because of its compound eye, the mantid’s eyesight is very good. However, the sharpest vision is located in the compound eye’s center so the mantis must rotate its head and look directly at an object for optimum viewing. Fortunately, the mantis can also rotate its head 180 degrees to see prey or approaching threats, the mantis can scan a total of 300 degrees. The mantid’s eyes are very sensitive to light, changing from light green or tan in bright light, to dark brown in the dark. An elongated prothorax or neck that helps gives the mantis its distinctive appearance. The prothorax is also quite flexible, turning and bending easily which aids in its locating and seizing of prey. Two long, “raptorial” front legs that are adapted to seize and hold prey. These legs have three parts:
1. The lower part of the legs or tibia have sharp spines to firmly grasp prey
2. These spines “fold-up” into matching grooves in the upper femur, creating a “jackknife” effect that allows the insect to assume its distinctive “praying” position.
3. Finally, the upper coxa functions like a shoulder to connect the femur and tibia to the mantid’s body.
4. Four other long, thin legs designed for climbing and movement. These legs regenerate if broken or lost, but only during the molting process, but unfortunately limbs that regenerate are often smaller than the others. Since a full grown adult no longer molts, he or she cannot replace lost limbs. The front “raptorial” legs do not regenerate and if a mantis loses one of them it will not survive
5. Two pairs of wings that fold neatly against its abdomen when not in use. A front set of leathery tegmina wings that overlay and protect the ‘inner’ wings. Back wings used for flight and to “startle” enemies
6. A large, segmented abdomen which contains the mantid’s digestive system and reproductive organs. The male has 8 abdominal segments. The female is born with 8 segements, but with each successive molting, the 6th segment gradually overlaps the 7th and 8th until 6 segments remain at the adult stage
7. 60% of mantid species–especially those that have wings–also have an “ultrasonic ear” on the underside of their metathorax The mantid is an auditory cyclops, unique in the animal kingdom. That is, it has only a single ear. The ear is made of a deep, 1 mm long slit with cuticle-like knobs at both end and two ear drums buried inside. The ear is specially tuned to very high “ultrasonic” frequencies of sound–25 to 60 kilohertz. Apparently, the ear is designed to primarily respond to the ultrasonic echo-location signal emitted by hunting bats. The mantis primarily uses its ultrasonic ear while in flight. When a relatively slow flying mantis sense a bat’s ultrasonic echo at close range, it curls its abdomen upwards and thrusts it legs outward creating drag and resulting in a sudden aerial “stall”. The mantid in-flight maneuver creates an inherently unpredictable flight pattern-sometimes looping up and around, banking left or right, or a sudden spiral towards the ground. This tactic is apparently very effective for avoiding a hungry bat’s attack
Abdominal Structure-the female mantis has 6 segments. The male 8 segments. Size-the female mantis is usually larger than the male Behavior-the male mantis is more prone to take flight in search of a mate while the female often remains more stationary
DIET & COMBAT STYLE
Basically the praying mantis is extremely predacious ESPECIALLY the female. The mantid eats only live prey, or at least prey that is moving, and hence, appears alive. Some might go as far as saying that the praying mantis will eat “anything,” even reptiles and small birds, but others indicate it prefers “soft bodied” insects which it can easily devour. These dietary preferences vary by species. Males are generally less aggressive predators than females. Cannibalistic behavior is present in the mantid, both as a nymph and as a adult. Baby mantids will eat other babies, adults will eat their own or others’ babies, and adults will eat each other. Mantids are diurnal, that is, mainly eats during the day. But mantids also congregate and feed around artificial light sources. Mantids usually wait motionless for unsuspecting prey to get within striking distance–a “sit-and wait” and wait or ambush strategy, but can also slowly stalk prey. The mantid often begins to undulate and sway just before striking its prey. Some have speculated this is to mimic the movement of surrounding foliage. Others suggest that this behavior aids in the visualization process. They attacks by “pinching” and impaling prey between its spiked lower tibia and upper femur. The mantid’s strike takes an amazing 30 to 50 one-thousandth of a second. The strike is so fast that it cannot be processed by the human brain. It uses the view before and after the strike and “tricks” you into seeing what occurs in-between. After securing the prey with its legs, rapidly chews at the prey’s neck to immobilize it. If well fed, mantids will selectively choose to devour “select” parts of its prey and discard the rest. If any part of the prey is dropped during feeding, the mantid will not retrieve it. After eating, will often use its mouth to clean the food particles from the spines of its tibia, and then wipe its face in a cat-like manner.
One of the most interesting, and to humans, disturbing features of mantid life is the female’s tendency to eat her mate. During late summer, a female mantis, already heavy with eggs, is believed to excrete a chemical attractant to tempt a willing male into mating. The current state of research seems to indicate that the female sometimes devours the male during the mating process (between 5-31% if the time) The dead male may also serve as a source of protein for the female and her young. Recent research indicates that fertilization can take place without the male’s death and that his demise is not necessary to the process. The male’s sperm cells are stored in a special chamber in the female’s abdomen called the spermatheca. The female can begin lay her eggs as early as a day after mating. As the eggs pass through her reproductive system, they are fertilized by the stored sperm. After finding a suitably raised location–a branch, stem, or building overhang–special appendages at the base of her abdomen “froth” the gelatinous egg material into the shape characteristic of the particular species as its exits her ovipositor. By instinct, the female twists her abdomen in a spiral motion to create many individual “cells” or chambers within the ootheca or egg case. The egg laying process takes between 3 and 5 hours. The ootheca soon hardens into a paper mache like substance that is resistant to the birds and animals that would attempt to eat it. The carefully crafted pockets of air between the individual egg cells act insulation against cold winter temperatures. The number and size of egg cases deposited by a female also varies by species and she dies sometime after her final birthing
GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
The life-cycle of North American mantid species runs from spring to fall. When springtime temperatures become sufficiently warm, the mantid nymphs emerge from the ootheca. They drop toward the earth on thin strands of stringy material produced by a special gland in their body–often descending in a writhing mass-before breaking free to live solitary lives. Mantid nymphs are hemimetabolous (did I spell that right)-that is, they undergo only a partial metamorphosis from nymph to adult stage. Mantid nymphs appear like small adults (about 3/8′ long) except that their wings are not fully formed. The nymphs go through a series of 6-7 molts-the casting off of the outer layer of skin-before reaching their adult form. When molting, the nymphs attach their “old,” loose skin to a stick or rough surface with a secreted glue-like substance, chews an opening in it, creates a split or tear on top of the thorax and down the back, and then wriggles free. The mantid’s leg casings do not split open, and many nymphs die when unable to fully kick free of their old skin. Young mantids feed on whatever small insects they can find including each other. The mantids continue to grow until the time for mating comes in late summer, and then the whole process begins again. SELF-DEFENSE The mantid primary enemies are birds, mammals (especially bats), spiders, snakes, and, of course, man. The mantid has four primary defense mechanisms against those who would prey on it. Camouflage-the mantid’s brown and green color allow it to blend in with surrounding foliage. Stealth-the mantid’s ability to stay perfectly still for long periods of time causes it be overlooked by many would-be predators. Startle-display-when confronted by an enemy the mantid can rear up in its hand legs and spread and rattle its wing in an act of intimidation. Ultrasonic ear-used when encountering bats in flight. Unfortunately, the mantid has no defense against pesticides which it ingests through its prey. Incidentally, there is a form of martial art called Praying Mantis Kung-Fu Please refer to the section entitles Praying Mantis Kung-Fu at the end of the document for more information
The word “mantis” comes from ancient Greece and means “diviner” or “prophet”. Many cultures have credited the mantid with a variety of magical qualities: France-French peasants state that If a child is lost, the mantids praying-stance points the way home. Turkey & Arabia-The mantid always prays toward Mecca. Southern U.S.-The brown saliva of the mantid will make a man go blind or kill a horse. 4. China-Roasted mantid egg cases will cure bed wetting. Africa-If a mantid lands on a person it brings them good luck and A mantid can bring the dead back to life. European Middle-Ages-The mantis was a great worshipper of God due to its time spent in prayer. Perhaps the best measure of the hold mantids have on our cultural imagination is the fact they are almost surely prominently pictured on any book about insects intended for a popular audience interesting and common names that the Praying Mantis has been commonly acquainted with:
1. Sooth-sayers-(England)-from the Greek roots of the word “mantis”-meaning “prophet.”