Tree Leaf Chart: Shape, Margin, and Venation

How to Identify a Tree Using Leaf Shape, Margin, and Venation

  • B.S., Forest Resource Management, University of Georgia

Botanists and foresters have developed terms for the patterns and shapes used in tree identification. Some tree species make things more interesting by displaying more than one type of leaf structure. Other species leaves make it nearly impossible to misidentify them because each leaf is unique. Trees with unique leaves include ginkgo, sassafras, yellow poplar, and mulberry.

All tree leaves have an outer layer called the epidermis which can be used in the identification process. This leaf «skin» always has a waxy cover called the cuticle and varies in thickness. The epidermis may or may not support leaf hairs, which can also be an important botanical identifier.

Leaf Shape and Arrangement

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Studying leaf shape and the arrangement of leaves on a stem is the most common way of identifying a tree in the field during the growing season. The novice taxonomist usually starts with a tree leaf shape, which is determined by the presence or absence of lobes. One can often name the tree species without using any other identification marker.

One thing to remember is that a tree’s leaves can also vary in shape according to their position on the tree, their age after budding, and the presence or absence of insect/disease damage. These variations are usually easy to deal with by finding a healthy specimen in its natural environment.

  • Leaf shape can vary considerably. The most common shapes include oval, truncate, elliptical, lancolate, and linear. Leaf tips and bases may also be unique, with names based on their shapes.
  • Leaf arrangement is mainly limited to two basic petiole attachments: simple and compound. Compound leaves are further described as pinnately, palmately, and doubly compound.

Leaf Edges or Margins

McSush/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0

All tree leaves exhibit margins (leaf blade edges) that are either serrated or smooth.

Leaf margins can be finely classified based on at least a dozen unique characteristics. There are four major classifications you need to know and into which all others will fit:

  • Entire Leaf: The margin is even and smooth around the entire leaf edge.
  • Toothed or Serrated Leaf: The margin has a series of toothlike pointed teeth around the entire leaf edge.
  • Lobed Leaf: The margin has an indention or indentions that go less than halfway to the leaf midrib or midline.
  • Parted Leaf: The margin has an indention or indentions that go more than halfway to the leaf midrib or midline.

Leaf Veins and Venation Patterns

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Leaves have unique structures, called veins, that transport liquids and nutrients to leaf cells. Veins also carry the products of photosynthesis back to the rest of the tree.

A tree leaf has several types of veins. The central one is called the midrib or midvein. Other veins connect to the midrib and have their own unique patterns.

Tree leaf veins in dicots (we also call these trees hardwoods or deciduous trees) are all considered to be net-veined or reticulate-veined. This means that the veins branch from the main rib and then sub-branch into finer veins.

There are two classifications you need to know for tree identification:

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Cockroach archimandrite: features of appearance and structure, for which this insect received its name

Metarhizium
(Order: Hypocreales, Family: Clavicipitaceae)

Metarhizium species (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, also known as green muscardine fungi, have long been recognized for their biological control potential against arthropods. As early as 1879, fungi from this genus were being evaluated for control of wheat chafer beetles, Anisoplia austriaca, and sugar beet curculio, Cleonus punctiventris, in Ukraine. The species level name of one of the more widely researched Metarhizium species (M. anisopliae) was derived from this beetle. Morphological features for identifying Metarhizium species can be imprecise as there can often be overlap of characters among species. Molecular techniques have shown that what used to be called M. anisopliae represents a complex of nine species (Bischoff et al. 2009).

Infections of arthropods by Metarhizium species are easily recognized a few days after death, when the fungus grows out of the arthropod integument and forms reproductive structures. Initially, one only sees fungal hyphae that appear white, but, as conidia form and mature they often take on a characteristic olive green color (see photo 1). However, depending on the species and strain of Metarhizium, spores can range in color from white to yellow to brown and green (Tanada and Kaya 1993).

Metarhizium species are commonly thought of as soil saprophytes and are most frequently found in disturbed habitats like agricultural fields as compared to forest ecosystems (Meyling and Eilenberg 2007). Additionally, recent findings suggest that these fungi form associations with plant roots in the rhizosphere (Hu and St. Leger 2002) and survive better in that environment than in surrounding potting soil over extended periods of time (Bruck 2005).

Metarhizium species are known to attack a wide range of arthropods: greater than 200 species in over 50 families. These include many species of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. Some insect hosts included on two active product labels in the U.S. (as of 2011) [Met52, Novozyme Biologicals, Salem, Virginia] include “various ticks and beetles; root weevils, flies, gnats, thrips,” and locusts and grasshoppers (Green Muscle, Becker Underwood, Ames, Iowa). Additionally, Metarhizium species have been developed in other countries for use against cockchafers, spittlebugs, grubs, borers, and for control of mosquitoes that vector malaria.

Our discussion of the life cycle of species within this genus will be restricted to their activity as arthropod pathogens. Generally, the development of a lethal arthropod infection can be separated into three stages. First, asexual conidia (singular=conidium) come into contact with the arthropod integument as the arthropod travels through the environment. The conidia stick to the arthropod’s exoskeleton, germinate and grow a germ tube, which eventually ends in an appressorium, the flattened and thickened tip of a germ tube. A penetration peg grows under the appressorium, pierces the integument and enters the hemocoel. The penetration of the fungus is achieved by the production of a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes including proteases, lipases, chitinases, and mechanical pressure. Second, single cells of the fungus, blastospores, bud off of the penetration structure, circulate in the insect hemocoel and multiply, thereby depleting host nutrients. Metarhizium species are also known to produce compounds that are toxic to arthropods and presumably aid in killing the host, suppressing host immune defenses and fending off potential microbial competitors. Finally, after the host dies due to mycosis, the fungus will penetrate out of the integument and grow conidiophores, on which environmentally stable aerial conidia are produced. These conidia are passively disseminated into the environment and eventually infect new hosts.

The effect of fungicides on Metarhizium species can be variable and needs to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. If there is any doubt as to the effect of a fungicide or insecticide on the viability of Metarhizium species products, users should err on the side of caution and not use tank mixes. Bruck (2009) reported on the persistence of M. anisopliae conidia in Petri dishes, bulk soil and in the rhizosphere, when in contact with several fungicides commonly used in greenhouses and nurseries. While a large number of fungicides negatively impacted conidial germination and mycelial growth in Petri dishes, there was little effect in the rhizosphere following two applications of some fungicides. The fungicides with the largest detrimental impact were Captan and triflumizole.

Between October-2005 and May-2006, Faria and Wraight (2007) determined that there were 47 different commercially-available Metarhizium-based products available around the world. Because of recent taxonomic changes to the genus Metarhizium (Bischoff et al. 2009) it is not possible to determine the exact species composition of that list. However, as of 2007 many of the different products were listed as either Metarhizium anisopliae or Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, which Green Muscle is based on. This strain is active against locusts and grasshoppers and is now recognized as its own species M. acridum. The strain of M. anisopliae that is the basis for Met52 (Novozyme Biologicals) is now recognized as M. brunneum.

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Bischoff, J.F., Rehner, S.A. and Humber, R.A. 2009. A multilocus phylogeny of the Metarhizium anisopliae lineage. Mycologia 101: 512-530.

Blanford, S., Chan, B.H.K., Jenkins, N., Sim, D., Turner, R.J., Read, A.F. and Thomas, M.B. 2005. Fungal pathogen reduces potential for malaria transmission. Science 308: 1638-1641.

Bruck, D.J. 2005. Ecology of Metarhizium anisopliae in soilless potting media and the rhizosphere: implications for pest management. Biol. Control. 32: 155–163.

Bruck, D.J. 2009. Impact of fungicides on Metarhizium anisopliae in the rhizosphere, bulk soil and in vitro. Biol. Control 54: 597-606.

Faria, M.R. and Wraight,S.P. 2007. Mycoinsecticides and Mycoacaricides: A comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types. Biol. Control 43: 237-256.

Hu, G., and St. Leger, R.A. 2002. Field studies using a recombinant mycoinsecticide (Metarhizium anisopliae) reveal that it is rhizosphere competent. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 6383-6387.

Meyling, N. and Eilenberg, J. 2007. Ecology of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in temperate agroecosystems: Potential for conservation biological control. Biol. Control 43: 145-155.

Milner, R. J. 2000. Current status of Metarhizium as a mycoinsecticide in Australia. Biocontrol News Info. 21: 47-50.

biocontrol.entomology.cornell.edu

Animals of Europe. Description, names and characteristics of animals of Europe

The animal world of Europe, its diversity and features

Europe is not the largest continent, but still occupying a vast region of Eurasia with a total area of ​​about 10 million km 2 . The territory of this part of the world stretches in the west from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains in the east.

With its northern border, the continent abuts against the cold, mostly covered with dead ice, ocean space. And in the south, the Mediterranean region borders on hot Africa.

Basically, the natural landscape is represented by plains, and only one sixth of the territory is occupied by mountain ranges. The climatic conditions of various regions determine the continent’s division into natural zones: from Arctic deserts and endless tundra to semi-deserts and subtropics. In accordance with the conditions, representatives of the fauna that inhabit each of them have their own characteristics.

In the past millennia, the European continent was one of the centers of civilization, where industry was booming, and new territories were conquered for agricultural land.

In view of this, wildlife, vegetation and animals world of Europe, once extremely wealthy, were gradually crowded out by man from primordially inhabited lands.

Of course, this negatively affected the state of flora and fauna, as well as the populations of its representatives. Many of the species of living creatures significantly decreased in number, or completely disappeared from the face of the planet. A sufficient number of them are now on the verge of extinction.

However, the kingdom of nature continues its life to this day, and animals of Europe Do not cease to amaze with its impressive variety. Some species have adapted, settling alongside a person.

Other representatives of the fauna, protected in reserves and national parks, exist and breed in the natural environment. One of such corners is the Bialowieza Forest — a conservation object of world significance, where paintings of virgin nature are able to touch the heart of any with their pristine beauty.

Most of the representatives of the European fauna live in the zone of deciduous and mixed forests, as well as in taiga areas. But also many species of living creatures inhabit the steppes, tundra and semi-deserts.

Photo of animals of Europe with names, as well as information about the life and details of the appearance of the members of this kingdom, the peculiarity of which lies, first of all, in its diversity, will be presented below.

Noble deer

There are many species of deer. They differ in color, size and structure of the body, as well as the shape of the horns. Some representatives of the deer family, having a two-meter body length, reach a weight of about 200 kg. Individual species are two times smaller, with a mass less than four times less.

The red deer among its brethren is justifiably famous for its slender body, delighting with its long neck, proportional folding and yellow-brown color of expressive eyes.

It has an elongated head and a slightly concave forehead. Males stand out with branching horns — the main weapon in the fight against rivals for females. The color of these beautiful creatures, which has no spots in summer, is distinguished by a grayish-brownish yellowness. Such animals inhabit cuttings and forest glades, overgrown with lush grass, living mainly in temperate latitudes.

Pictured red deer

Reindeer

Once deer helped a person master the North, and now they continue to be useful to many small nationalities inhabiting those harsh snow-covered lands. These are beautiful, large-sized creatures, inhabitants of the taiga and tundra.

Short legs do not prevent them from running gracefully and quickly. Their warm, pale gray, almost white, wool has a special device, which helps them survive in harsh conditions.

Their hair, hollow inside, is filled with air, which not only saves from severe frosts, but also enables such creatures to swim beautifully. These animals of northern europe They like to feast on reindeer moss, which strengthens the land of the boundless tundra, therefore many people call this plant deer moss.

Females from the reindeer genus, along with males, are owners of luxurious horns, which is different from other relatives, in which only males can boast of such decoration. Such weapons more than once rescued them in a battle with fierce opponents, the main of which are wolves and wolverines.

Reindeer

This is a well-known, small-sized animal has a slender body, the mass of which usually does not exceed 7 kg. The head of these creatures is decorated with wedge-shaped long ears, thanks to which hares have a delicate hearing, developed much more than touch and smell.

Another distinguishing feature of such animals is their long limbs, thanks to which their hares have the ability to hide from their enemies.

The color of their skins depends on the season: in summer, the fur has a brown, brown or reddish-gray hue, in winter it is almost white or snow-white, which formed the basis of proverbs and sayings.

Only the tips of the ears of nimble creatures remain black all year. The genus of hares includes many species. The hare lives in the north of Europe and in Russia. A brown hare can be found in the European forest-steppe. On the territory of the continent have found refuge and other types of hares, but they are all less known.

Brown bear

Strictly speaking, this animal is not always brown in color, but may be black, differ in beige or yellow shade of hair, even stand out with a fiery red color.

Among terrestrial predators, the brown bear is considered the largest representative of the world fauna. Having a huge habitat in many parts of the world, it is also ranked as European animals. The most a huge creature from the form of brown bears on the European continent can be found in Scandinavia.

The weight of individual copies of these members of the bear family can reach 400 kg. The brown bear has a powerful barrel-shaped body with a characteristic high withers. Its soles are distinguished by flat feet.

For this quality and for the manner of walking, stepping paws inward, members of this family received the nickname: clubfoot. Their forehead is high, the muzzle is elongated, the head is round.

Bears are omnivorous animals, primarily they are predators, but from fairy tales it is known how these creatures love honey, as well as acorns, nuts, berries and much more. Once such representatives of the fauna met throughout the European continent.

Now, in view of the sharp decline in numbers, they live mainly in Western Europe, animals can be found in the Apennines, Alps, Pyrenees, as well as in the Cantabrian mountains.

In the photo there is a brown bear

This is a graceful and dexterous predator from the cat family, found in many countries of Europe, more in its northern and eastern parts. Lynx has a short and dense body, about a meter long. The color of animal hair can be brownish-gray or red. The muzzle is small and round, there are tassels on the ears, and whiskers on the beard.

The paws are covered with thick fur, which allows you to move freely, without freezing, in deep snowdrifts. For life, these creatures choose dense forests, where they successfully hunt their inhabitants, attacking their victims with swift throws.

European lynx animal

Wolverine

There are two subspecies of these animals, one of which lives in Europe. Wolverine is a large representative of the marten family, the animal is very peculiar, gluttonous and ferocious, climbs trees well, hunts at night, often attacking weak and wounded animals, not disdaining carrion.

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The body shape of the wolverine is elongated, the physique is dense, squat due to short legs. Has a shaggy, thick and long fur. It is found in Scandinavia and the northeastern regions of the continent.

Pictured is a wolverine

Polar bear

In the cold deserts of the Arctic, preferring icy spaces with open water, this huge predator lives, perfectly adapted to life in a deadly harsh environment.

The owners of the ice hunt alone, eating mainly seals. Covering their paws with a black nose — the only place that stands out against the background of white wool among the snows, they insidiously and carefully, like spies, sneak to the prey, resting nonchalantly on the ice, killing it during an attack with one blow of its paw.

Polar bears rightfully replenish the list big animals of Europe. The weight of this beast, which varies depending on gender and individual characteristics, amounts to hundreds of kilograms.

Females are usually smaller in size, often having a mass of not more than 150 kg. But individual specimens of males are truly impressive. Record weight for them is about a ton.

Outwardly, these animals, living on a vast territory of the continent, look like large dogs with a muscular strong body and long slender legs. They have a massive head, sharp ears, a thick half-meter tail, usually downcast.

The famous mouth of a predator wolf is armed with 42 teeth. Young wolves come to this world with blue eyes, but soon they acquire a golden yellow or orange hue, glowing menacingly in the dark, scaring and, at the same time, warning the victims of this dexterous predator about danger.

A fox

Covered with a marvelous yellowish-orange or red fur, this predator from the canine family reaches a weight of up to 10 kg. It has an elongated slender body with small limbs ending in graceful paws, which the fox steps softly and noiselessly when moving.

These creatures have a long fluffy tail that helps them maintain balance during fast running. In pursuit of their prey, they are able to compete in playfulness with the car. Foxes make barking sounds, most often announcing surroundings during courtship games.

Musk ox

Representing the bovine family, it is a close relative of goats and rams. Such creatures have a very unusual appearance (as you can see on a photo). Animals in Europe found in Sweden and Norway.

The musk ox is covered with thick coarse, in some places very long hair, which is distinguished by soft undercoat. Their back hair has a dark brown color, white individuals are known. They molt every year in early summer.

The appearance of these creatures with a smooth surface, with a round shape, is especially impressive. Such ornaments are located on the head close to each other, separated only by a narrow strip of fluff or wool. Musk oxen live in herds. These are large animals, capable of reaching two meters in size.

Musk ox animal

Bison

But still Europe’s largest animals is a bison — the last representative of wild bulls in this part of the world, the closest relative of American bison.

Once such creatures were quite numerous, untouched by anyone wandering through the deciduous and coniferous forests of the southeast, west and center of the European continent.

Animals live in temperate latitudes. Outwardly, they are very similar to bulls, have a massive chest, but rather narrow croup. Their large head, crowned with long curved horns, has a wide forehead.

The body is covered with short hair. At the beginning of the last century, bison were under serious threat of destruction. And only the dedicated efforts of scientists, zoo workers and private individuals helped preserve these wonderful creatures for posterity.

In the photo a bison

Hedgehog

This cute harmless, completely covered with needles, the animal is often found in Europe. He settles down forests and steppes, can lodge and bring his cubs in gardens near the dwelling of the person.

Often the animal can be found lurking in areas covered with dense grass. His habit of curling up in a prickly ball at times of danger is known to many. Hedgehogs have an elongated muzzle, expressive and lively bead eyes. They are very useful in killing harmful insects.

Moose

In the deer family, this animal is considered the largest, and only a giraffe is second in superiority to the height of three-meter growth among ungulates. But his body is relatively short, but his legs are very long.

The heavy head is adorned with horns characteristic of an elk form, they are relatively small and fan apart. Uncontrolled hunting has largely led to the destruction of these animals. Of European countries they are now found mainly in Scandinavia and on the territory of some other states of this part of the world.

In the photo moose

A large wild pig, usually found in the western regions of the continent, whose mass is often measured by a quarter ton. This is a stocky beast with a massive head and a moving snout.

The legs of the boar are quite short. However, it runs and jumps perfectly. His body, ending with a small tail with a brush, is covered with coarse, brown-gray hair.

These are residents of oak forests and broad-leaved forests, who love to eat acorns, wallow like mud in the mud and then warm their belly in the sun. They are also found in the forest-steppe, especially in the armholes of rivers whose banks are overgrown with reed vegetation.

Wild boar family

Weasel

Despite the name, it is a rather ferocious and dexterous, but graceful and graceful predator of small sizes, whose body length usually does not exceed 25 cm.The coat of an animal belonging to the marten family has a reddish-brown hue, only the neck and stomach stand out in white.

The skins of these small creatures are not valued too highly, and hunting for a dodgy animal is not at all simple, therefore a person is not the main enemy of affection, but it can very well become the prey of larger predators.

Weasels bring great benefits, exterminating hordes of rodents. There are animals in areas covered with shrubs, finding refuge in the crevices of rocks.

Animal caress

Ferret

The animal, weighing about 2 kg, is also a member of the marten family. The body of this predatory mammal is elongated and flexible, squat due to disproportionately short paws.

On the fingers of the animal there are very strong long claws, which enable the animal to dig deep holes and cleverly climb trees. In addition, ferrets swim perfectly, and move on the ground in leaps.

The color of beautiful and soft animal fur can be black, sand and even white. The skins of ferrets are considered quite valuable, which caused a significant extermination of their population.

Pictured ferret

Otter

A not very large predatory animal, having a mass of about 10 kg. These animals spend a lot of time in the water, eating fish and crustaceans, also eat eggs of ground rodents and birds.

They masterly swim, and when diving, they can hold their breath for a long time. Like all representatives of the marten family, they have an excellently flexible body and small paws, but equipped, in addition, with membranes.

Their teeth and claws are very sharp. The tail is muscular and long. The unique brown otter fur is highly appreciated, being unusually sock. About 17 species of such animals stand out.

Otters

Marten

The slender and long body of this predator is about half a meter long. The marten’s muzzle is sharp, on it are small ears of a triangular shape, edged with yellow. The tail is commensurate with half the body length.

The silky skin of the animal consists of valuable brown fur. Moreover, winter hair is much richer and thicker. These creatures spend a lot of time on trees, moving freely along branches, making four-meter jumps. They also run fast on the ground. An active life begins with animals when twilight thickens.

In the photo martens

Ermine

Another valuable fur-bearing animal whose fur is distinguished by a snow-white shade in winter, which is considered a symbol of unsullied purity. The skins of this creature adorned the outfits of the crowned persons, of which judicial mantles were made.

The size of the ermine is slightly smaller than the marten. It has a triangular head, small ears, a long neck and short legs. In summer, his hair becomes two-tone: brown-red above, below much lighter. In Europe, the animal is found, as a rule, in temperate latitudes, usually settling near water bodies.

Animal ermine

Sable

The fur of this mammal from the marten family, the size of the sable’s tail can be almost half the length of its body, it can be fawn, sand-yellow, brown or very light. This is a strong and agile, medium-sized predator, an inhabitant of the taiga. The length of his jump can reach up to 70 cm.

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Pictured animal sable

Squirrel

This mammal, classified as a rodent, is very common among animals, living in Europe. Squirrels settle in trees, moving with deft leaps from one branch to another, inhabiting not only the dense forests, but the gardens and parks of large cities on the continent.

These animals have long ears and body, a fluffy tail of two-thirds of its own size and paws with tenacious claws. The color of their fur is red, black and dark brown. Squirrels are not at all afraid of people, many of them become almost tame, take nuts and goodies from people’s hands.

Chipmunk

Belongs to the squirrel family and resembles its relative in appearance. The rodent weighs only 150 g. It has a brown coat color of different shades and a long tail. Chipmunk is a tree dweller, settles in the thickets of willow, birch, bird cherry. In Europe, it occurs mainly in the northern regions.

In the photo chipmunk

Gopher

Another rodent from the squirrel family. He is a resident of the forest-tundra, also populating meadows and steppes of temperate latitudes. Has short ears and disproportionately long hind limbs.

Its fur can have the most diverse color: from purple to green. The animals settle in holes that they dig themselves. Gophers live in colonies, feed on plants and insects.

In the photo gophers

Camel

These hardy, one-humped or two-humped inhabitants of arid regions, able to live for a long time without water, are too thermophilic and did not take root on the continent, no matter how much effort they put into it.

But still, such creatures can be found in some areas of Eastern and Southern europe. Animals have a long, arched neck; rounded, small ears; curly fur.

From the sand that always gets into the eyes and nostrils when moving through the desert, they were protected by nature, giving them shaggy eyelashes and narrow nostrils like clicks. Camels are exclusively pets.

But they have served man for centuries. These «desert ships» can be seen in the yards of peasants, for example, in Kalmykia. Not so long ago, a camel farm appeared near Amsterdam.

Lemming

Outwardly resembles a hamster and belongs to the same family. The animals are very small in size, while their weight is only about 70 g. The wool is brown or mottled.

Lemming is a resident of the cold regions: forest-tundra and tundra, extremely fond of well-visible areas covered with moss — vegetation, which serves as a food for the animal. The unusual structure of the claws helps these living creatures stay on the snow surface.

Animal lemming

Cockroach

To the question about the oldest animal in Europe, you can get an unexpected answer. After all, such an insect is a cockroach that is hated by many, reproduces in huge quantities and takes root in any conditions. The remains of these creatures in significant quantities were found in Paleozoic sediments.

Scientists believe that they exist on the planet for 320 million years. Despite the persistent desire of a person to get rid of them by any means, such insects live in all places where people are, taking root in large cities and in rural areas.

The ability to adapt, stubbornly fighting for survival for 130 million years, helped to survive and survive until the present century almost in the prehistoric pristine appearance of modern ant.

These are extremely hardworking smart insects, as you know, capable of lifting weights significantly more than their own weight. In Europe, they live everywhere, with the exception of the Far North.

Eagle

A bird of prey of impressive size, spread over the vast territory of the continent and preferring uninhabited mountain landscapes. She is a relative of falcons and hawks.

Feathered are distinguished by a muscular massive body, a developed neck, strong legs, a short and narrow tail. Eagles have extremely sharp vision, allowing them to notice small prey at a distance of several kilometers, although the mobility of the eyeballs is reduced.

The unsurpassed hunter of the predator is made by an impressive beak and sharp claws. The wingspan of birds is often more than two meters, which allows them to soar for a long time, patrolling the surroundings from a height of about seven hundred meters, choosing a victim.

The flight of the eagle is known for its deep, powerful flapping and is beautiful for its incredible maneuverability. The greatness of this bird, considered among many ancient nationalities the messenger of the gods, became the reason for the creation of legends and fairy tales.

Bird eagle

Falcon

A winged predator whose main weapon is a beak with a sharp tooth at the end. In flight, the bird is incredibly fast and develops tremendous speed.

For dexterity and maneuverability in the air, where these creatures feel much better than on earth, they earned the title of champions among the birds that live on the planet.

The wings of these creatures have a huge scope, and the falcon flies, spreading its wings wide. In Europe, birds can be observed in many areas, with the exception of the Arctic.

Pictured bird falcon

A hawk, like an eagle, is often mentioned in many ancient mythologies. During the time of the pharaohs, her dark brown or red eyes were considered a symbol of the moon and the sun. This creature has a slender article, rounded, short but wide wings and a long tail.

Her paws have long fingers equipped with strong claws. Today, such a bird can be observed mainly in relict old forests.

Pictured hawk

In the owl family, this bird of prey is considered the largest, reaching a weight of about 4 kg. Her active life begins with the onset of twilight and is conducted at night.

The physique of the birds is stocky and dense, the legs are short but very strong. The wings are powerful, with a span of up to two meters, the head is disproportionately huge in shape, and a hooked beak.

Extremely noteworthy in these creatures are the motionless large eyes of bright orange, yellow or red, which perfectly see and glow in the dark.

The color of fluffy and thick feathers can be gray-smoky or brown-rusty. The deaf ear of an eagle owl in the impassable thicket of the forest can be heard at a distance of several kilometers.

Nightingale

For Russia, nightingale singing has become almost legendary. Outwardly, these are rather inconspicuous creatures the size of a sparrow, distinguished by fragile and harmonious constitution. The eyes look like black beads that stand out on a small head. The color of the feathers can be red, brown or olive, the abdomen with mottled.

Nightingale bird

Thrush

For many, singing thrush sounds sweet and romantic music, which even became the reason for writing the once very popular song. The birds stand out in several subspecies, each of which has its own characteristic features.

The songbird can be distinguished from its counterparts by a grayish or chocolate shade of the top of the head, back and tail, yellowish sides and a white tummy, as well as a breast marked with brown strokes.

Pictured bird thrush

This variety of serpentine creatures, completely harmless and non-toxic, is often found in many European countries. The lunar shape of the light spot, which can be seen on the head of these creatures from the sides, allows you to accurately distinguish them from vipers.

The upper part of the body in snakes is gray, standing out in various shades, the belly of creatures is white. In different species, the shape of the tail is different: rounded and short, powerful and thin, steep or sharp.

In the photo already

This amphibious creation can be found everywhere in Europe in the vicinity of swamps, lakes and quiet rivers. There are many types of frogs, all of them are distinguished: a head fused with a short body with almost no neck; bulging eyes stand out on the flat large head.

There is no tail in the presence, it exists only in tadpoles, but disappears with time. Color frogs can be the most diverse. Basically, their waterproof skin is protective in color: green, gray-green, often with a brown or yellow tint.

The size of frogs depends on the variety, and there are many. In Europe, mainly grass and pond frogs are distributed. They are very useful in that they destroy mosquitoes and harmful insects.

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