Staghorn Fern Disease Symptoms — Tips On Dealing With Sick Staghorn Ferns
Staghorn Fern Plant Problems: How To Treat A Diseased Staghorn Fern
- 1 Staghorn Fern Plant Problems: How To Treat A Diseased Staghorn Fern
- 2 Staghorn Fern Plant Problems
- 3 7 Effective Ways To Deal With Low Employee Morale
- 4 Causes Of Low Employee Morale
- 5 How To Deal With Low Employee Morale
- 6 Shield on indoor plants: how to deal with all the rules
Staghorn ferns are dramatic plants both in the exotic places from which they hail and in the home environment. Although they can be a little tricky to get just so, once a staghorn is established, you can expect few problems with them. Once in a while, however, your staghorn may get sick and that’s why we put this article together. Read on to learn more about diseases of staghorn ferns.
Staghorn Fern Plant Problems
Staghorn ferns can be interesting and exotic additions to your home or landscape. Their large, antler-like leaves are showy and dramatic, making them a favorite of fern enthusiasts. Like any plant, diseases of staghorn fern can develop, but they’re extremely few and far between. In fact, sick staghorn ferns are much more likely to be troubled by incorrect growing conditions than they are actual disease, so if your plant is looking unwell, take heart. It’s probably something completely fixable.
Most of staghorn fern problems are the direct result of care slip-ups, but there are a few problems that are common among these epiphytic wonders. When you’ve reviewed your care plan and are certain they’re getting enough light and nutrients, it’s definitely time to look for other staghorn fern disease symptoms. Don’t stress, we’ve made a list of likely pest and disease problems and how to treat a diseased staghorn below:
Rhizoctonia. When black spots appear on the basal fronds and begin to spread toward the growing point, it’s time to act fast. This is the calling card of Rhizoctonia, a fungal pest of staghorn fern. If left untreated, the black spores will continue their march and kill the entire plant. First, withhold water entirely and reduce the humidity around your plant. If that doesn’t make enough of a dent, try a general use fungicide. In the future, monitor the humidity and the plant’s watering, since excessive moisture is necessary for Rhizoctonia to survive.
Mealybugs and scale. Mealybugs and scale can appear to be diseases even though they’re actually pest infestations. These sap-sucking insects are master mimics, making themselves appear as white, fluffy tufts or waxy shields attached directly to the plant. Mealybugs are a little bit easier to recognize as insects, but they produce copious amounts of white fuzzy wax that can hide their numbers. Avoid using oils on staghorn ferns, but insecticidal soap can be used to destroy colonies. It may require more than one application, so monitor your plant closely during treatment.
7 Effective Ways To Deal With Low Employee Morale
by Alison Robins, Content Writer
Reading time : 5mins
When employee morale is low, it can have a hugely negative effect on the culture, decrease collaboration between teams, affect the way customers are treated, and so much more.
Leaders will often look for a quick fix, but it’s not that simple.
It’s easy to put the blame on the hiring process or one individual employee, but unfortunately, the blame is on managers. As a leader, the buck stops with you. You need to take full responsibility for the low morale.
It’s the environment that you create through your attitudes, policies, and even biases to decrease morale at work.
A high-morale environment is one built on trust, respect, autonomy, and recognition.
Every employee has the potential to do amazing things, but often they’re stifled for a number of reasons.
Before going through ways to fix morale, let’s look at a few of the causes of low morale.
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Causes Of Low Employee Morale
There are many causes of low morale, but again, more than anything, it comes down to a lack of trust and respect. When you don’t trust your employees, you’ll do things like micromanage or blame.
Here are some of the main causes of low morale:
Lack Of Growth
This is true at both the personal and the business level. If the business isn’t growing and there’s no movement or action, employees can become bored and demotivated.
The research shows that employees need that growth to stay engaged, and if they don’t get it, they’ll start to become disengaged and eventually leave for a more challenging role.
Lack Of Clarity
When employees don’t fully know what’s expected of them, or those expectations are misaligned, that leads to unnecessary stress and employees will lose morale.
This is why it’s important to set clear goals with each member of your team and use monthly one-on-ones as a way to check in to see if there are any clarity issues.
Change In Leadership
Any type of change is hard to handle.
If there was a recent merger, or a shakeup at the senior leadership level, that can easily lower morale as that confidence is shaken, the culture will likely change, and morale can take a hit.
Change management is one of the hardest things an organization will have to go through, so it’s important to keep a close eye on morale throughout any major change.
More often than not, leadership issues are one of the biggest reasons for low morale.
Leaders need to understand how their behavior is affecting the team. It’s tough for front-line managers that are stuck between their team and the senior leaders, but low morale can have such a dramatic effect on your team that it’s worth bringing up to senior leadership.
How To Deal With Low Employee Morale
Luckily, low morale is easy to fix. It just takes a conscious effort and commitment.
Here are seven ways you can fix low employee morale:
One of the worst things you could do when morale is low is pretend it’s not.
It’s easier to just sweep problems under the rug, or try to “shield” your employees from bad news you might be receiving from above, but you’d be much better off being transparent.
Employees will respect that honesty, and you can all work together to fix the issue.
When morale is low, it’s important to focus on the positive and recognize good work.
Lack of recognition might even be the reason morale is low, so it’s in your best interest to focus a bit more on this in tough times. Employees need to feel appreciated and valued.
According to the book How Full Is Your Bucket by Don Clifton, lack of appreciation is the number one reason people leave their jobs. If people don’t get recognized for all the time and energy that they put into their work, morale will drop.
Remember, if managers aren’t the direct source of the low morale, it’s their responsibility to fix it. Managers need to be trained in things like:
- Emotional intelligence
- Different leadership styles
- Giving feedback and recognition
Managers have the biggest effect on engagement and morale, therefore training them is one of the most important things you could do to fix morale issues.
Run A Calm Company
Setting aggressive goals and pushing yourself and your team to the limit is inspiring, but reducing stress, maintaining work-life balance, and running a calm, healthy company should be your real goal.
Jason Fried, CEO of Basecamp, talks about the importance of running a calm company, in a preview of his new book The Calm Company.
“What’s worse is that long hours, excessive busyness, and lack of sleep have become a badge of honor for many people these days. Sustained exhaustion is not a badge of honor, it’s a mark of stupidity. Companies that force their crew into this bargain are cooking up dumb at their employees expense.”
We should all take a page from Jason’s book (pun intended) and run a calm company.
To keep employees motivated, give them a sense of progress and that they have something to look forward to.
Even if it’s not an actual job promotion, give them growth by helping them take courses or attend conferences that will improve their skills. As long as there’s a sense of growth and advancement they’ll be motivated.
A great way to increase morale is to collect feedback from the team and show them that you’re listening. When employees feel heard, they are more likely to be motivated at work.
You can set up an anonymous employee engagement platform like Officevibe or have informal team meetings, but whatever you do, find a way to show employees that their opinion counts.
Don’t forget to act on whatever feedback you receive. Even if you don’t actually implement every piece of feedback, thank them and get back to them.
Have Team Building Activities
When morale is low, organize a team building activity like a night out or a team lunch to lift spirits.
It’s amazing what a few slices of pizza can do for team morale.
While this isn’t as long term a solution as our other recommendations, this is a nice quick fix to boost morale that we’d highly recommend.
Shield on indoor plants: how to deal with all the rules
How to grow indoors or how to grow outdoors you must have good seeds, some seedling soil, some small and large pots and depending on whether you’re growing indoor or outdoor some lamps and all the toys around them.
Growing you must soak the in a cup of water overnight before beginning the process of growing. First you may want to have some good fertilized soil, preferably peat moss, and you may want to use a little bit of miracle grow, which can be purchased at a low price at any plant shop, pretty mucQuik grow tips. You must have either a 400 watt or 600 watt grow lamp. Soft white bulbs will NOT work.
RATIO: 1 400 watt lamp = 1 squire meter of plants( +/- 25 plants). First up you will need a small space. A wooden closet of approximately 100*100*200cm would be good. This size can be varied depending on the number of plants but this is good for 25. Remember to make sure that your lights will fit inside the closet. The inside of this closet should be painted with flat white paint or coated with aluminum foil (or Mylar is you have it).
This will increase reflectivity and will make your lights more effective.
Now you need to put lights inside the cabinet.
The optimum temperature is 27-30 C. It will probably be hotter than this so cut a small ventilation hole (10cm*10cm) in the top of the cabinet. Mount the lights vertically with one in each corner, as close to the top of the cabinet as possible. Mount the remaining light on the roof of the cabinet. Wire all the lights into one plug with enough cable to reach the socket. This could be dangerous so get someone who knows what they are doing to do it. Use an appropriate fuse or better still, buy a circuit breaker. Buy a timer. A standard and widely available 24hr timer will be fine. These are cheap. Get some potting soil from a garden center. Sandy or loose soils are good soils for growing. The exact soil is not all that important. With enough light and nutrients you should have no trouble getting good growth. If you can then monitor soil pH values.
Switch the lights on and leave them on. Plant 10-15 seeds.
Water the plants once a day and feed the plants twice a week with a standard miracle grow product in the water.
Try to use a high nitrogen plant food during vegetative growth (at the start) and a low nitrogen plant food during flowering.
When the plants get to the height you want them (about 60cm is good) set the timer for 12 hours of light and 12 of dark.
Only water once every two days around the time when the lights come on.
This will halt vertical growth and after a few weeks the plants will start to show either male or female characteristics.
Males: pollen balls.
Females: stems and branches.
During the dark periods absolutely no light should be allowed in.
Cut out the males before they release pollen.
Reduce the number of plants down to the best 5 females.
These females will now grow outwards.
The whole thing takes 4 months. 4-6 weeks in vegetative growth stage, 2 weeks differentiation to split males and females and 8 weeks for the females to flower.
Harvest when the large leaves begin to yellow and drop off.
Cut the leaves off and let dry on a flat surface.
Trim the leaf near the buds and hang the buds to dry for about a week.
A good book on how to grow with pictures and good detail is essential for serious growing.
Growth space must be high enough to allow growth to about 60cm (2-3ft). This requires a space of about 100cm (4ft high). Twice this height should be converted into a two level growing space by inserting a shelf.
There should be between 18inches and 2ft growing space per plant. All of the inside of the growing space should be coated with foil or painted with white paint to increase reflectivity and improve light efficiency.
More space than the minimum is always best because good ventilation can greatly improve growth rates.
How to grow indoors with Lighting.
Fluorescent tubes are named for the spectrum of light which they emit. Some spectrums are more efficient than others.
Deluxe warm white, warm white and deluxe cool white are all conducive to good growth and should be widely available.
All types of growing light should have a reflector box around them directing the light towards the plants.
You should get the longest light that will fit into your space and the highest wattage you can find.
Screw-in grow bulbs are tempting but highly inefficient.
How to grow outdoor or indoor with the proper Plant Pot Size
A of 6″*6″*6″ should be perfect to support good growth.
One of these per plant is how to grow .
Organic Soil Mixes
There are many different types of soil mixes available and they are easy to obtain from garden centers.
Two proven types are:
-4 parts topsoil, 1 part peat moss, 1 part vermiculite, 1 part perlite.
This is moist, contains medium/high amounts of nutrients and is best for hand watering systems.
-1 part worm castings, 2 parts vermiculite, 1 part perlite.
This is light-weight and high in nutrients.
The main nutrients that a plant needs to grow are Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium. Most plant fertilizers contain these elements and a good, easily available, one is called Grow More.
If you really want to then here are the some effective ratios of the three elements to be used through the two growth stages.
Early growth stages: 7-9-5 or 5-10-5 or 4-5-3.
For the flowering stages use 3-10-4 or 5-20-5 or 4-30-12.
It is best to build up the amount of fertilizer you use to what is making the plants look healthily green as too much fertilizer can kill the plant.
How to grow outdoors or indoors and deal with Soil pH Levels
Any pH level between 6 and 7 is fine but you should aim for as close to 6.5 as possible.
Temperature when how to grow indoor
Aim for 70 F. Anything higher than 75F will be too hot and will damage growth. Make sure the water for watering is luke-warm.
plants may belong to any one of a number of varieties which follow somewhat different growth patterns. The following outline describes the more common form of growth. Differences between varieties can be thought of as variations on this standard theme.
is an annual plant. A single season completes a generation, leaving all hope for the future to the seeds. The normal life cycle follows the general pattern described below.
Grow indoor and outdoor Germination
With winter past, the moisture and warmth of spring stir activity in the embryo. Water is absorbed and the embryo’s tissues swell and grow, splitting the seed along its suture.
The radical or embryonic root appears first. Once clear of the seed, the root directs growth downward in response to gravity. Meanwhile, the seed is being lifted upward by growing cells which form the seedling’s stem.
Now anchored by the roots, and receiving water and nutrients, the embryonic leaves (cotyledons) unfold. They are a pair of small, somewhat oval, simple leaves, now green with chlorophyll to absorb the life-giving light. Germination is complete. The embryo has been reborn and is now a seedling living on the food it produces through photosynthesis. The process of germination is usually completed in three to 10 days.
The second pair of leaves begins the seedling stage. They are set opposite each other and usually have a single blade. They differ from the embryonic leaves by their larger size, spearhead shape, and serrated margins. With the next pair of leaves that appears, usually each leaf has three blades and is larger still.
A basic pattern has been set. Each new set of leaves will be larger, with a higher number of blades per leaf until, depending on variety, they reach their maximum number, often nine or 11.
The seedling stage is completed within four to six weeks.
This is the period of maximum growth. The plant can grow no faster than the rate that its leaves can produce energy for new growth. Each day more leaf tissue is created, increasing the overall capacity for growth.
With excellent growing conditions, has been known to grow six inches a day, although the rate is more commonly one to two inches.
The number of blades on each leaf begins to decline during the middle of the vegetative stage. Then the arrangement of the leaves on the stem (phyllotaxy) changes from the usual opposite to alternate. The internodes (stem space from one pair of leaves to the next, which had been increasing in length) begin to decrease, and the growth appears to be thicker. Branches which appeared in the axis of each set of leaves grow and shape the plant to its characteristic form. The vegetative stage is usually completed in the third to fifth months of growth.
How to grow — Preflowering
This is a quiescent period of one to two weeks during which growth slows considerably. The plant is beginning a new program of growth as encoded in its genes. The old system is turned off and the new program beings with the appearance of the first flowers.
is dioecious: each plant produces either male or female flowers, and is considered either a male or female plant. Male plants usually start to flowers about one month before the female; however, there is sufficient overlap to ensure pollination. First the upper internodes elongate; in a few days the male flowers appear. The male flowers are quite small, about 1/4 inch, and are pale green, yellow, or red/purple. They develop in dense, drooping clusters (cymes) capable of releasing clouds of pollen dust.
Once pollen falls, males lose vigour and soon die.
The female flowers consists of two small (1/4 to 1/2 inch long), fuzzy white stigmas raised in a V sign and attached at the base to an ovule which is contained in a tiny green pod. The pod is formed from modified leaves (bracts and bracteoles) which envelop the developing seed. The female flowers develop tightly together to form dense clusters (racemes) or buds, cones, or colas (in this book, buds). The bloom continues until pollen reaches the flowers, fertilizing them and beginning the formation of seeds. Flowering usually lasts about one or two months, but may continue longer when the plants are not pollinated and there is no killing frost.
A fertilized female flower develops a single seed wrapped in the bracts.
In thick clusters, they form the seed-filled buds that make up most fine imported .
How to grow indoor and how to grow outdoor you learn after pollination, mature, viable seeds take from 10 days to five weeks to develop. When seeds are desired, the plant is harvested when enough seeds have reached full color. For a fully-seeded plant this often takes place when the plant has stopped growth and is, in fact, dying. During flowering and seed set, various colors may appear. All the plant’s energy goes to reproduction and the continuance of its kind. Minerals and nutrients flow from the leaves to the seeds, and the chlorophyll’s that give the plant its green color disintegrate. The gold’s, browns, and reds which appear are from accessory pigments that formerly had been masked by chlorophyll.
How to grow outdoor About Plants Generally
Usually how to grow indoors, Plants use a fundamentally different «life strategy» from animals. Usually how to grow outdoors can be seen like animals, more or less self-contained units that grow and develop to predetermined forms. They use movement and choice of behavior to deal with the changing environments. Plants are organized more as open systems — the simple physical characteristics of the environment, such as sunlight, water, and temperature, directly control their growth, form, and life cycles.
Once the seed sprouts, the plant is rooted in place and time. Since growth is regulated by the environment, development is on accordance with the plant’s immediate surroundings. When a balance is struck, the strategy is a success and life flourishes.
Behavior of a plant is not a matter of choice; it is a fixed response. On a visible level the response more often than not is growth, either a new form of growth, or specialized growth. By directly responding, plant in effect «know,» for example, when to sprout, flower, or drop leaves to prepare for winter.
Everyone has seen how a plant turns toward light or can bend upward if it its stem is bent down. The plant turns by growing cells of different length on opposite sides of the stem. This effect turns or right the plant.
The stimulus in the first case is light, in the second gravity, but essentially the plant responds by specialized growth. It is the same with almost all facets of a plant’s live — growth is modified and controlled by the immediate environment. The influence of light, wind, rainfall, etc., interacts with the plant (its genetic make-up or genotype) to produce the individual plant (phenotype).
The life cycle of is usually complete in four to nine months. The actual time depends on variety, but it is regulated by local growing conditions, specifically the photoperiod (length of day vs night).
is a long-night (or short-day) plant. When exposed to a period of two weeks of long nights — that is, 13 or more hours of continuous darkness each night — the plants respond by flowering. This has important implications, for it allows the grower to control the life cycle of the plant and adapt it to local growing conditions or unique situations. Since you can control flowering, you control maturation and, hence, the age of the plants at harvest.
PHOTOPERIOD AND FLOWERING
For the grower, how to grow , the most important plant/environment interaction to understand is the influence of the photoperiod. The photoperiod is the daily number of hours of day (light) vs. night (dark). In nature, long nights signal the plant that winter is coming and that it is time to flowers and produce seeds. As long as the day-length is long, the plants continue vegetative growth. If female flowers do appear, there will only be a few. These flowers will not form the characteristic large clusters or buds. If the days are too short, the plants flowers too soon, and remain small and underdeveloped.
The plant «senses» the longer nights by a direct interaction with light. A flowering hormone is present during all stages of growth. This hormone is sensitive to light and is rendered inactive by even low levels of light. When the dark periods are long enough, the hormones increase to a critical level that triggers the reproductive cycle. Vegetative growth ends and flowering begins.
The natural photoperiod changes with the passing of seasons. In the Northern Hemisphere, the length of daylight is longest on June 21. Day-length gradually decreases until it reaches its shortest duration on December 22.
The duration of daylight then begins to increase until the cycle is completed the following June 21.
Because the Earth is tilted on its axis to the sun, day-length also depends on position (or latitude) on Earth. As one moves closer to the equator, changes in the photoperiod are less drastic over the course of a year. At the equator (0 degrees altitude) day length lasts about 12.5 hours on June 21 and 11.5 hours on December 22. In Maine (about 45 degrees north), day-length varies between about 16 and nine hours. Near the Arctic Circle on June 21 there is no night. On December 22 the whole day is dark. The longer day-length toward the north prevents from flowering until later in the season. Over most of the northern half of the country, flowering is often so late that development cannot be completed before the onset of cold weather and heavy frosts.
The actual length of day largely depends on local conditions, such as cloud cover, altitude, and terrain. On a flat Midwest plain, the effective length of day is about 30 minutes longer than sunrise to sunset. In practical terms, it is little help to calculate the photoperiod, but it is important to realize how it affects the plants and how you can use it to you advantage.
generally needs about two weeks of successive long nights before the first flowers appear. The photoperiod necessary for flowering will vary slight with
(1) the variety, (2) the age of the plant, (3) its sex, and (4) growing conditions.
1. varieties originating from more northerly climes (short growing seasons) react to as little as nine hours of night. Most of these are hemp and seed varieties that are acclimated to short growing seasons, such as the weedy hemp’s of Minnesota or southern Canada. Varieties from more southerly latitudes need longer nights with 11 to 13 hours of darkness. Since most plants are acclimated to southerly latitudes, they need the longer nights to flower.
To be on the safe side, if you give plant dark periods of 13 or more hours, each night for two weeks, this should be enough to trigger flowering.
2. The older a plant (the more physiologically developed), the quicker it responds to long nights. Plants five or six months old sometimes form visible flowers after only four long nights. Young plants (a month or so of age) can take up to four weeks to respond to long nights of 16 hours.
3. Both male and female are long-night plants. Both will flower when given about two weeks of long nights. The male plant, however, will often flower fully under very long days (18 hours) and short nights (six hours). Males often flowers at about the same time they would if they were growing in their original environment. For most plants this occurs during the third to fifth month.
4. Growing conditions affect flowering in many ways (see Chapter 12). Cool temperatures (about 50F) slow down the flowering response. Cool temperatures or generally poor growing conditions affect flowering indirectly. Flower development is slower, and more time is needed to reach full bloom. Under adverse conditions, female buds will not develop to full size.
Applications of Photoperiod
The photoperiod is used to manipulate the plants in two basic ways to grow :
1. By giving long dark periods, you can force plants to flower.
2. By preventing long nights, using artificial light to interrupt the dark period, you can force the plants to continue vegetative growth.
How to grow Outdoors
Most plants cultivated in the United States begin to flower by late August to early October and the plants are harvested from October to November. For farmers in the South, parts of the Midwest, and West Coast, this presents no problem and no special techniques are needed for normal flowering.
In much of the North and high-altitude areas, many varieties will not have time to complete flowering before fall frosts. To force the plants to flower earlier, give them longer night periods. If the plants are in containers, you can simply move them into a darkened area each evening.
Plants growing in the ground can be covered with an opaque tarpaulin, black sheet plastic, or double or triple-layers black plastic trash bags. Take advantage of any natural shading because direct sunlight is difficult to screen completely. For instance, if the plants are naturally shaded in the morning hours, cover the plants each evening or night. The next morning you uncover the plants at about eight to nine o’clock. Continue the treatment each day until all the plants are showing flowers. This usually takes two weeks at most, is the plants are well developed (about four months old). For this reason, where the season starts late, it is best to start the plants indoors or in cold frames and transplant outdoors when the weather is mild. This in effect lengthens the local growing season and gives the plants another month or two to develop.
By the end of August the plants are physiologically ready to flower; they sometimes do with no manipulation of the photoperiod. More often female plants show a few flowers, but the day-length prevents rapid development to large clusters. The plants seem in limbo — caught between vegetative growth and flowering. The natural day-length at this time of year will not be long enough to reverse the process, so you can discontinue the treatment when you see that the new growth is predominantly flowers.
In areas where frosts are likely to occur by early October, long-night treatments may be the only way you can harvest good-sized flower clusters. These clusters, or buds, are the most potent plant parts and make up the desired harvest. Forcing the plants to flowers early also means development while the weather is warm and the sun is shining strongly.
The flower buds will form much faster, larger and reach their peak potency. A good time to start the treatments is early to middle August. This allows the plants at least four weeks of flowering while the weather is mild.
Another reason you may want to do this is to synchronize the life cycle of the plants with the indigenous vegetation. In the northeast and central states, the growing season ends quite early and much of the local vegetation dies back and changes color. Any plants stick out like green thumbs, and the crop may get ripped off or busted. Plants treated with long nights during late July will be ready to harvest in September.
Outdoor growers should always plant several varieties, because some may naturally flower early, even in the northern-most parts of the country. These early-maturing varieties usually come from Mexican, Central Asian, and homegrown sources. By planting several varieties, many of you will be able to find or develop an early-maturing variety after a season or two. This, of course, is an important point, because it eliminates the need for long-night treatments.
Manipulation of the photoperiod can also prevent the plants from flowering until a desired time. For example, in Hawaii the weather is mild enough to grow winter crops. The normal summer crop is harvested anytime from September to mid-November. The winter crop is generally planted from October to December. Because the winter days are so short, the plants flower almost immediately, usually within two month. The plants are harvested in their third or fourth month and yield about 1/4 the yield of summer plants.
A large Hawaiian female can yield a pound of buds. Most of the plant’s overall size is reached while it is vegetatively growing. By interrupting the night period with light, you can keep these plants vegetatively growing for another month, yielding plants of about twice the size.
The amount of light needed to prevent flowering is quite small (about .03 foot candles95 — on a clear night the full moon is about .01 foot candles). However, each plant mist is illuminated fully, with the light shining over the whole plant.
This might be accomplished with either electric light or a strong flashlight. The easiest way is to string incandescent bulbs, keeping them on a timer. The lights need be turned on for only a flash at any time during the night period, from about 9:00 PM to about 3:00 am. The interrupts the long night period to less then nine hours. Start these night treatments each night or two, until you want the plants to flower.
How to Grow Indoors
The growing season lasts all year. How to grow during the night period is much easier to control. Sometimes people grow plants in their windows for more than a year without any female flowers ever forming. This is because household lamps are turned on sometime at night, illuminating the plants. Under natural light exclusively, indoor plants flower at about the same time they would outdoors (sometime a bit sooner because it is warmer indoors or the plants may be shaded).
When plants are well developed and you want them to flower, make sure that no household lamps or nearby street lamps are shining on them. During late fall and winter, the natural day-length is short enough for the plants to flower naturally, if you simply keep off any lights at night that are in the same room as the plants. If you must use light, use the lowest wattage possible, such as a six-watt bulb. (The hormone is also least sensitive to blue light.) Shield the light away from the plants. Or shield the plants from any household light with aluminum foil curtains.
Once the flowers are forming clusters, you can discontinue the dark treatments, especially if it is more convenient. However, if it is too soon (when you see only a few random flowers), household lights can reverse the process.
By using natural light, you can grow indoor crops all year. The winter light is weak and the days are short, so it is best to use artificial lights to supplement daylight, as well as to extend the photoperiod. The extra light will increase the growth rate of the plants and hence size and yield. You should allow winter crops to flower during late January or February, using the natural photoperiod to trigger flowering. If you wait until spring, the natural light period will be too long and may prevent flowering.
How to Grow with Artificial Lights
Under artificial light the photoperiod is, of course, any length you wish. The most popular way to grow with artificial lights is the harvest system. Start the plants under long light periods of from 16 to 18 hours daily. After the plants have reached a good size, usually between three and six months, shorten the light cycle to about 12 hours to force flowering.
To decide exactly when to grow and force the plants to flower, let their growth be the determinant. If male plants are showing their flowers, then the females are physiologically ready to flower. Most of the plant’s overall height is achieved during vegetative growth. Some varieties, of course, are smaller and grow more slowly than others. Wait until the plants are nearing the limits of the height of the garden or are at least five feet tall. This is large enough to support good flower development and return a good yield. If you turn down the light cycle when the plants are young and small, you’ll harvest much less grass because the plants simply can’t sustain a large number of flowers.
Some leaf growers prefer a continuous growth system, emphasizing leaf growth and a continuous supply of grass. The light cycle is set for 18 to 24 hours a day. This prevents flowering and the plants continue their rapid vegetative growth. Growing shoots and leaves are harvested as used, and plants are removed whenever they lose their vigor and growth has noticeably slowed. New plants are started in their place. In this way, there will be plants at different growth stages, some of which will be in their rapid vegetative growth stage and will be quite potent. Male plants and some females eventually will form flowers, but the females will not form large clusters. People often use this system when the lights are permanently fixed. Small plants are raised up to the lights on tables or boxes. This garden never shuts down and yields a continuous supply of grass.
Variations by Plant Part
The concentration of cannabinoids depends on the plant part, or more specifically, the concentration and development of resin glands to plant part. The female flower bracts have the highest concentration of resin glands and are usually the most potent plant parts. Seeds and roots have no resin glands. These shoe no more than traces of cannabinoids. Smoke seeds will give you a headache before you can get high. If you got high on seeds, then there were probably enough bracts adhering to the seeds to get you high.
Here are the potencies, in descending order, of the various plant parts:
1. Female flowering clusters. In practice you don’t separate hundreds
of tiny bracts to make a joint. The whole flowering mass (seeds removed),
along with small accompanying leaves, forms the material.
2. Male flower clusters. These vary more in relative potency depending on
the strain (see «Potency by Sex,» below).
3. Growing shoots. Before the plants flower, the vegetative shoots (tips)
of the main stem and branches are the most potent plant parts.
4. Leaves (a) that accompany flowers (small);
(b) along branches (medium);
(c) along main stem (large).
Generally, the smaller the leaf is, the more potent it can be.
5. Petioles (leaf stalks). Same order as leaves.
6. Stems. Same order as leaves. The smaller the stem (twig), the
higher the possible concentration of cannabinoids. Stems over 1/16″
in diameter contain only traces of cannabinoids and are not worth
smoking. The small stems that bear the flowers can be quite potent.
7. Seeds and Roots. Contain only traces (less then .01 percent) and
are not worth smoking or extracting.
This order is fairly consistent. The exceptions can be the small leaves that accompany male flowers, which are sometimes more potent than the flowers themselves. The growing shoots are sometimes more potent than the mature female flowers.
Samples of pollen show varying amounts of cannabinoids. Resin glands are found inside the anthers, alongside the developing pollen grains, and form two rows on opposite sides of each anther. Pollen grains are smaller than the heads of large resin glands (
Cultivation: Indoors or Outdoors?
The basic elements of the environment (light, water, air, and soil) provide plants with their fundamental needs. These environmental factors affect the growth rates of plants, as well as their life cycles. If one factor is deficient, growth rate and vigour will wan regardless of the other three. For instance, with low light, the growth will be limited no matter how fertile and moist the soil is. In the same sense, if soil minerals are scarce, the growth rate will be limited no matter how you increase the light.
How to Grow Indoors vs. How to Grow Outdoors
At this point the how to grow book divides into separate indoor and outdoor cultivation sections, and you may wonder whether it is better to grow the plant indoors or outdoors. Each alternative has advantages and disadvantages. It is usually better to grow the plants outdoors if possible, because the plants can grow much larger and faster than indoor. Indoor presents space and light limitations. It is possible to grow a 15-foot bush indoors, but this is unrealistic in most home. There simply isn’t enough room or light for such a large plant. Outdoor gardens return a much higher yield for the effort and expense. most indoor gardeners buy soil and may have to buy electric lights. So there is an initial investment of anywhere from $10 on up.
On the other hand, outdoor plants are more likely to be seen. Many gardens get ripped off, and busts are a constant threat. Indoor gardens are much less likely to be discovered. Gardening indoors allows the grower closer contact with the plants. The plants can be grown all year long; it is an easy matter to control their growth cycles and flowering. Probably the biggest attraction of indoor gardens is that they are beautiful to watch and easy to set up anywhere.
One popular compromise is to construct a simple greenhouse. Use plastic to either enclose part of a porch or to cover a frame built against the house.
The potency of the plants doesn’t depend on whether they are grown indoors or outdoors. As long as you grow healthy plants that reach maturity and complete their life cycle, the grass can be as good as any you’ve ever smoked.