DVT Prevention & Home Care: How To Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis
How to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
- 1 How to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
- 2 Everyday Living and Medical Conditions
- 3 After Surgery or While on Bed Rest
- 4 When Traveling
- 5 Garden in spring: How to spray trees and shrubs, and most importantly — when?
- 6 Step 1. Inspection and stripping
- 7 Step 2. Cropping
- 8 Step 3. Plant residue
- 9 Step 4. Digging in trunks
- 10 Step 5. Whitewashing
- 11 Step 6. Chemical (insect-acaricidal) treatment
- 12 Timing: When to spray trees and shrubs in spring
- 13 And what will the lunar calendar 2019 say .
- 14 Conclusions and recommendations
- 15 Means: How to spray the garden in the spring?
- 16 Why and when to treat the garden
- 17 Stages and timing of spraying
- 18 Why and when is it best to carry out spring gardening
- 19 Stages of spring garden treatment from both pests and diseases
- 20 Rules
- 21 Spring currants and gooseberries
- 22 Strawberry Processing in Early Spring
- 23 Grape processing in early spring
- 24 Apple and pear processing in early spring
- 24.1 Sprinkling the garden in early spring
- 24.2 Spring treatment of the garden from pests and diseases to budding
- 24.3 Preparations for the first spraying of trees
- 24.4 Garden treatment in spring from diseases and pests before and during the flowering process
- 24.5 Spring treatment of the garden during the appearance of ovaries on the fruit
- 25 Description of spray products
- 26 How to spray trees on a green cone
- 27 Spring Raspberry Processing
- 28 Spring plum and cherry plum processing
- 29 Peach Processing in Spring
- 30 Processing cherries in spring
- 31 Spraying trees in the pink bud phase
- 32 Fourth tree treatment
- 33 Useful tips from gardeners
- 34 Garden Processing Equipment
Articles On Deep Vein Thrombosis
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Deep Vein Thrombosis — How to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
A DVTВ is a blood clot that forms deep in your veins, most often in your leg. It can partially or completely blockВ bloodВ flow back to theВ heartВ and damage the one-way valves in your veins. It can also break free and travel to major organs, such as yourВ lungs, which can be very dangerous. Among people in the United States who have DVT, about 1 in 10 die fromВ DVT complications.
About 350,000 Americans are diagnosed with theseВ blood clotsВ each year, and almost as many have them and don’t know it. Even if you’re at risk, you can take steps toВ prevent DVT. Some simple actions include:
- Lose weight.
- DonвЂ™t stay still for long periods — move every 2 hours or so when youвЂ™re on a plane or long car trip.
- Wear loose clothes and drink lots of water when you travel.
Everyday Living and Medical Conditions
- Exerciseregularly — daily, if possible. Walking,В swimming, and bicycling are all great activities.В ExerciseВ will also help you manage yourВ weight, and so will eating a low-fat, high-fiber diet with lots of vegetables and fruits.
- If you smoke, quit! Nicotine patches, gums, or sprays and prescriptionВ medications, along with support groups, can make kicking the habit easier.
- Check yourВ blood pressureat least once a year; more often if your doctor says to. Follow his instructions about taking medication if you need it. Exercise, eating well, and quittingВ smoking will help control your blood pressure, too.
- Tell your doctor:
- В About anyВ blood-clotting problems you or a close family member has had
- If youвЂ™re onВ birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, or areВ pregnantВ
After Surgery or While on Bed Rest
Your surgeon will let you know if blood clots could be a problem for you. Sometimes, the risk is greatest right after surgery and for about 10 days afterward. Or you may get a DVT because you’re less active in the months after the procedure.
Your doctor may prescribeВ blood thinners, also called anticoagulants:
When you’re in the operating room, local anesthesia that numbs just the area the doctor is working on might be better than general anesthesia that knocks you out. You may want to wear compression sleeves on your legs to help keep your blood flowing.
During recovery, raise the foot of your bed so itвЂ™s taller than the pillow end. DonвЂ™t use pillows under your legs. Do any exercises, such as leg lifts andВ ankleВ movements, that your doctor recommends. Take your pain medicine to make it easier. Get out of bed and start ramping up your activity as soon as you can safely.
On flights longer than 4 hours, get up and move around. Take the opportunity to walk and stretch between connecting flights, too.
When you’re traveling by car, stop every hour to walk around.
If you’re stuck in your seat, work the muscles in your legs often throughout your trip:
- Stretch your legs.
- Flex your feet.
- Curl or press your toes down.
Drink plenty of fluids, but avoid coffee and alcohol. They’ll dehydrate you, which makes your veins narrower and blood thicker, so you’re more likely to get a clot.
Don’t wear short, tight socks, and try not to cross your legs a lot. You might want to wearВ compression stockings. They’ll help your blood flow and keep swelling down.
American Heart Association: «Venous Thromboembolism & Pulmonary Embolism — Statistics.»
Goldhaber, S. Circulation, 2002.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: «Deep Vein Thrombosis.»
American Academy of Family Physicians: «Deep Vein Thrombosis: What You Should Know.»
Society for Vascular Surgery: «Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).»
FDA: «Avoid Deep Vein Thrombosis: Keep the Blood Flowing.»
National Center for Biotechnology Information: «Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism as Major Public Health Problems.»
Sutter Health: вЂњPreventing Blood Clots at Home.вЂќ
Garden in spring: How to spray trees and shrubs, and most importantly — when?
Important in the fight against plant diseases and pests is the spring garden treatment. Since at this time it is possible to destroy pests in the embryo, as well as to prevent the propagation of harmful bacteria and fungi to the maximum, stop the spread of viruses.
Many naively believe that a single spray will be enough. But this is not so. Comprehensive measures are required, including processing with special preparations of fruit and berry shrubs and trees in at least four stages.
In this article I will tell about popular remedies and preparations, and step by step I will give instructions on the competent preparation of the garden in the spring months.
Step 1. Inspection and stripping
In the very early spring, preferably before the snow melts, inspect your garden and conduct the following activities:
1.1. Inspect the state of fruit tree trunks for peeling of the bark. Clean the damaged areas with a wire brush,
1.2. Inspect the condition of the branches of berry bushes. In early spring, before the buds swell, spill the near-stem part of the bushes with boiling water (+ 70-90 ° С,),
1.3. Identify the presence of nests of wintering insects, large cracks, hollows are usually used to lay eggs of harmful insects in the winter. It is necessary to clean and eliminate all this (burn).
Step 2. Cropping
Pruning is carried out in early spring, before the sap flow of plants begins. It is necessary:
2.1. Conduct either a sanitary or aesthetic pruning of the crowns of trees and shrubs,
2.2. Buy a new good secateurs — the main tool for a gardener,
2.3. It is necessary to use a well-sharpened garden tool — secateurs and delimbers, to prevent biting twigs and torn pruning,
Step 2. Preparing the garden in spring — pruning
2.4. Treated with trim garden trim. Aerosolized garden var is currently being produced, which makes it convenient to use.
Garden treatment of open areas of plants
Step 3. Plant residue
3.1. The main cleaning of fallen sheets must be carried out in the fall, do not leave in the winter. Fertilized female insect pests go into the soil and winter there under fallen leaves, plant debris, falling into the diapause, withstanding temperatures up to -30 ° С. Abandoned foliage and litter is also a favorable wintering environment for rodents
3.2. In the spring, carefully remove the remains of foliage, cut and fallen branches.
Step 4. Digging in trunks
This is the traditional spring stage of compulsory work, which makes it possible to improve soil aeration in a simple way. It is carried out immediately after thawing. If digging is carried out together with plant residues, as supporters of organic farming leave leaves, grass, hay in near-stem circles, they must be treat with carbamide (urea) 0.5 kg. for 10 liters water or a bacterial drug that accelerates the maturation of compost, otherwise they will become a hotbed of pests.
Step 5. Whitewashing
5.1. Whitewashing should be carried out in autumn in order to protect against fungal infection, lichens, and pest larvae. In spring, whitewashing is carried out to a greater extent with an aesthetic and preventive purpose.
Step 5. Preparing the garden in the spring — whitewashing
5.2. For whitewashing use a special garden whitewash, which includes fungicides and adhesive additives. Available in dry form or in the form of a paste, which is diluted with water before use. Recently popular acrylic garden painthaving moisture protective properties and allowing to stay longer on trees. The composition of acrylic whitewash also contains active substances and fungicides.
Using Garden Whitewash
5.3. Previously used lime for these purposes. Home-made mixture for whitewashing was made of lime, water, clay and copper sulphate. Today, gardeners refuse this composition, because lime due to alkaline properties causes serious harm to the bark of the tree, and together with insects and larvae destroys the natural protective layer — the bark. In the future, the tree becomes even more vulnerable.
Using garden acrylic paint
Step 6. Chemical (insect-acaricidal) treatment
Allocate FOUR stages of spring treatments — see table
|Stages||The timing||Purpose of||The drug (optional)|
|Stage 1||Before swelling of the kidneys (daily t + 3-5 ° C)||— The destruction of overwintered insects||— The drug «30 Plus»,
— diesel fuel
|2 stage||The beginning of budding (daily t + 12-17 ° C)||— The fight against diseases caused by fungal infection (coccomycosis, moniliosis, scab, anthracnose, etc.),
— Destruction of bud mites, weevil larvae, apple moth, etc.
|— Bordeaux liquid,
— Iron / copper sulfate,
— Tar / Tar soap,
— Coming soon/ Chorus / Strobes.
— Broad-spectrum insecticides.
|3 stage||Before flowering||— Treatment for the prevention and improvement of immunity to fungal diseases, — Fight against the codling moth, scab and spotting.||— Bordeaux liquid,
— Copper sulfate,
|4th stage||After flowering||— Destruction of the pest complex||— colloidal sulfur,
— Preparations of a wide spectrum of action
Stage 1 «Spraying before swelling of the kidneys»
The first spraying of trees is carried out in the garden, when night air temperatures are slightly above zero, and daytime temperatures in the region of + 3-5 ° C, active sap flow did not begin and the buds did not yet begin to swell.
The first treatment is the most important, it cannot be missed in any way — firstly, it acts on the larvae in the germ and not yet active insects, and secondly, it is possible to use drugs in their maximum concentration.
At this stage, tree trunks are treated with special drugs on mineral oil base.
An effective drug currently actively used is drug «30 Plus». The action is based on the fact that, firstly, enveloping a thin oil film of an insect and a larva leads to suffocation, and secondly, the drug dissolves the chitin from which all insects and their eggs consist, which also leads to their death.
There is a folk analogue of this drug — diesel fuel. Yes, it is the well-known diesel fuel for everyone! Spraying with diesel oil also provides coverage of tree trunks and shrubs with an oily film. The effect is the same, at a lower financial cost.
Stage 2 «Spraying during the budding of the kidneys»
Treatment at this stage is aimed at preventing diseases caused by fungal infection — coccomycosis, moniliosis, scab, anthracnose, etc. For this, carbamide (urea), copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, tar soap are used.
And from insect pests, universal chemical insecticides are used. For example:
- Apple trees, cherries, cherries, plums, apricots, peaches can be processed with Angio preparations or Chorus (bag of 10 liters of water).
- Grapes can be sprayed with Hom, Bordeaux liquid, Topaz (12 ml per 10 l) from powdery mildew, or iron sulphate.
- For raspberries and currants, preference is given to drugs Aktara or Actellic.
It is described in more detail on the use of specific preparations for processing fruit trees in the following table:
Preparations for insect-acaricidal treatment of the garden in the spring
Stage 3 «Spraying before flowering»
Immediately before flowering, orchards are usually treated for caterpillars of the apple codling moth, scab and spotting. At this stage, it uses a wide spectrum of insect acaricides (Fitoverm, Iskra, Karbofos, Chorus, «Tobit Jet»Angio Aktara, etc.).
Effective 10% solution «Karbofos» with a single treatment (70 g. Per 10 liters of water). In a separate article “Known — Unknown Karbofos: what you need to know when using ”features of its application are considered.
During flowering, plants are not treated, it is detrimental to bees, and can adversely affect the pollination of flowers.
Timing: When to spray trees and shrubs in spring
The exact date when you can start sprayingno one will say. Theoretically, you can spray the garden at the end of March. During this time, during the daytime, the temperature can rise to 10 degrees Celsius, and pests will wake up at a temperature of 5-6 degrees Celsius. In addition, pathogens of fungal diseases (rot, scab, moniliosis) begin to spread early. But processing at the end of March may turn out to be ineffective, because wet snow can still fall, drizzle, and the product will quickly wash off. It is best to wait for drier, more stable weather — in April.
Usually, fruit trees in the spring garden sprayed in two terms:
- BEFORE swelling / blooming of the kidneys (primarily from diseases),
- DURING budding in the green cone phase (primarily from pests, as well as from diseases).
1. The first spraying
When to spray? At the stage of closed, sleeping buds, as they say, “along a bare tree”, when there are no signs of awakening on it yet. At this time, spores of fungal diseases can already begin to fly apart. It is believed that it is advisable to carry out processing when the average daily air temperature reaches 5 degrees Celsius.
Than? The first spraying is carried out from diseases, because the insects have not yet had time to activate — they simply have nothing to eat (the kidneys have not opened). Spraying will protect the garden from various types of rot, moniosis of stone fruit crops, and scab on apple trees and pears. The following preparations are used: Bordeaux mixture 3%, urea, iron sulfate, copper sulfate, copper-containing preparations Khom, Oksikhom, fungicides Horus, Skor, Farmayod, Abiga-peak, Nitrafen, Rayek and insecticides «30 plus», «Profilactin».
Before the kidneys are opened, treatment against the wintering stages of the pests is relevant, and here the modern drugs “30 plus” and “Prophylactin” come to the rescue, as well as the proven complex tool “Nitrafen”, which works against pests and diseases.
2. Second spraying
When to spray? On a green cone, when the kidneys have already burst, but the leaves have not yet begun to unfold. It is very important not to miss this phase, since the apple flower beetle (weevil) is activated.
Than? Insecticides against pests are used: Spark, Intavir, Tanrek, Kinmiks, Fufanon, Decis Profi. It is possible to carry out treatment with fungicides for diseases: Bordeaux mixture 1%, Horus, Skor, Oksikhom. It is only important to consider that the drug Horus works well in cool weather and is more suitable for the first treatment, and Skor is more effective at temperatures above 5 degrees Celsius.
You can spray fruit trees 2 more times: at the stage of the pink bud (not over flowering plants) and over the ovaries, the size of a pea, against the apple moth and moniliosis (second wave). For spraying, Spark and Intavir, Decis, Horus, as well as biological products Fitoverm and Bitoksibacillin (work at temperatures above 14 degrees) are suitable.
It is necessary to spray not only branches, but also the trunk and even the trunk circle. Processing are fruit trees, stone fruit crops and berry shrubs.
Currants and raspberries It is also better to process in the early stages, without waiting for the swelling of the kidneys. First of all, you can go to collect tick-borne buds (they are round, and healthy — elongated), they can be distinguished even in winter. A tick wakes up at an average daily temperature of 5 degrees heat. The kidneys need to be collected and burned. The twisted shoots that were affected by aphids last year are also cut and burned.
Spraying in the early stages, while still cool enough, can be acaricidal anti-tick drugs: Teovit-jet, Kleschevit, Akarin, Actellik. At temperatures above 12 degrees Celsius, the Fitoverm biological product is used.
On swollen buds, before the leaves bloom, they are sprayed with insecticides: Spark, Decis Profi, Tanrek. To prevent powdery mildew, currants are sprayed with copper-containing preparations (Bordeaux mixture, chorus, chom, oxychom, scorum), when the leaves have already begun to bloom — at the end of May.
Raspberries are also treated with fungicidal copper-containing preparations until the leaves bloom — against diseases, against pests — with the above insecticides.
Before buds open, currants and gooseberries infected with anthracnose or powdery mildew are sprayed with nitrafen, karbofos or Bordeaux liquid.
Attention! The drugs are sprayed with garden sprayers in calm weather in the morning or in the evening.
Stage 4 «Spraying after flowering»
Immediately after flowering, the trees process the fourth final time of spring gardening. Broad-spectrum insecticides and fungicides (e.g. colloidal sulfur) In a separate article, “Colloidal Sulfur / Cumulus — Super Fungicide”, the features of its application are considered.
Spring garden treatment for pests and diseases
And what will the lunar calendar 2019 say .
Most printed sources indicate that spraying trees and shrubs can start in late March — early April. And if you look into Lunar calendar for 2019, in it, among other works on caring for plants, it was recommended to spray trees in the garden at the beginning of March (too early, of course, but such information does exist):
- March 3, 4, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31 — spraying of trees and shrubs from diseases and pests.
- March 17, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31 — spraying plants from diseases and pests.
- March 14, 17, 25, treatment of currants and gooseberries with hot water.
- April 1, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, April — spraying the garden against diseases and pests,
- April 9 — treatment of currants and gooseberries with hot water.
- May 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 19, 20, 25, 30 — treatment of the garden from diseases and pests,
Conclusions and recommendations
- Spray the trees completely, start from the crown, finish the basal part of the trunk,
- Prepare a working solution based on the calculation of 5-6 liters per adult tree, 1-1.5 liters. on the bush
- Use personal protective equipment,
- To carry out processing in not rainy and calm weather. The minimum waiting period is 3-4 days. If it rains, then repeat the treatment.
- Use universal drugs to protect against a complex of pests,
- To be interested in and use new drugs, give preference to biological drugs (The drug «30 Plus», «Fitoverm», etc.)
- And the most important thing is not to miss the time and spend on time all the stages of early spring processing.
*** Changes and additions made 08.08.2019.
Means: How to spray the garden in the spring?
And now let’s go over the means that are used to spray trees and shrubs in the spring, we divided them into two groups: traditional and modern. In the description of each product, we also highlight the recommended processing time.
Traditionally, in gardening, a concentrated urea solution is used to treat the garden in early spring. Printing sources offer different dosages: 500 g, 600 g or 700 g of urea per 10 liters of water. Accordingly, at the output we get a 5%, 6% or 7% solution. In our summer cottage for early spring spraying, we use urea. As a result, a rich and healthy harvest of apples, pears, cherries (almost always). The best result is the use of a complex solution: 700 g of urea per 10 liters of water + 50 g of copper sulfate. BEFORE budding.
A traditional, effective and universal remedy.In the first half of April, a solution of iron vitriol (300 g per 10 liters of water) can be sprayed on trees on bare branches and trunks — this will destroy the pests. A solution of a lower concentration is used in the fall after the leaves from the apple tree, pear and plum have fallen: 100 g of vitriol are dissolved in 10 l of water. Also, lichens on trunks are treated with a 3% solution of iron sulfate (300 g per 10 liters of water). BEFORE budding.
1% solution of copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of water) is effective against fungal diseases, mold and some pests. It is often used for spraying fruit trees and berry bushes in order to prevent fungal diseases in the spring before buds open. The solution is effective against the causative agents of scab, moniliosis, klyasterosporioz, coccomycosis, anthracosis, septoria and all kinds of spotting.
Modern gardeners prefer to use copper sulfate in spring as part of a Bordeaux mixture or urea solution.
Old as the world means. To spray the garden in early spring BEFORE the buds open, a concentrated 3% solution is used, and in the phase of the green cone, only 1% solution of the Bordeaux mixture is used. Details on the preparation of the solution were discussed in the article: «How to make Bordeaux liquid?»
Against pests in the wintering stage, while the buds are not yet swollen in spring, fruit trees are sprayed with 3% m Nitrafen solution (300 g per 10 liters of water), and shrubs with 2% m solution (200 g per 10 liters). The drug works on fruit trees, currants, gooseberries and raspberries. In addition to the trunk and branches, the drug is sprayed on the soil in the trunk circles. Read Review of Nitrafen.
The drug «Kemifos» in a dosage of 5 ml per 10 liters of water is used against a complex of pests on stone fruit and fruit crops, on berry bushes. Processing is best done in the morning or evening hours.
In early spring, before budding, when the average daily temperature reaches +4 degrees, you can spray fruit trees and berry bushes with the drug “Prophylactin”. The solution destroys the pests before they even get out of hibernation.
Hom and Oksikhom are used both for the first (before budding), and for the second spraying (green cone phase). The solution is prepared according to the instructions.
Fungicides and Insecticides
For spraying before budding, the following are also used: fungicides (from diseases) Horus, Skor, Farmayod, Abiga-pik, Rayek, insecticides (from pests) “30 plus”, “Profilactin”.
When the kidneys have already burst, but the leaves have not yet begun to unfold, insecticides (against pests) are used: Spark, Intavir, Tanrek, Kinmiks, Fufanon, Decis Profi, fungicides (from diseases) Horus, Skor, Oksikhom.
For spring spraying, a solution of sodium chloride is also used: 1 kg per 10 liters of water. It is believed that this solution is necessary to start sap flow.
Immediately after the snow melts, but the buds have not yet blossomed, they heat the currant and gooseberry bushes: they are poured with hot water from a watering can (80 degrees) at the rate of 8-10 liters per 1 bush. This method allows you to destroy wintering pests.
So, there are a huge amount of funds for spraying trees and shrubs. And the processing time will largely depend on the chosen drug. Experienced gardeners recommend focusing on the state of nature: the snow has almost melted, the temperatures are already positive, but the buds have not woken up yet — it’s time to start spraying. In total in the spring it is possible to treat the garden at least 4 times (in summer conditions), because different pests and diseases are activated at different times.
Why and when to treat the garden
In the supermarket, in the market you can find a lot of fruits. But, their quality leaves much to be desired. This is due to the fact that in order to improve fruit growth, tree productivity, respectively, to obtain greater benefits, manufacturers feed plants with fertilizers or chemicals. Therefore, it is better to grow fruit yourself and eat only healthy fresh fruits.
But, their growing process is not easy. Every year it is required to treat the trees from pests and diseases in the spring. For the destruction of parasites, experienced summer residents use various means, most often chemical or organic. But, not always these methods bring the desired effect. This is due to the fact that they are carried out at the wrong time. It is best to start work in the spring, as soon as the winter frosts subside, the snow begins to melt.
Stages and timing of spraying
Terms for processing garden plants are different for each region of the country. The first spraying is required when the air temperature during the day does not drop below 5 degrees Celsius, and at night below 0 degrees. But, this procedure should not end. Be sure to spray the trees 3 more times: before budding, the appearance of flowers and the first fruits.
Why and when is it best to carry out spring gardening
Many of us want to eat only the freshest, natural berries and fruits. To do this, we are ready to work excessively on our sites in order to personally grow a high-quality crop. But, unfortunately, in recent years, lovers of summer residents are increasingly pestering all sorts of parasites and diseases that breed and develop exponentially.
To combat them, it is necessary to apply chemical and organic treatment of the spring garden. It depends directly on the skills and degree of professionalism of gardeners: whether the care done will be able to preserve and increase the yield of garden fruits. Only these actions are desirable to carry out regularly and in a timely manner. It is necessary to start immediately after the retreat of the cold and continue during flowering and fruit set.
The first spraying of trees in spring should be carried out even when they are in a calm state. That is, until the moment when the kidneys have already blossomed on them and the process of sap flow has begun. Only in this case, during processing, the plant is not able to absorb toxic toxic substances. Therefore, at this stage it is recommended to use potent substances that can kill parasites. To eliminate and prevent the formation of surface pests and bacteria, it is required:
- Dilute in 10 liters of water 2 kilograms of lime.
- To stir thoroughly.
- Optionally add 1 kilogram of dry clay or 350 grams of copper sulfate to the resulting solution.
- Re-mix thoroughly all contents until smooth.
A solution for treating trees from surface parasites or fungus is ready. In early spring, it is required to distribute it with a thin layer along the trunk of a fruitful plant or at the base of the branches. It is especially necessary to process cracks, since, most often, pest larvae accumulate there.
An alternative to the folk remedy is acrylic whitewash, paints or lime paste. Their cost is slightly higher than the cost of self-preparation of the solution, but it is more effective and convenient to use.
Stages of spring garden treatment from both pests and diseases
Experienced summer residents recommend working on the garden in the morning until 10 o’clock, or in the evening, after six, so that the spring sun does not damage the leaves. The whole process of spring care is divided into the following stages:
- in early spring,
- before buds open in trees and bushes,
- before and after the flowering process,
- during the appearance of ovaries on the fruit.
Now we will examine in detail how spring treatment of the garden affects parasites, the course of diseases, and also learn how to conduct its stages correctly.
Repeated spraying should be done immediately before the buds have blossomed. It is, as it were, a fixing result. If larvae still hatched after the initial treatment, then they can become the causative agent of various diseases for trees and shrubs. To avoid this, repeated spraying is required. To do this:
- Finely chop the tobacco so that it is a powdery consistency.
- Pour 200 grams of this substance into a glass jar with a volume of 3 liters.
- Add the husk of garlic, onion, needles and chopped orange peels in equal quantities to the container.
- Heat the water to a temperature of 70 degrees and fill it with the entire contents of the can.
- Close the jar tightly and place it in a dark and cool place for two weeks.
The spray agent is ready. Before applying it to a tree trunk, you need to dilute it with 10 liters of water and add 100 grams of tar soap. It is required to spray the garden, distributing a thin, but at the same time dense layer to each plot. An alternative to this product is household chemicals such as Actara or Calypso.
During the appearance of flowers
The third spraying is carried out strictly when the buds on the tree have already appeared, but they have not yet had time to blossom. The purpose of this process is to protect against the appearance of caterpillars, codling moth, reducing the risk of spotting and scab. To do this, you need:
- Dilute 70 grams of Karbofox in 10 liters of room temperature water.
- Mix the components thoroughly until the active substance is completely dissolved.
The solution is ready. They need to spray the trunk and the base of the branches. But, strictly this must be done before the buds open, since flowering can absorb toxic substances. After flowering, if necessary, you can re-treat the plant, if you want to prevent the appearance or eliminate parasites. But, for this it is better to use a more gentle solution — 80 grams of 70% sulfur diluted in 10 liters of soapy water.
During the appearance of the first fruits
There are also pests that survive even after three or four treatments. In this case, repeated spraying is required if parasites are seen on the trunk or branches of trees by the gardener. But, chemical potent drugs cannot be used for this purpose. They contribute to the fact that the fruits will become unfit for consumption. As the main component for creating a solution can be used:
- copper oxychloride,
- Bordeaux liquid.
All these drugs are of a biological type, they do not contain harmful toxic substances. It can be used as one of the listed drugs, they can also be combined with each other. But, when forming fruits for the purpose of prevention, it is not necessary to spray trees or shrubs. This measure is only necessary when identifying pests.
Before you start spraying, you need to observe the weather conditions, there must be an optimal level of humidity. If you carry out this procedure in wet weather, then there is a high probability of a chemical burn on the leaves or fruits of the plant.
Compliance with the processing time of fruit trees and the use of effective means does not always allow to achieve good results. Malicious parasites still continue to appear and infect the plant. The main problem is that the spraying was not performed correctly. Experienced gardeners make several recommendations in this regard:
- you need to spray not a certain part of the tree bark, but the entire trunk and the base of the branches,
- you need to move in the direction from top to bottom,
- after spraying, it is necessary to observe the weather, if precipitation appears during the day, processing must be performed anew,
- the best sprayer — cylinders, garden sprayers or pumps,
- to get a good effect, you need to use combined means, this will simultaneously fight several types of pests,
- about 5.5 liters of solution should be spent on an adult tree, about 1.5 liters on a small tree or large shrub.
Elementary hygiene rules should be observed. The equipment with which the spraying was carried out must be thoroughly washed and dried. Work should be strictly in a mask, glasses and tight gloves to protect the skin, respiratory system and eyesight from burns, as well as to avoid poisoning with toxic substances. After gardening, you need to change into clean clothes, wash your hands thoroughly and wash your face with soap.
Adding an article to a new collection
With the beginning of spring, the garden wakes up from hibernation. And although there is still snow around, the air is fresh in spring. But as soon as the sun begins to bake, garden pests are activated. Therefore, it is time to take measures to eliminate them and protect the garden.
The treatment of the garden from pests, which is carried out in early spring, is, first of all, spraying trees with special chemical solutions that neutralize harmful insects. Aphids, leaf flies, sawflies, weevils, moths and many other ill-wishers are just waiting for the moment when the owner gape.
Summer residents spend the very first spraying of trees immediately after the cold recedes. The following stages of the garden treatment from diseases and pests are carried out before the trees bloom and the first ovaries appear.
The very first thing to do before spraying is to put things in order on the site: remove debris and last year’s leaves, clear tree trunks of mosses and lichens.
Read below on how to spray the garden in early spring against diseases and pests.
Spring currants and gooseberries
Although currants and gooseberries are considered unpretentious, they also need preventive treatment for diseases and pests. The first treatment of the bushes is carried out as soon as the snow melts.
First you need to carefully examine the bushes and soil to figure out which pests you have to fight. When inspecting the bushes, pay attention to the condition of the branches. If they look like burnt, then your bushes were hit by a kidney moth. If the kidneys are large and resemble a head of cabbage, this is the «work» of the kidney mite. Plaque on the ends of the branches speaks of powdery mildew, and the holes inside the branches indicate the defeat of the bush with a glass-case. Affected branches need to be cut. This also applies to old branches, shoots growing inside the bush, branches with a bloom and generally all «suspicious» branches.
Before trying the «heavy artillery» of chemical insecticides, gardeners usually use the good old folk remedies. The soil around the bush is watered with hot water with a small amount of potassium permanganate or soda. The branches of the bushes are also shed with this hot solution using a watering can.
Another sure remedy that many summer residents use is copper sulfate (50-100 g per 10 liters of water). The concentration of the drug depends on the age of the plant and the degree of its damage (the older the plant and the more damage it has, the higher the concentration). Basically, for the treatment with copper sulfate of one bush of currant or gooseberry in the spring, 1-1.5 liters of solution will be required.
For the treatment of diseases, gardeners also widely use Bordeaux liquid — 100 g of copper sulfate, 100 g of quicklime and 10 l of water. This is enough to handle 10 bushes of gooseberries and currants. It is important that the solution is used within five hours after preparation — after this time, the lime that is present in the Bordeaux mixture will begin to stick together into clumps and clog the watering can.
Recently, biologics (Bitoxibacillin, Fitosporin, Trichophytum, Mikosan, etc.) are gaining more and more popularity for the fight against diseases.All of them are good, but it must be borne in mind that these drugs work at a temperature of 8 ° C or higher, while the first spring preventive treatments begin immediately after the snow melts. So, the effectiveness of the above funds in early spring will be very low.
To control pests of currants and gooseberries, follow these guidelines.
|Dates||Name of works|
|Before swelling of the kidneys|
|The period of swelling and blooming of the kidneys|