Characteristics and Pictures of Non-Vascular Plants

Characteristics of Mosses and Other Non-Vascular Plants

Ed Reschke / Photolibrary / Getty Images

  • B.A., Biology, Emory University
  • A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College

Non-vascular plants, or bryophytes, include the most primitive forms of land vegetation. These plants lack the vascular tissue system needed for transporting water and nutrients. Unlike angiosperms, non-vascular plants do not produce flowers, fruit, or seeds. They also lack true leaves, roots, and stems. Non-vascular plants typically appear as small, green mats of vegetation found in damp habitats. The lack of vascular tissue means that these plants must remain in moist environments. Like other plants, non-vascular plants exhibit alternation of generations and cycle between sexual and asexual reproductive phases. There are three main divisions of bryophytes: Bryophyta (mosses), Hapatophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts).

Non-Vascular Plant Characteristics

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The major characteristic that separates non-vascular plants from others in the Kingdom Plantae is their lack of vascular tissue. Vascular tissue consists of vessels called xylem and phloem. Xylem vessels transport water and minerals throughout the plant, while phloem vessels transport sugar (product of photosynthesis) and other nutrients throughout the plant. The lack of features, such as a multi-layered epidermis or bark, means that non-vascular plants don’t grow very tall and typically remain low to the ground. As such, they don’t need a vascular system to transport water and nutrients. Metabolites and other nutrients are transfered between and within cells by osmosis, diffusion, and cytoplasmic streaming. Cytoplasmic streaming is the movement of cytoplasm within cells for the transport of nutrients, organelles, and other cellular materials.

Non-vascular plants are also distinguished from vascular plants (flowering plants, gymnosperms, ferns, etc.) by the lack of structures that are normally associated with vascular plants. Genuine leaves, stems, and roots are all missing in non-vascular plants. Instead, these plants have leaf-like, stem-like, and root-like structures that function similarly to leaves, stems, and roots. For example, bryophytes typically have hair-like filaments called rhizoids that, like roots, help to hold the plant in place. Bryophytes also have a lobed leaf-like body called a thallus.

Another characteristic of non-vascular plants is that they alternate between sexual and asexual phases in their life cyles. The gametophyte phase or generation is the sexual phase and the phase in which gametes are produced. Male sperm are unique in non-vascular plants in that they have two flagella to aid in movement. The gametophyte generation appears as green, leafy vegetation that remains attached to the ground or other growing surface. The sporophyte phase is the asexual phase and the phase in which spores are produced. Sporophytes commonly appear as long stalks with spore-containing caps on the end. Sporophytes protrude from and remain attached to the gametophyte. Non-vascular plants spend most of their time in the gametophyte phase and the sporophyte is completely dependent upon the gametophyte for nutrition. This is because photosynthesis takes place in the plant gametophyte.

Nelma fish. Description, features, lifestyle and habitat of nelma fish

Pulled out of the water nelma it smells of cucumbers. This smell of freshness correlates with the coolness and purity of the ponds chosen by the fish for life. The representative of the salmon family does not tolerate polluted and warm waters. In the family, by the way, there are several genera. Nelma refers to whitefish. Among them, the largest fish, grows up to 1.5 meters and is gaining mass of 50 kilos.

Nelma fish

Description and features of nelma

Fifty kilogram nelms are a rarity. Ordinary individuals weigh 5-10 pounds. Small caviar and large silver-colored scales «speak» of belonging to whitefish. The sides and belly of the fish are painted in it. Her back is gray. Other features of nelma include:

  • lack of dark spots on the body, like other salmon
  • spindle-shaped elongated and slightly compressed from the sides of the body
  • the presence of a fat fin — a skin outgrowth behind the dorsal fin
  • large mouth, the lower jaw protruding forward, reaching the vertical of the posterior margin of the eye, and bends up
  • an abundance of small, sharp teeth, even present in the language of the fish
  • large, elongated head almost triangular in shape
  • miniature fins and yellowish eyes

Nelma in the photo not distinguishable by gender. The males lack a mating outfit. The coloration of individuals of both sexes is identical year round. Ichthyologists call this the absence of sexual dimorphism.

The second name is nelma — a whitefish. It is not so much a silver appearance. Nelma has white meat. Northerners often make stroganina out of it, using the property of frozen nelma it is easy to cut.

Nelma meat

Being northern, the whitefish is oily. Nourishing meat is easily separated from the bones, because between the muscles they are not. However, it’s difficult to get the correct product description by entering the query «nelma red fish«. Unlike many salmon, the heroine of the article has light meat.

Fish lifestyle and habitat

Nelma — fish, producing sounds comparable to bursts of taimen on ponds. They can scare experienced fishermen, so amplitude and noisy. At the place of deployment nelma northern fish.

Most of the year she swims in the cold estuaries of the Ob, Yenisei, Irtysh, Lena and near the coastline of the northern seas. The main thing is that the salinity of the water does not exceed 20 ppm. Salmon go up the rivers for spawning. Nelms move to the destination at the bottom, avoiding the shallows. Fish come to the finish line by autumn.

Nelma rushes to spawn after an ice drift. Going to spawning grounds, salmon do not forget to eat. Small fish fall under the “blow”. Nelms burst into their clusters. Vigorously waving her tail, the heroine of the article jamming the victims. What does nelma fish look like at that time? Like an asp. These two inhabitants of the waters are similar in the manner of hunting, behavior.

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In Russia, it is more often possible to observe the behavior of nelma in reservoirs of Siberia and the Far East. Outside the country, whitefish is found in water bodies of Canada, USA. In principle, any clean river beyond the Arctic Circle is suitable for nelma.

Nelma Nutrition

Nelma does not eat plant foods. Description of nelma is a description of a 100 percent predator. Only protein food he eats from a month old. Prior to this, the diet is mixed, since it is difficult for newborns to swallow most potential victims.

The diet of the heroine of the article depends on where are nelma fish. While she swims in the desalinated zone of the seas, she eats young whitefish, vendace, smelt. Other ocean species are also suitable, inferior to white fish in size.

Passing into the rivers, Nelma eats already freshwater fish, crustaceans, insects and their larvae. The basis of the menu is juvenile carp and perch. In the afternoon, in terms of nutrition, the whitefish is passive, hunts in the mornings and evenings. At this time, and catch nelma.

Catching nelma in winter

They are looking for her at the sandbanks close to the center of the channel, or slightly away from the valleys. There nelma catches a fish carried by a rapid current. At fishing nelma it is important to consider that she always stands with her head against the tide. Accordingly, they lead bait. This is usually a bauble.

Reproduction and longevity

Knowing family of which nelma fish represents, it can be assumed that the heroine of the article dies after spawning. However, a whitefish spawns several times in her life. The latter is due to the old age of the fish, and not death. The few facts of spawning are associated with late puberty nelma:

  1. Males are ready to breed at least 5 years old. Some first fertilize females at only 10 years old.
  2. Females of the species are ready for spawning in 2-3 years.

For the sake of spawning, nelma pass along rivers against the current up to 1.5 thousand kilometers. Need to find reach or spill with a rocky bottom. Here, each female lays 80-400 thousand eggs. The fry develop in them 250 days.

Nelma fry are characterized by rapid growth. The ten-kilogram mass of the whitefish is gaining in 5 years. The life expectancy of the heroine of the article is 25 years. The number of nelma is declining. The main reason is the abundance of hydroelectric power stations on the rivers in which the whitefish was once spawned.

Hydroelectric power plants make the waters warm and cloudy. The heroine of the article, as indicated, recognizes only transparent and cool streams. Reducing the number of places for spawning leads to a reduction in the entire population.

How to cook nelma

In the question, how to cook nelma, it is important to consider the threat posed by gourmet meat. Without sufficient heat treatment with a whitefish, a wide ribbon can enter the human body. This parasite worm reaches a length of 12 meters.

In nelma meat, nanophyteosis can also be hidden. This is a round, not a tapeworm. Nanophyteosis settles in the small intestine, causing diarrhea. Roundworm larvae are called anisahides.

Nelma very tasty fish

They provoke the development of peptic ulcer. Therefore, you should avoid, for example, sushi with nelma. Cooking involves the lack of heat treatment of meat. Nelma in the recipes bet on, if you need to saturate the dish with juices. During cooking, fat is melted from the white fish.

Nelma is salted, baked, fried, added to soups. In the latter version, the combination of broth with cream is relevant. Having added them and leek greens, the housewives bring the dish to the restaurant level. Lemon is also used to decorate the nelma fish soup, but the zest must be cut off so that the broth does not start to be bitter.


Sloths are mammals found in South and Central America. They hang to the tree branches with their long claws. They survive on leaves. Their long claws make it difficult for them to walk on the ground. Hence, they spend a lot of time on trees. There are two kinds of sloths: Two-toed and three-toed. They share most of the features buy vary in size.

Sloths Facts and Information :

  • Sloths are the slowest animals in the world.
  • Algae grow on the fur of sloths. The green color of algae make sloths hide from predators in the trees.
  • Sloths can climb only six to eight feet per minute.
  • Sloths are wonderful swimmers. Sloths drop themselves into the water from the branches.
  • Sloths do not shiver when it is cold as their body has only 25% muscle.
  • The claws of sloths offer them protection against predators.
  • The Scientific Name of the Sloths is Choloepus Hoffmanni

Diet :

Sloths eat leaves which are hard to digest. The leaves are digested slowly in their four-part digestive system. A sloth takes a month to digest a meal of food. Their diet is not nutritious and they do not derive much energy from it. Sloths are considered folivores as they rely on tender shoots, leaves and buds. Two-toed sloths have been found to eat small reptiles, birds and insects as per few documentations.

Habitat :

Sloths are most commonly found in the rain forests of south and central America. They curl into a ball while sleeping. They also hang from the tree branches. Sloths are not known for activities. They spend most of their time eating and sleeping. These leave trees only to swim. Sloths that have been kept captive sleep for fifteen to twenty hours per day. This leaves them with little time to indulge in social activities. Sloths prefer leading solo lives.

Sloths Appearance :

Sloths have flat, short head, short snout, big eyes, long legs, tiny ears and curved claws. There are two species of sloths. These have either two or three claws. These have sad-looking eyes, stubby tails and roundish heads. Two toed sloths are bigger than the three toed ones. Three toed sloths seem as if they are smiling because of their facial coloring. Sloths can turn their head around because of the two extra vertebrae in the neck.

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Behavior :

Sloths spend a lot of time hanging from the branches of trees. They sleep, mate and eat in the trees. Their curved, strong claws help them in hanging from the branches of trees. Male sloths are shy, solitary animals. Female sloths indulge in little bit of socializing. They sleep entire day and are active during the night time. Sloths do not move until it is necessary. They defecate and urinate once a week and for this they come to the ground.

Sloths Lifespan :

The life expectancy of a sloth varies based on the species. Most of the sloths live for 20 to 30 years. In captivity, there can survive for a longer time. The lifespan of a median sloth is 15 years.

Predators :

Humans, the harpy eagle and jaguar are the main predators of sloths. Poachers and electrical lines were responsible for death of sloths in Costa Rica. A sloth can protect itself from camouflage and because of the slow movement. These features let them disappear in the canopy of the rainforest.

Breeding :

Sloth mate and give birth to young ones in trees. Courting begins when a female sloth screams to inform the males in the area that she is ready for mating. Males put up a fight by hanging from the tree branches. They paw at other sloths to be the winner. Sloths just have one offspring at a time. The gestation period is five to six months. The babies cling to their mothers for several weeks after their birth. They stay with their mothers for up to four years. The mating season is usually during the spring season. In South America, sloths mate during July-November. In Central America, the sloths mate during February-May.

Sloths Lifestyle :

Sloths live in dense forests. They spend a lot of time in trees. They climb down once in a week to the base of the tree. They bury the feces in the vicinity of the trees they reside in. Their feces act as a wonderful fertilizer for the trees they reside in. This is because their stool breaks down quite easily.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Sloths :

Grooming :

Sloths do not groom themselves. They have a dense coat of fur which grows algae. They have a greenish tinge during the rainy season because of the growth of algae. Sloths belly houses several micro bacteria for breaking down the food that they eat and thereby promote digestion. The digestion process of a sloth is quite slow. It takes about a month for a slot to digest a meal. The metabolism of a sloth is very low. This is why the nutrients extracted from the sloths is slow and the low energy level probably the reason why they are sluggish.

Sloths Characteristics :

  • Sloths have greenish and thick brown coat of fur.
  • They hand from trees with their claws.
  • The only defense means for a sloth is its claw.
  • A sloth that has been cornered tries to swipe the attackers to scare or wound them.
  • Sloths move slowly and hence do not attract attention.
  • They are vulnerable only during their visits to the ground that happens once in a week.
  • Colonies of algae grow on sloths. This acts as a camouflage and source of nutrients when sloths try to lick their fur.
  • In sloths, the hair grows in the opposite direction from other mammals. This is because they spend a lot of time with their legs above their bodies hanging from the tree branches. protection is offered to the sloths with their hair growing from extremities.
  • Sloths are four legged animals
  • Sloths land on the ground in upright position or else they spend most of the time up-side down hanging from tree branches
  • Sloths are home to several creatures such as moths and beetles.
  • Sloths are excellent swimmers.
  • Sloths have multiple compartment stomachs.

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Blackbird bird. Description, features, nutrition and breeding of blackbird

Blackbird happens to be white. Part of the population are albinos. They turned out to be competitive after the initial relocation of mountain thrushes to cities. The role of predators in natural selection is minimal there.

Blackbird Albino

If in the nature of albinos hunters first of all notice, then in an urbanistic environment — individuals of the opposite sex. Standing out and at the same time dominant color allows you to successfully reproduce. However, to shift the balance of black and white towards the latter is still far away. Most blackbirds look like small ravens.

Description and features of blackbird

Blackbird in the photo cast by metal. The iris of an eye and a bird’s beak are orange. Such pictures are attached to most articles, justifying the name of the species. However, the females in it are brown. The abdomen and breast of females are especially light. Their tail is almost black.

Blackbird male

On the breast of the female species there are transverse marks. Young males also have them. Not reaching puberty, they have a color similar to females. Spots on the chest and brown color are the features of a songbird. Black females and young animals are often confused with him. In adulthood, it is twice as large as a sparrow, reaches a length of 26 centimeters, and weighs 80-110 grams.

The feathered description includes and blackbird singing. It is sonorous, composed of sounds similar to those extracted from a flute. The melody is minor, unhurried. The set of sounds in the song of the blackbird is diverse.

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Listen to the voice of the blackbird

The «aria» does not have a certain length. This also characterizes the performance of the songbird, but he often repeats musical words. Another voice of the hero of the article resembles the singing of sackcloth, but with not verified pauses and lower tonality.

Blackbird female

The hero’s twitter is one of the fragments of The Beatles. The song is included in the «White Album», recorded in 1968. At that time, Paul McCartney was the only vocalist to play acoustic.

The manner of singing is the same for all 14 types of blackbird. They differ in size, beak structure, nuances of color. The subspecies Richmond, for example, reaches a maximum length of 26 centimeters. Even in a bird, the beak is thicker than that of representatives of the nominated species and there is a rusty reflection on the breast.

Some subspecies of blackbird are endemic to certain regions. So, Azorensis lives on the Azores. Representatives of the subspecies are more glossy, brilliant than ordinary blackbirds. But the Bourdiloni subtype has shade-brown males and almost beige females. Representatives of the subspecies in southern India inhabit.

For most species — mystery of the blackbird. So, by the way, is called the Soviet detective released on the screens in 1983. The film is based on the novel by Agatha Christie. The book, however, is called differently — «Pocket full of rye.» Understanding the intricacies of the plot is just as difficult as it would be for an ornithologist, unlike the subspecies of blackbirds.

Bird lifestyle and habitat

Blackbird — bird, the ancient remains and traces of which are found in the mountains between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This explains the color of the species. At a height, among the snows, black accumulated the heat of the sun. In other words, the plumage of thrushes played the role of an ultraviolet screen.

Thrushes gradually descended from the mountains, reaching cities. Everywhere feathered choose plots with plantations, trees. In the settlements, these are parks and gardens. Outside the cities, blackbirds live in mixed and deciduous forests, ravines overgrown with shrubs. The soil is preferably moist, chernozem. On such, in the shade of vegetation, black birds are hardly noticeable.

Where the blackbird lives Europeans and residents of the western regions of Russia and the south of Asia know firsthand. The bird population is divided into migratory and settled flocks. Among the latter, a greater percentage of bird deaths. They do not withstand the cold. The stressful situation makes the birds give birth to numerous offspring.

A pair of blackbirds is known, which hatched 17 chicks during the season, i.e. 4 clutches. Migratory individuals are not capable of this. Avoiding the stress caused by the cold, they calmly approach the issue of reproduction, hatching a maximum of 2 clutches per season and laying fewer eggs.

Wintering thrushes sleep in hollows. By spring, the weight of the bird drops to about 80 grams. Sleep mode helps save energy. Accidentally awakened thrushes often die, wasting energy on finding a new shelter, food.

Blackbird feeding

The hero of the article is carnivorous. The bird catches insects and earthworms. Wintering species do not disdain frozen berries and seeds, looking for them on grasses and trees powdered with snow. Seeking food on the ground, the blackbird lifts its tail up, and lowers its head to the soil.

Blackbird with prey

The bird moves in leaps, being careful and periodically looking around.Blackbird chicks feed exclusively on earthworms. Such a diet promotes rapid mass gain. Worms parents bring several pieces in its beak.

Reproduction and longevity

Blackbird nest two-layer. Outside — a layer of interwoven branches, leaves, swing. Inside the nest is a kind of plaster. This is clay and rubbish of trees. The shape of the blackbird nest is cup-shaped, uneven. You can see a similar structure on the ground between the roots of old trees, or on their branches at a height of up to 8 meters.

City thrushes sometimes build nests in flowerpots on the balconies of houses and flowerbeds. Both parents erect the nest, spending about a week on this. Then the female lays 5-6 eggs. They are about 3 centimeters long and about 2 wide.

Parents guard the chicks, deflecting attacks of predators from them. First, the feathered choose defense tactics, literally attacking the offenders, giving them slaps in the wings, hitting their beaks.

If the method does not work, thrushes pretend to be sick, starting, for example, with a limp. So adult birds seem to offer predators to rush for easier and more meaty prey, diverting misfortune from the nest.

Most blackbirds make one clutch per season. Chicks leave the nest in the first half of June. If the second masonry is done, the offspring get on the wing by August. By the next season, young growth is ready to breed.

Rapid maturation is associated with the short life span of the hero of the article. The thrush age in nature is limited to 4 years. Sometimes birds are kept at home and in zoos. There, blackbirds survive to 5-7 years.

Below we present you the photo materials that were provided to us by a resident of St. Petersburg, Olga. She managed to fix the whole process of blackbird breeding, from the construction of the nest to the departure of the chicks. Thank you so much for this!

Nest building

Blackbird female lays eggs

Blackbird eggs

Female hatches eggs

Chopped eggshell

Newborn Blackbird Chicks

Mother is watching the nest

Chicks after a few days of life began to fledge

Chicks call mother

Mother flew in a few minutes

Below on the video, the reaction of the chicks to the appearance of the mother

Plumage of chicks in 8-10 days

Two chicks have already flown away

The nest is empty 14 days after the appearance of the chicks

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