What are they — signs of a bite of an encephalitis tick?

What are they — signs of a bite of an encephalitis tick?

Tick-borne encephalitis is very dangerousan infectious disease that affects the gray matter of the cranium — the brain. Since this is an infection, the causative agent is the tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the human body, it falls through the bite of an ixodid mite. It is interesting that the mite does not become infected, but «protects» the disease for mammals: predators, rodents, insectivores and, of course, humans. In this article we learn about what are the signs of a bite of an encephalitic tick, and also tell about the rehabilitation after such a bite.

Careful, ticks!

When summer comes and the season of holidays comes,every person just needs to think about their own safety, because the mites do not slumber! Together with the warm sun they go out on the «warpath» against the man. If an ordinary tick is a clear cause of inflammation and suppuration of the skin, then encephalitis is generally a deadly danger! The fact that his bite leads to paralysis of certain limbs, to the defeat of gray matter and even to death. The symptoms of a bite of an encephalitis tick differ markedly from those of its usual fellow. In order not to get into a mess, you need to know them and be able to distinguish. This and do.

Signs of a bite of an encephalitis tick:

  1. First, a person is suddenly affected by a sudden chill. Then it is replaced very quickly by an increased body temperature (38-40 degrees). Remember that the first signs of an encephalitis tick bite are very similar to the symptoms of the flu.
  2. The next stage is severe headaches, nausea or vomiting. At this stage, these symptoms can be confused with food poisoning.
  3. After a while, headaches changean ache in bones and joints (as with arthrosis and arthritis). The breathing of a person is difficult, the motor activity becomes limited, the face and skin near the place of the bite noticeably turn red.
  4. Then the virus begins to slowly destroy the human brain. If no measures are taken in time, the consequences will undoubtedly be irreversible.

What should I do if a tick bites you?

It is clear that the arachnid is not written,It is contagious or not. Wait, when the primary signs of the bite of the encephalitis tick begin to appear, just to accurately determine it, in no case be impossible! There can be only one recommendation: if you find yourself (or your friend) tick, immediately consult a doctor! It is the doctor who will be able to correctly remove the parasite, determine its variety, investigate it and, if necessary, prescribe to you a timely treatment.

Treatment after a bite of an encephalitic tick

As such, antiviral treatment is not yetinvented. The current therapy is to eliminate all the major pathological processes of this disease. In any case, the victim immediately hospitalized in a hospital. Therapy is performed with the use of glucocorticosteroids, as well as other symptomatic drugs.

The prognosis will depend on the time of contact with the doctor, the nature of the disease and the physical condition of the patient himself at the time of encephalitis infection.


Symptoms and Signs of Encephalitis

Doctor’s Notes on Encephalitis

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis is not the same as meningitis, which is inflammation of the membranes covering the brain. Both of the diseases may be present at the same time, and both conditions share many of the same symptoms so they may be difficult to distinguish. Causes of encephalitis include viruses, bacteria, parasites, chemicals, and even autoimmune reactions.

Symptoms of encephalitis may last for two to three weeks, are flu-like, and may include fever, fatigue, muscle weakness, rhythmic muscle contractions, muscle pain, sore throat, stiff neck and back, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, irritability, unsteady gait, weakness, problems with coordination, drowsiness, and visual sensitivity to light. Symptoms of encephalitis in infants may also include poor feeding, irritability, vomiting, bulging fontanel, and body stiffness. Symptoms of severe cases of encephalitis may include seizures, muscle weakness, paralysis, memory loss, impaired judgment, delirium and/or hallucinations, disorientation, poor responsiveness, or altered level of consciousness

Encephalitis Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of encephalitis are the same for adults and children. Infants may have poor feeding, irritability, vomiting, bulging fontanel, and body stiffness; such symptoms in an infant always constitute a medical emergency.

  • Signs and symptoms may last for two to three weeks, are flu-like, and can include one or more of the following which in some individuals may become progressively worse and continue over time:
    • Fever
    • Fatigue, muscle weakness, rhythmic muscle contractions, muscle pain
    • Sore throat
    • Stiff neck and back
    • Loss of appetite
    • Vomiting and nausea
    • Headache
    • Confusion
    • Irritability
    • Unsteady gait, weakness
    • Problems with coordination
    • Drowsiness
    • Visual sensitivity to light
  • More severe cases may involve these signs and symptoms:
    • Seizures
    • Muscle weakness
    • Paralysis
    • Memory loss
    • Sudden impaired judgment
    • Delirium and/or hallucinations
    • Disorientation
    • Poor responsiveness or altered level of consciousness

Encephalitis Causes

  • Herpes simplex (HSV): This type of virus causes cold sores of the mouth and lesions of the genitals. HSV is transmitted directly through human contact. Newborns can also get the virus by passing through an infected birth canal. Once inside the body, the virus travels through nerve fibers and can cause an infection of the brain. The virus may also undergo a period of latency in which it is inactive. At a later time, emotional or physical stress can reactivate the virus to cause an infection of the brain. It causes the most subacute (between acute and chronic) and chronic (lasting three or more months) encephalitis infections in humans.
  • Arbovirus: Hosts are animals such as birds, pigs, chipmunks, and squirrels that carry the virus. Mosquitoes (known as vectors, or ways of transmitting the virus) feed on these animals and become infected. The virus grows and cycles between the hosts and the vectors. Humans become infected through mosquito bites. Once inside the body, the virus replicates and travels in the bloodstream. If there is a large enough amount of the virus, the brain can become infected. The majority of cases occur between June and September when the mosquitoes are most active. In warmer climates, the disease can occur year-round.
    • West Nile virus (WNV): This virus was first isolated from an adult woman with a fever in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937. The nature of the virus was studied in Egypt in the 1950s. In 1957, as a result of an outbreak in Israel in the elderly, the WNV became recognized as a cause for severe inflammation of the spinal cord and brain in humans. In the early 1960s, it was first noted that horses were becoming ill in Egypt and France. This virus then emerged in North America in 1999, with encephalitis reported in humans and horses.
      • The virus cycles between the Culex mosquito and hosts such as birds, horses, cats, bats, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, and domestic rabbits. The mosquito feeds on the infected hosts, carries the virus in its salivary glands, and then passes it on to humans or other animals during a blood meal. It usually takes three to 15 days from the time of infection to the onset of disease symptoms. In the U.S., crows became a major host, but the disease would kill the crows; as a result, the number of infections dropped dramatically as the crow population died off.
      • West Nile encephalitis is not transmitted from person to person (such as through touching or kissing or from a health-care worker caring for a sick person) nor can it be passed from animal to human. Blood transfusions are the exception; the virus may be passed among people by blood transfusions if the donor is infected.
      • The chance that people will become severely ill from a mosquito bite is extremely small. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), even in areas where mosquitoes are reported to carry the virus, much fewer than 1% of them are infected. Furthermore, less than 1% of the people who get bitten and become infected will become severely ill. Therefore, the majority of cases are mild, and people can fully recover. For example, the CDC reported 690 people infected in 2011, with a total of 43 deaths.
      • Prognosis is usually guarded in the extremes of age (infants, young children, and the elderly). Death rates as a result of West Nile encephalitis range from 3%-15% and are highest among the elderly. At the present time, there is no documented evidence to suggest that a pregnancy is at risk due to WNV infection. It is assumed that if a person contracts WNV, he or she will develop a natural immunity that is lifelong. However, it may wane in later years. Currently, there is no commercially available vaccine for humans.
      • A relative of West Nile virus, Powassan virus, was discovered in 1958, but its vector is the blacklegged (deer) tick. It is very rare; only about 60 individuals have been diagnosed since 1958. There is no vaccine available. It has a 10% death rate.
  • La Crosse encephalitis: The first case occurred in La Crosse, Wisconsin, in 1963. Since then, the largest number of cases has been identified in woodland areas of the midwestern and mid-Atlantic United States. This virus is the most common cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in children younger than 16 years of age. Each year, about 75 cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The virus cycles between the daytime-biting treehole mosquito (Aedes triseriatus) and hosts such as chipmunks and squirrels. Some investigators consider the cause of California encephalitis to be the La Crosse virus. The La Crosse encephalitis virus can cause adverse effects on IQ and school performance. About 80-100 people are diagnosed each year in the U.S., and 1% of people with this infection may die.
  • St. Louis encephalitis: Since 1964, an average of about 102 people is reported infected per year. Outbreaks can occur throughout most of the United States, although large urban epidemics have occurred in the midwestern and southeastern regions. The last major epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis occurred in the Midwest from 1974-1977. There were 2,500 cases in 35 states reported to the CDC. Additionally, there were 20 reported cases in New Orleans in 1999. The virus cycles between birds and the Culex mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water. It grows in both the mosquito and the bird but does not make either one sick. Only the infected mosquito can transmit the disease to humans during the blood meal. The virus cannot be transmitted from person to person through kissing or touching nor can it be transmitted from the infected bird. The disease tends to affect mostly adults and is generally milder in children.
  • Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE): According to the CDC, there have been confirmed cases in the United States of EEE since 1964 with a rate of about 0-21 diagnosed infections per year (average about six per year). This virus is found along the East and Gulf Coasts. The virus causes severe disease in horses, puppies, and birds such as pheasants, quails, and ostriches. In humans, flu-like symptoms develop four to 10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. Usually, human illnesses are preceded by those in horses. EEE can cause death in 50%-75% of human infections; 90% of infected people have mild to severe impairments. Those who recover may suffer severe permanent brain damage such as mental retardation, seizures, paralysis, and behavior abnormalities.
  • Western equine encephalitis (WEE): This virus was isolated from the brain of a horse with encephalitis in California in 1930. The worst epidemic was in Canada and the western U.S. when over 300,000 horses and mules were diagnosed, along with over 3,300 humans in 1941. Since 1964, there have been at least 639 confirmed cases, but currently only a few per year are reported. However, it remains a cause of encephalitis in the western part of the United States and Canada. In 1994, there were two confirmed and several suspected cases of WEE reported in Wyoming. In 1997, 35 strains of WEE virus were isolated from mosquitoes collected in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The WEE virus cycles between certain types of birds (small, mostly songbirds) and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes, a species associated with irrigated agriculture and stream drainage. The virus has also been found in several other mammals. Horses and humans become sick through bites by infected mosquitoes. Infants are particularly affected and can have permanent problems such as seizure disorders and developmental delay as a result of the infection. A vaccine is not available for humans. WEE is becoming more frequently encountered in the U.S.
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE): This virus is found in Central and South America and is a rare cause of encephalitis in the southwestern part of the United States. It is an important cause of encephalitis in horses and humans in South America. From 1969-1971, an outbreak from South America to Texas killed over 200,000 horses. In 1995, there were an estimated 90,000 human infections with VEE in Columbia and Venezuela. The virus cycles between forest-dwelling rodents and mosquito vectors, especially the species Culex. VEE infection in humans is much less severe than that of WEE and EEE. While adults tend to develop a flu-like illness, children tend to develop overt encephalitis. Deaths are rare in humans but are common in horses. There is an effective vaccine for horses but none for humans.
  • Japanese encephalitis: This virus is responsible for 50,000 cases and 15,000 deaths per year. Most of China, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent are affected. The geographic distribution is expanding. Rarely, cases may appear in United States civilians and military personnel traveling to and living in Asia. Children and young adults are mostly affected. Older adults are affected when there are epidemics in new locations. The virus cycles between domestic pigs, wild birds, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, which breed in rice fields. The disease is not transmitted through human contact, pigs, or birds. Only the mosquitoes can transmit the disease during feedings.
  • Zika virus: This virus is spread by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito; the virus can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus, and this has been associated with certain birth defects, including microcephaly, Guillain-Barré disease, and disseminated encephalomyelitis. A major outbreak of this disease began in 2015 and is ongoing in Brazil and has spread to other countries. Zika typically is spread via the mosquito vector, but transmission through sexual intercourse has also been documented.
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The following is a short summary of the viruses that cause the majority of encephalitis infections, although they may also cause other diseases.

Disease Geographic Location Vector/ Hosts Comment
Herpes encephalitis United States/the world Human-to-human
Prompt treatment with acyclovir increases survival to 90%
West Nile encephalitis Africa, West Asia, Middle East, United States Mosquito/mostly birds Majority are mild cases. Less than 1% of those infected will become severely ill. Full recovery is expected. A vaccine for humans is not commercially available.
Eastern equine
East Coast (from
Massachusetts to Florida),
Gulf Coast
Mosquito/birds Often occurs in horses. High mortality rate (50%-75%); frequent outcomes (seizures, slight paralysis), especially in children
Western equine
Western United States and
Mosquito/birds Often occurs in horses.
Particularly affects infants
Venezuelan equine
Western Hemisphere Mosquito/rodents Rare in United States; low mortality rate, rare after-effects
La Crosse encephalitis Throughout the United States, especially in midwestern & southeastern regions Mosquito/ chipmunks,
Most common cause of
encephalitis in children younger than 16 years of age
St. Louis encephalitis Midwestern & mid-Atlantic
United States
Mosquito/birds Mostly affects adults
Japanese encephalitis Temperate Asia, southern and southeastern Asia Mosquito/birds and pigs Vaccine available for ages 17 and older. See
Prevention section.
High morbidity/mortality rates
Zika virus South America, Asia, Pacific Islands, Central America Mosquitoes Birth defects including microcephaly, neurologic damage

A special cause of viral encephalitis is HIV. This virus is mainly known for its damage to the human immune system. However, as HIV disease progresses, some individuals develop encephalitis symptoms termed AIDS dementia complex. It results in cognitive disorders (There is memory loss, abstract thinking and verbal fluency decline, and motor control may be markedly decreased.). Other causes of encephalitis are as follows but will not be further discussed in detail in this article; the reader is referred to the links provided:

  • Bacteria, such as N. meningitidis, and those that cause Lyme disease, syphilis, tuberculosis, and occasionally other bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp. have been implicated in a few individuals.
  • Fungi such as Candida, Mucormycosis, Cryptococcus, and others
  • Rabies virus
  • Parasites such as Toxoplasma (often seen in HIV-infected patients) or the parasite Naegleria
  • Allergies to vaccinations
  • Autoimmune disease such as Rasmussen’s encephalitis
  • Cancers involving the brain tissue
  • Prion caused encephalitis (rare) such as bovine spongiform encephalitis or mad cow disease
  • Myalgic encephalitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (no defined cause)
  • Chemical encephalitis such as that seen with alcohol (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) due to a decline in liver functions and ultimately, affecting the brain tissue, or by drug use

In recent years, researchers have begun more intensive studies of some types of encephalitis. In 2012, the CDC began a multicenter study of epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis (or chronic fatigue syndrome or CFS) that is ongoing to better understand this problem.

Another cause of encephalitis under study is encephalitis believed to be caused by an autoantibody attack on subunits of brain N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. The autoantibodies are termed anti-NMDA receptor antibodies, and the disease is termed NMDA receptor encephalitis, first identified in 2007. The disease is found mainly in young women (over 80%) and has been associated with ovarian teratomas (germ cell tumors). Some investigators think it may have been seen previously as an outbreak of encephalitis of unknown cause termed (epidemic) encephalitis lethargica that occurred worldwide between 1918 and 1928. Recent research suggests that the anti-NMDA receptor symptoms (seizures, unresponsiveness, motor-control problems, and others) caused by this autoimmune disease can be treated with immunotherapy to reduce or halt symptoms in some patients. Some individuals believe this disease is related to autism but currently no convincing evidence has shown such a relationship.

Viral Infection Types, Treatment, and Prevention Slideshow

Viruses are small particles of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) that are surrounded by a protein coat. Some viruses also have a fatty «envelope» covering. They are incapable of reproducing on their own. Viruses depend on the organisms they infect (hosts) for their very survival. Viruses get a bad rap, but they also perform many important functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. For example, some viruses protect the host against other infections. Viruses also participate in the process of evolution by transferring genes among different species. In biomedical research, scientists use viruses to insert new genes into cells.

When most people hear the word «virus,» they think of disease-causing (pathogenic) viruses such as the common cold, influenza, chickenpox, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and others. Viruses can affect many areas in the body, including the reproductive, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. They can also affect the liver, brain, and skin. Research reveals that that viruses are implicated in many cancers as well.


Symptoms of a bite of an encephalitis tick in humans, the first signs of infection

Tick-borne encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain or meninges that is caused by the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE virus). Infected ticks transmit the TBE virus to other animals, and sometimes to human beings.

What is tick-borne encephalitis?

Tick-borne encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain or meninges that is caused by the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE virus). Until recently, the virus only occurred abroad, but in the spring of 2016, there were signs that in the Netherlands deer had been infected by the virus and the virus was found in ticks in the Netherlands. There is one known case of a person having been infected by the virus in the Netherlands. The virus is transmitted by tick bites.


There are several types of TBE virus. In general, all types cause infections with a similar disease progression. The TBE virus which occurs in Far-Eastern Russia often causes more serious disease. The risk of an infection after a tick bite is very small, because only very few ticks are infected with the TBE virus. People who have been infected after a tick bite usually do not present any clinical manifestations. Otherwise the disease often comes in 2 phases. The incubation period of 7-14 days is followed by a phase in which a patient suffers from fever, fatigue, general malaise and headache. This usually lasts 2-7 days and is followed by an asymptomatic period of approximately 1 week, In the second phase of the disease the patient has symptoms such as severe headache and encephalitis, meningitis or meningoencephalitis. In this stage the patient needs to be admitted to a hospital. Some patients will develop unresolved neurological aspects. Approximately 1-2% do not survive. There is no specific medication to treat tick-borne encephalitis.

Infection and prevention

The TBE virus is transmitted by infected ticks to humans . There is a vaccine that gives 95% protection. People who stay for a long period in areas where tick-borne encephalitis occurs, can have themselves vaccinated; this is recommended for example in parts of Central and Eastern Europe. For information about countries where vaccination is recommend, we refer to the website of the National Coordination of Advice for Travellers (Landelijke Coördinatie Reizigersadvisering). For the time being, there is no reason to vaccinate people in the Netherlands.

Removing ticks as soon as possible reduces the infection risks of viruses they may carry, such as the virus that causes Lyme disease. TBE virus, however, is transmitted shortly after the bite. So, quickly removing the tick will not always prevent infection. Tick bites can be prevented by wearing protective clothing and by using repellents that contain DEET on exposed skin. Repellants do not protect 100%, so tick bite checks remain a necessity after being outdoor/in nature. TBE virus is rarely found in farm animals, such as sheep, goats and cows. The virus is than excreted in milk. As a result people could be infected by drinking unpasteurized infected milk or eating cheese made from infected milk.

Where does the tick-borne encephalitis virus occur?

Tick-borne encephalitis virus occurs in parts of Europe, Russia and Central Asia. In Europe there are approximately 2000 patients with TBE per year and in Russia approximately 10,000. In the Netherlands, the TBE virus has been found in ticks in the national parks Sallandse Heuvelrug and Utrechtse Heuvelrug. RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment investigates, in collaboration with other organisations, the spread of the TBE virus in the Netherlands and the risk of infection.


Tick-borne encephalitis

Last updated April 23, 2020

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    Tick-borne meningoencephalitis
    Infected countries/areas in Eurasia
    Specialty Infectious disease

    Tick-borne encephalitis ( TBE) is a viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system. The disease most often manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis. Long-lasting or permanent neuropsychiatric consequences are observed in 10 to 20% of infected patients.


    The number of reported cases has been increasing in most countries. [1] TBE is posing a concerning health challenge to Europe, as the number of reported human cases of TBE in all endemic regions of Europe have increased by almost 400% within the last three decades. [2]

    The tick-borne encephalitis virus is known to infect a range of hosts including ruminants, birds, rodents, carnivores, horses, and humans. The disease can also be spread from animals to humans, with ruminants and dogs providing the principal source of infection for humans. [3]

    Signs and symptoms

    The disease typically follows a biphasic pattern in 72–87% of patients and the median incubation period is 8 days (range, 4–28 days) after tick bite. Non-specific symptoms of mild fever, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting and myalgias may be present as first manifestation of the disease and spontaneously resolve within 1 week. After another week the patient may develop neurological symptoms. [4] The virus can result in long neurological symptoms, infecting the brain (encephalitis), the meninges (meningitis) or both (meningoencephalitis). [5] In general, mortality is 1% to 2%, with deaths occurring 5 to 7 days after the onset of neurologic signs.

    In dogs, the disease also manifests as a neurological disorder with signs varying from tremors to seizures and death. [3]

    In ruminants, neurological disease is also present, and animals may refuse to eat, appear lethargic, and also develop respiratory signs. [3]


    TBE is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus, a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It was first isolated in 1937. Three virus sub-types also exist: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ), Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by I. persulcatus ), and Far-Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus, formerly known as Russian spring summer encephalitis virus (transmitted by I. persulcatus). [6] [7]

    Russia and Europe report about 5,000–7,000 human cases annually. [1] [8]

    The former Soviet Union conducted research on tick-borne diseases, including the TBE viruses.


    It is transmitted by the bite of several species of infected woodland ticks, including Ixodes scapularis, I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, [9] or (rarely) through the non-pasteurized milk of infected cows. [10]

    Infection acquired through goat milk consumed as raw milk or raw cheese (Frischkäse) has been documented in 2016 and 2017 in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. None of the infected had neurological disease. [11]


    Detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in patients sera combined with typical clinical signs, is the principal method for diagnosis. In more complicated situations, e.g. after vaccination, testing for presence of antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid may be necessary [12] .

    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method is rarely used, since TBE virus RNA is most often not present in patient sera or cerebrospinal fluid at the time of clinical symptoms.


    Prevention includes non-specific (tick-bite prevention, tick checks) and specific prophylaxis in the form of a vaccination. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines are very effective and available in many disease endemic areas and in travel clinics. [13] Trade names are Encepur N [14] and FSME-Immun CC. [15]


    The disease is incurable once manifested, so there is no specific drug therapy for TBE. Symptomatic brain damage requires hospitalization and supportive care based on syndrome severity. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, may be considered under specific circumstances for symptomatic relief. Tracheal intubation and respiratory support may be necessary.


    As of 2011, the disease was most common in Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Asia. About ten to twelve thousand cases are documented a year but the rates vary widely from one region to another. [16] Most of the variation has been the result of variation in host population, particularly that of deer. In Austria, an extensive free vaccination program since the 1960s reduced the incidence in 2013 by roughly 85%. [17]

    In Germany, during the 2010s, there have been a minimum of 95 (2012) and a maximum of 584 cases (2018) of TBE (or FSME as it is known in German). More than half of the reported cases from 2019 had meningitis, encephalitis or myelitis. The risk of infection was noted to be increasing with age, especially in people older than 40 years and it was greater in men than women. Most cases were acquired in Bavaria (46 %) and Baden-Württemberg (37%), much less in Saxonia, Hesse, Niedersachsen and other states. Altogether 164 Landkreise are designated FSME-risk areas, including all of Baden-Württemberg except for the city of Heilbronn. [11]

    In Sweden, most cases of TBE occur in a band running from Stockholm to the west, especially around lakes and the nearby region of the Baltic sea. [18] [19] It reflects the greater population involved in outdoor activities in these areas. Overall, for Europe, the estimated risk is roughly 1 case per 10,000 human-months of woodland activity. Although in some regions of Russia and Slovenia, the prevalence of cases can be as high as 70 cases per 100,000 people per year. [17] [20] Travelers to endemic regions do not often become cases, with only 5 cases reported among U.S. travelers returning from Eurasia between 2000 and 2011, a rate so low that as of 2016 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended vaccination only for those who will be extensively exposed in high risk areas. [21]

    Related Research Articles

    Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The severity can be variable with symptoms including headache, fever, confusion, a stiff neck, and vomiting. Complications may include seizures, hallucinations, trouble speaking, memory problems, and problems with hearing.

    Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks. The most common sign of infection is an expanding area of redness on the skin, known as erythema migrans, that appears at the site of the tick bite about a week after it occurred. The rash is typically neither itchy nor painful. Approximately 70–80% of infected people develop a rash. Other early symptoms may include fever, headache and tiredness. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others. Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur. Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs. Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to 20% of people develop joint pains, memory problems, and tiredness for at least six months.

    Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. The word arbovirus is an acronym. The word tibovirus is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses transmitted by ticks, a superorder within the arthropods. Arboviruses can affect both animals and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3–15 days after exposure to the virus and last three or four days. The most common clinical features of infection are fever, headache, and malaise, but encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever may also occur.

    Tick-borne diseases, which afflict humans and other animals, are caused by infectious agents transmitted by tick bites. They are caused by infection with a variety of pathogens, including rickettsia and other types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Because individual ticks can harbor more than one disease-causing agent, patients can be infected with more than one pathogen at the same time, compounding the difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. 16 tick-borne diseases of humans are known, or which four have been discovered since 2013.

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). While most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs. In these cases, symptoms may include headache, vomiting, fever, confusion and seizures. This occurs about 5 to 15 days after infection.

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis.

    Viral encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma, called encephalitis, by a virus. The different forms of viral encephalitis are called viral encephalitides. It is the most common type of encephalitis and often occurs with viral meningitis. Encephalitic viruses first cause infection and replicate outside of the central nervous system (CNS), most reaching the CNS through the circulatory system and a minority from nerve endings toward the CNS. Once in the brain, the virus and the host’s inflammatory response disrupt neural function, leading to illness and complications, many of which frequently are neurological in nature, such as impaired motor skills and altered behavior.

    Alkhurma virus (ALKV) is a zoonotic virus of the Flaviviridae virus family. ALKV causes Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever and is mainly based in Saudi Arabia.

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a Flavivirus transmitted by ticks, found in North America and in the Russian Far East. It is named after the town of Powassan, Ontario, where it was identified in a young boy who eventually died from it. It can cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. No vaccine or antiviral drug exists. Prevention of tick bites is the best precaution.

    Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp and is therefore related to rickettsial disease. The microorganisms are Gram-negative, and infect red blood cells. They are transmitted by natural means through a number of haematophagous species of ticks. The Ixodes tick that commonly transmits Lyme disease also spreads anaplasmosis.

    Ixodes ricinus, the castor bean tick, is a chiefly European species of hard-bodied tick. It may reach a length of 11 mm (0.43 in) when engorged with a blood meal, and can transmit both bacterial and viral pathogens such as the causative agents of Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.

    Louping-ill is an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior paralysis, coma, and death. Louping-ill is a tick-transmitted disease whose occurrence is closely related to the distribution of the primary vector, the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus. It also causes disease in red grouse, and can affect humans. The name ‘louping-ill’ is derived from an old Scottish word describing the effect of the disease in sheep whereby they ‘loup’ or spring into the air.

    Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals. Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. These symptoms are followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Once symptoms appear, the result is nearly always death. The time period between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months, but can vary from less than one week to more than one year. The time depends on the distance the virus must travel along peripheral nerves to reach the central nervous system.

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is typically transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, including Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus in North America. These ticks also transmit Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.

    Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). The disease is most common in Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Asia. More than 87% of people who receive the vaccine develop immunity. It is not useful following the bite of an infected tick. It is given by injection into a muscle.

    Kemerovo tickborne viral fever is an aparalytic febrile illness accompanied by meningism following tick-bite. The causative agent is a zoonotic Orbivirus first described in 1963 in western Siberia by Mikhail Chumakov and coworkers. The virus has some 23 serotypes, and can occur in coinfections with other Orbiviruses and tick-transmitted encephalitis viruses, complicating the course of illness. Rodents and birds are the primary vertebrate hosts of the virus; Ixodes persulcatus ticks are a vector of the virus. Kemerovo and related viruses may be translocated distances in the environment by migratory birds.

    Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia to the People’s Republic of China and Japan. The sexual dimorphism of the species is marked, the male being much smaller than the female. Hosts include wild and domestic ungulates, man, dog, rabbit, and other small mammals including the dormouse, Amur hedgehog, and occasionally birds.

    Patricia (Pat) Anne Nuttall, OBE is a British virologist and acarologist known for her research on tick-borne diseases. Her discoveries include the fact that pathogens can be transmitted between vectors feeding on a host without being detectable in the host’s blood. She is also a science administrator who served as the director of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (2001–11). As of 2015, she is professor of arbovirology in the Department of Zoology of the University of Oxford.

    Tibovirus Is term is often used to describe viruses that are transmitted by tick vectors. The word tibovirus is an acronym. This falls within the superorder arthropod thus tibovirus is classified under Arthropod Borne virus (Arborvirus). For a person to acquire infection the tick must bite and feed for a sufficient period of time. The tiboviruses that affect humans are limited to within 3 families: Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae.

    Eyach virus (EYAV) is a viral infection in the Reoviridae family transmitted by a tick vector. It has been isolated from Ixodes ricinus and I. ventalloi ticks in Europe. It is closely related to Colorado tick fever virus, the type virus of Coltivirus.


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