Pests of currant and fight with them

Pests of currant and fight with them

To feast on berries and currants, you must care for this culture.

No time to blink, as the invasion of harmful insects «cut off» a large part of the crop. And it can happen worse – the plant will die.

Therefore, in the care of the currants (and any other fruit culture), you can forget about prophylactic measures.

And, of course, a pest of currants begin at the first sign of their appearance.

The major pests of currants

In domestic gardens there are many harmful parasites that can harm fruit crops. Below are the main ones that bother currants.

Bud mite prefers to live in the appropriate body of the shrub. There it hibernates and reproduces in parallel the eating of germ leaves.

The swollen kidney is cause to worry about the leaves, if there will be, it will be deformed. This indicates the beginning of serious disease of plants – partial shade.

The fight against mites is as follows:

  • — the removal of a single affected kidney or pruning of diseased branches currant with significant signs and burning;
  • — spraying of the bushes with different drugs before Bud break and additionally 7 days after flowering. The treatment is carried out with insecticides (Neuron, Fufanon), preparations of sulphur (colloidal or dispersed), folk remedies (tinctures tobacco or garlic).

Another pest of the currant mite, he twist around his thread the leaves of plants, sucking out all the juice. In hot weather the leaves can dry completely, and the Bush – to die.

To deal with the tick can be such methods:

  • — obligatory processing of the currant bushes after winter hibernation karbofos;
  • several times before the ripening of berries currants are sprayed with sulfur (colloidal) or fungicides (Solon, Akarin). The hotter the summer, the more frequently it should be processed.

Steklenica – «personal» pest of currants. But he is so «secretive» that to identify this «saboteur» takes a little time. On currants only live larvae of the pest, which, developing, gnawing the branches to the viscera. The drying of shoot tips combined with brown cut on them – a sign of «settling» the Bush steklenica.

Measures of pest control are as follows:- to do a routine inspection of the bark for the presence of cracks and detection of weak branches;

  • — crop and the destruction of damaged shoots;
  • — after flowering, treatment of plants preparations of type of Akhtar or Fitoverm.

Aphids plaguing the culture, there are 2 types. From currant aphid leaves curl. With the defeat of the Gallic aphids, they sometimes swell,

changing the color of. The culprit is a noxious poison that is injected into the pests of currants when you eat her juices.

With this parasite you need to struggle so:

  • regardless of the pest currant it is necessary from time to time to spray natural means (infusion of wormwood, tobacco, garlic). For a greater probability can be added to the composition of soap;
  • — at the first sign of defeat is periodic processing of the shrub insecticides. The last procedure – 20 days to fruit ripening;
  • — the affected leaves should be collected and destroyed.

Hiding inside the fruit the larvae of sawflies, which eat the seeds of berries. The sign of the presence of the pest – the ribbing and the excessive size of the fetus.

  • — to prevent the fall of the ground around the shrubs dug up and mulched;
  • — upon detection of larvae of the pest, the fruits are destroyed, and the plant is treated with trichlorfon.

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Treatment by Type and Stage of Wilms Tumor

In the United States, most children with Wilms tumors are treated in clinical trials developed by the Children’s Oncology Group. The goal of these studies is to cure as many children as possible while limiting side effects by giving as little treatment as is necessary. This is done by comparing the current best treatment with one the doctors think might be better. Because of this, treatment may differ slightly from what is described here.

Treatment for Wilms tumor is based mainly on the stage of the cancer and whether its histology (how it looks under the microscope) is favorable or anaplastic. Other factors can influence treatment as well, including:

  • The child’s age
  • If the tumor cells have certain chromosome changes
  • The size of the main tumor
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In the United States, doctors prefer to use surgery as the first treatment in most cases, and then give chemotherapy (and possibly radiation therapy) afterward. In Europe, doctors prefer to start the chemotherapy before surgery. The results from these approaches seem to be about the same.

Most often, the stage and histology of the cancer are actually determined when surgery is done to remove the cancer, because the true extent of the tumor often can’t be determined by imaging tests alone. The doctors use what they learn during surgery to guide further treatment. But sometimes it’s clear that the cancer has already spread beyond the kidney even before surgery is done, based on imaging tests. This can affect the order in which treatments are given, as well as the extent of surgery.

Stage I

These tumors are only in the kidney, and surgery has completely removed the tumor along with the entire kidney, nearby structures, and some nearby lymph nodes.

Favorable histology: Children younger than 2 years with small tumors (weighing less than 550 grams) may not need further treatment after surgery. But they need to be watched closely because the chance the cancer will come back is slightly higher than if they also got chemo. If the cancer does come back, the chemo drugs actinomycin D (dactinomycin) and vincristine (and possibly more surgery) are very likely to be effective at this point.

For children older than 2 and for those of any age who have larger tumors, surgery is usually followed by chemo for several months, with the drugs actinomycin D and vincristine. If the tumor cells have certain chromosome changes, the drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) may be given as well.

Anaplastic histology: For children of any age who have tumors with anaplastic histology, surgery is usually followed by radiation therapy to the area of the tumor, along with chemo with actinomycin D, vincristine, and possibly doxorubicin (Adriamycin) for several months.

Stage II

These tumors have grown outside the kidney into nearby tissues, but surgery has removed all visible signs of cancer.

Favorable histology: After surgery, standard treatment is chemo with actinomycin D and vincristine. If the tumor cells have certain chromosome changes, the drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) may be given as well. The chemo is given for several months.

Anaplastic histology, with focal (only a little) anaplasia: When the child recovers from surgery, radiation therapy is given over several weeks. When this is finished, chemo (doxorubicin, actinomycin D, and vincristine) is given for about 6 months.

Anaplastic histology, with diffuse (widespread) anaplasia: After surgery, these children get radiation over several weeks. This is followed by a more intense type of chemo using the drugs vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and carboplatin, along with mesna (a drug that helps protect the bladder from the effects of cyclophosphamide), which is given for about 6 months.

Stage III

Surgery cannot remove these tumors completely because of their size or location or for other reasons. In some cases, surgery may be postponed until other treatments are able to shrink the tumor first (see below).

Favorable histology: Treatment is usually surgery if it can be done, followed by radiation therapy over several days. This is followed by chemo with 3 drugs (actinomycin D, vincristine, and doxorubicin). If the tumor cells have certain chromosome changes, the drugs cyclophosphamide and etoposide may be given as well. Chemo is given for about 6 months.

Anaplastic histology, with focal (only a little) anaplasia: Treatment starts with surgery if it can be done, followed by radiation therapy over several weeks. This is followed by chemo, usually with 3 drugs (actinomycin D, vincristine, and doxorubicin) for about 6 months.

Anaplastic histology, with diffuse (widespread) anaplasia: Treatment starts with surgery if it can be done, followed by radiation therapy over several weeks. This is followed by chemo, usually with the drugs vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and carboplatin, along with mesna (a drug that helps protect the bladder from the effects of cyclophosphamide). Chemo lasts about 6 months.

In some instances the tumor may be very large or may have grown into nearby blood vessels or other structures so that it can’t be removed safely. In these children, a small biopsy sample is taken from the tumor to be sure that it’s a Wilms tumor and to determine its histology. Then chemo is started. Usually the tumor will shrink enough within several weeks so that surgery can be done. If not, then radiation therapy might be given as well. Chemo will be started again after surgery. If radiation was not given before surgery, it’s given after surgery.

Stage IV

These tumors have already spread to distant parts of the body at the time of diagnosis. As with stage III tumors, surgery to remove the tumor might be the first treatment, but it might need to be delayed until other treatments can shrink the tumor (see below).

Favorable histology: Surgery to remove the tumor is the first treatment if it can be done, followed by radiation therapy. The entire abdomen will be treated if there is still some cancer left after surgery. If the cancer has spread to the lungs, low doses of radiation might also be given to that area. This is followed by chemo, usually with 3 drugs (actinomycin D, vincristine, and doxorubicin) for about 6 months. If the tumor cells have certain chromosome changes, the drugs cyclophosphamide and etoposide may be given as well.

Anaplastic histology: Treatment might start with surgery if it can be done, followed by radiation therapy. The entire abdomen will be treated if there is still some cancer left after surgery. Low doses of radiation will also be given to the lungs if the cancer has spread there. This is followed by chemo with the drugs vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and carboplatin, along with mesna given for about 6 months. If the tumor cells have diffuse (widespread) anaplasia, some doctors might try the chemo drugs irinotecan and vincristine first instead (although this is not yet a commonly used treatment). The treatment would then be adjusted if the tumor shrinks in response to these drugs.

If the tumor is too large or has grown too much to be removed safely with surgery first, a small biopsy sample may be taken from the tumor to be sure that it’s a Wilms tumor and to determine its histology. Chemo and/or radiation therapy may then be used to shrink the tumor. Surgery might be an option at this point. This would be followed by more chemo and radiation therapy if it wasn’t given already.

For stage IV cancers that have spread to the liver, surgery may be an option to remove any liver tumors that still remain after chemo and radiation therapy.

See also:  Prevention and control measures, Infection prevention and control, Advice and support, For patients, carers and visitors, The Royal Free

Stage V

Treatment for children with tumors in both kidneys is unique for each child, although it typically includes surgery, chemo, and radiation therapy at some point.

Biopsies (tissue samples) of tumors in both kidneys and of nearby lymph nodes may be taken first, although not all doctors feel this is needed because when both kidneys have tumors, the chance that they are Wilms tumors is very high.

Chemo is typically given first to try to shrink the tumors. The drugs used will depend on the extent and histology (if known) of the tumors. After about 6 weeks of chemo, surgery (partial nephrectomy) may be done to remove the tumors if enough normal kidney tissue can be left behind. If the tumors haven’t shrunk enough, treatment may include more chemo or radiation therapy for about another 6 weeks. Surgery (either partial or radical nephrectomy) may then be done. This is followed by more chemo, possibly along with radiation therapy if it hasn’t been given already.

If not enough functioning kidney tissue is left after surgery, a child may need dialysis, a procedure where a special machine filters waste products out of the blood several times a week. If there is no evidence of any cancer after a year or two, a donor kidney transplant may be done.

Recurrent Wilms tumor

The prognosis and treatment for children with Wilms tumor that recurs (comes back after treatment) depends on their prior treatment, the cancer’s histology (favorable or anaplastic), and where it recurs. The outlook is generally better for recurrent Wilms tumors with the following features:

  • Favorable histology
  • Initial diagnosis of stage I or II
  • Initial chemo with vincristine and actinomycin D only
  • No previous radiation therapy

The usual treatment for these children is surgery to remove the recurrent cancer (if possible), radiation therapy (if not already given to the area), and chemo, often with drugs different from those used during first treatment.

Recurrent Wilms tumors that do not have the features above are much harder to treat. These children are usually treated with aggressive chemo, such as the ICE regimen (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) or others being studied in clinical trials. Very high-dose chemo followed by a stem cell transplant (sometimes called a bone marrow transplant) might also be an option in this situation, although this is still being studied.

www.cancer.org

FAQ: Tick-Borne Diseases

In this Article

In this Article

In this Article

Editor’s note: This story was updated on Aug. 2, 2019 with the death of a New York state resident fromВ Powassan virus.

Although Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne infection in the U.S., experts are seeing more serious tick-borne illnesses — some of them fatal if not treated right away.

In August, New York state health officials said a resident died of Powassan virus, a rare but potentially serious disease spread by the blacklegged or deer tick. The resident lived in Gardiner and had underlying health conditions, according to the Ulster County Health Department. They said it was the first known case of someone in the state being diagnosed with the disease this summer.В

In June, health officials in New Jersey investigated two confirmed cases of Powassan virusВ in Sussex County, in the northwest corner of the state.

In 2017, state and local health departments reported a record number of cases of tick-borne disease to the CDC.A recent CDC report showed that vector-borne diseases — those transmitted by ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas — tripled to roughly 650,000 cases between 2004 and 2016. The vast majority — or 75% — were caused by ticks. The report says seven new tick-caused illnesses were discovered between 2004 and 2016.В

It’s difficult to predict from year to year how many cases of tick-borne diseases will be reported in the U.S. The tiny bugs are now in 50 states, and as a result, more people are at risk every spring, summer, and fall.

Here’s what you need to know about tick-borne illnesses.

Q. Are cases of tick-borne illnesses on the rise?

A. From 2004 to 2016, tick-borne diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, have risen dramatically.В In just one year, from 2016 to 2017, cases rose 23%, CDC figures show.

  • Lyme disease: 42,743, up from 19,804 in 2004 (Experts believe the annual number is around 300,000, based on surveillance.)
  • Anaplasmosis/ehrlichiosis: 7,718, up from 875 in 2004
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever: 6,248, up from 1,713 in 2004
  • Babesiosis: 2,368, up from 1,128 in 2011, when tracking started for the disease
  • Tularemia: 239, up from 134 in 2004
  • Powassan virus: 33, up from 1 in 2004

Q. Where are ticks found?

A.В The blacklegged tick — responsible for Lyme disease, the Powassan virus, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis — is found in every state across the eastern U.S. and into Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. The geographic range of other ticks, including the Lone Star, American dog, brown dog, and Rocky Mountain wood tick, has also expanded throughout North America. They cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and other infections.

Q. How are tick-borne diseases treated?

A. A simple antibiotic, doxycycline, can be used to snuff out most of the diseases — if they are recognized and treated early.

Q. How long does a tick have to stick to you to transmit infections?

A. For Rocky Mountain spotted fever, it takes 2 to 96 hours; for Lyme disease, it depends on the tick. One transmits the infection between 4 and 72 hours; the other from 48-96 hours. For anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis, a tick needs to be attached for 24 to 50 hours. It is unknown how long a tick needs to be attached to transmit Powassan or Heartland virus.

Q. What is the East Asian or longhorned tick?

A. This tick, discovered on a New Jersey sheep farm in late 2017, is known to transmit severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. This potentially fatal disease causes low platelet and low white blood cell counts. It’s now found in Arkansas, Connecticut, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Q. What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and how is it transmitted?

A. You can get this disease from the American dog tick, the brown dog tick, and the Rocky Mountain wood tick. Five states — North Carolina, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Missouri — account for more than 60% of the cases. According to the CDC,В about 4,000 to 6,000 cases of tick-borne spotted fevers, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, are reported each year in this region.

But Native American reservations in southeast Arizona have seen epidemic levels of the disease — a result of human contact with stray dogs that carry the ticks.В

Between 2003 and 2016, public health officials reported more than 360 cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the region, including 21 deaths. В В

See also:  Does Riddex Work On Ants?

Q. What are symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

A. They aren’t much different from the flu — fever, headache, muscle aches. But within 2-5 days, a rash will begin on your arms and legs and spread to your chest and stomach. At that point, the disease may be doing serious damage to your organs.В

Q. How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever treated?

A. Doxycycline is the most effective antibiotic to prevent severe illness and death from Rocky Mountain spotted fever if a patient gets it in the first 5 days of illness.В The average time someone dies after showing symptoms is 8 days.

Q: Which other tick-borne diseases are fatal?

A. The death rate from Rocky Mountain spotted fever and  anaplasmosis is less than 1%, and it’s about 1% for ehrlichiosis, according to the CDC.

A handful of deaths have been reported from Bourbon, Heartland, and Powassan viruses.

Q. What is the Bourbon virus?

A. The Bourbon virus is likely spread through the bite of a lone star tick or an insect, the CDC says. A handful of cases of the virus have been reported in the Midwest and South, including some that have resulted in death. Symptoms of the virus can include rash, fever, nausea, body aches, tiredness, headache, and vomiting. There is no cure for an infection. Treatment may include IV fluids and pain medications.

Q. What is the Heartland virus?

A. The Heartland virus is caused by the lone star tick.В As of September 2018, more than 40 cases have been reported in the Midwest and South, a few of which resulted in death. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle aches, and diarrhea. There are no vaccines to prevent this virus or medications to treat it.

Q. What are seed ticks?

A. The phrase «seed ticks» refers to tick larvae. The larvae look like poppy seeds on your skin. Even at this young stage, they can still bite. The bites are commonly painless. The ticks can crawl up your body under clothing and bite you in places that are hard to see.

Q. What is Powassan virus?

A. Unlike some other tick-borne infections, Powassan is a virus. That means antibiotics don’t work to treat it. No antiviral drugs seem to work against it, and there is a high risk of long-term disability and death.

Powassan is rare — only 100 cases reported in the last decade — but its numbers could rise as more people come into contact with ticks. The CDC reported 33 cases in 2017.

Q. Where are the most cases of Powassan reported?

A. Cases are concentrated in the northeast U.S. and in the Great Lakes region.

Q. What are the symptoms of Powassan, and are they different from other tick-borne infections?

A. Powassan strikes with fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache, and as the virus progresses, it can lead to seizures and brain and spinal cord inflammation — conditions that you should go to the hospital for. Unlike other tick-borne diseases, the symptoms of Powassan do not include a rash.

Q. How do you treat the disease?

A. Mainly with supportive care — painkillers for headache, and hospitalization for people with severe illness. It may include breathing support, intravenous fluids and medications to reduce swelling in the brain.В Death is rare and happens in about 10% of the cases that have swelling in the brain, or encephalitis. Other patients end up with long-term memory problems, В headaches, and muscle wasting.

Q. Can you get a meat allergy from a tick bite?

A. Scientists aren’t yet sure, but there is data linking something called alpha-gal allergy with tick bites. Alpha-gal is a sugar molecule found in most mammals and some type of ticks. People have allergic reactions after they eat meat from mammals that have it or are exposed to products made from mammals. They may include medications, cosmetics, vaccines, gelatin, and milk products.

Most cases have been reported in the Southeast and Midwest. The Lone Star tick is suspected in cases involving red meat.

Symptoms can be severe and life-threatening. They include rash, hives, difficult breathing, a drop in blood pressure, dizziness or fainting, nausea or vomiting, and severe stomach pain. They usually appear about 3 to 6 hours after eating meat or being exposed to products that have it.

The allergic reaction generally happens within 6 months after the tick bite, usually in someone who had no previous allergies. It’s more common in older adults.

Q. How can I prevent tick bites?

A. Prevention is the only way to avoid infection:

  • Limit your exposure to tall grass; walk in the center of trails. Ticks generally latch onto your foot or leg and crawl up your body, often to your head or ears. They don’t jump or fly.
  • Remove leaf litter, and clear tall grass and brush around your home and the edge of your yard.
  • Use a 3-foot-wide barrier of wood chips or gravel between your yard and wooded areas to keep ticks from coming into your yard.
  • Mow your lawn frequently.
  • Keep decks, playground equipment, and patios away from trees and the edge of your yard.
  • Wear insect repellent with 20% or more DEET, picaridin, or IR3535 on skin that is exposed.
  • Treat clothing with the chemical permethrin.
  • If you’ve been outside where ticks may live, do a full-body check once you get in, or examine your skin in the shower. Shower as soon as possible after spending time outdoors.
  • If you see a tick, remove it with tweezers as close to the skin as possible, pulling it straight out. Dispose of it by flushing it down the toilet or throwing it back outside. Don’t crush it between your fingers. If you suspect it’s an Asian longhorned tick, save it in rubbing alcohol in a jar or a zip-close bag, then contact your local health department.
  • Dogs pick up ticks and bring them inside. Check your pet’s skin for ticks, and use tick collars, sprays, shampoos, and medications to prevent ticks.
  • Tumble dry clothes in a dryer on high heat for 10 minutes to kill ticks on dry clothing after you come indoors.

Sources

Richard, S. Environments, 2017.

Entomology Today, Jan. 18, 2016.

University of Rhode Island TickEncounter Resource Center.

State of New Jersey Department of Agriculture: “Exotic Tick Species Found in Middlesex County.”

CDC: “Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013.”

Clinical Infectious Diseases, June 1, 2015.

Denise Bonilla, USDA/APHIS, United States Department of Agriculture.

News release, Sussex County, NJ.

News release, Ulster County Health Department, NY.

Minnesota Department of Health: “Powassan Virus Disease.”

American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: “Meat Allergy.”

HHS Working Group on Lyme and Other Tickborne Diseases webinar: “Emerging Issues in Tickborne Diseases.”

www.webmd.com

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