WHO, Control strategies

Control strategies

Vector control

Preventing or reducing dengue virus transmission depends entirely in controlling the mosquito vectors or interruption of human–vector contact. WHO promotes the strategic approach known as Integrated Vector Management (IVM) to control mosquito vectors, including those of dengue.

IVM is defined as a ‘rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control.» The aims are to improve efficacy, cost effectiveness, ecological soundness and sustainability (further information on IVM available here).

Transmission control activities should target Ae. aegypti (or any of the other vectors depending on the evidence of transmission) in its immature (egg, larva, and pupa) and adult stages in the household and immediate vicinity. This includes other settings where human–vector contact occurs, such as schools, hospitals and workplaces.

Methods of vector control

Ae. aegypti uses a wide range of confined larval habitats, both man-made and natural.

Some man-made container habitats produce large numbers of adult mosquitoes, whereas others are less productive. Consequently, control efforts should target the habitats that are most productive and hence epidemiologically more important rather than all types of container, especially when there are major resource constraints.

Vector transmission is reduced through the use or combination of these three methods:

Individual and household protection

Self-initiative for source reduction in homes and community. See «Environmental management»

Clothing that minimizes skin exposure during daylight hours when mosquitoes are most active affords some protection from the bites of dengue vectors and is encouraged particularly during outbreaks.

Repellents may be applied to exposed skin or to clothing. The use of repellents must be in strict accordance with label instructions.

Insecticide-treated mosquito nets afford good protection for those who sleep during the day (e.g. infants, the bedridden and night-shift workers).

Where indoor biting occurs, household insecticide aerosol products, mosquito coils or other insecticide vaporizers may also reduce biting activity.

Household fixtures such as window and door screens and air-conditioning can also reduce biting.

Safe use of insecticides

All pesticides are toxic to some degree. Safety precautions for their use – including care in the handling of pesticides, safe work practices for those who apply them, and appropriate field application – should be followed.

WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) has published specific guidelines on use of insecticides, safety procedures, quality control and guidelines for testing.


Oak leaflet: methods of control and prevention

Building Regulations Part L1 A from October 2010

Implications for Post and Beam Framing

Published by: Carpenter Oak and Woodland

What Wood is That? A Manual of Wood Identification

Author: Herbert Edlin

Published by: Viking Press (1969 to 2000)

A respected guide to the identification of timber types (mostly used in furniture) containing illustrations and forty veneer samples. Some common UK species such as Yew and Holly are not featured.

Cleaning Historic Buildings

Volume 1 Substrates, Soiling and Investigation

Volume 2 Cleaning Materials and Processes

Vol 1, ISBN 1 873394 01 2 Vol 2 ISBN 1873394 11 X

Author: Nicola Ashurst

Published by: Donhead (1994)

A respected guide to the cleaning and the removal of paint from traditional materials in historic buildings. Includes stone metal and timber.

The Pattern of English Building

ISBN 0 571 13988 4

Author: Alec Clifton- Taylor

Published by: Faber and Faber (1962 to 1987)

A respected illustrated guide to regional materials and techniques found in historic buildings in England.

The Insect Factor in Wood Decay

Author: Norman Hickin

Published by: Hutchinson & Co (1963)

An illustrated introduction to the insects responsible for timber decay in the UK. Detailed information regarding insect identification, however, some techniques for the control of insect infestation may have been superseded.

Restoring Timber Framed Houses

ISBN 0 7153 8526 7

Author: David Swindells

Published by: David & Charles (1987)

An illustrated introduction to timber framed buildings and repair techniques. Some techniques such as those dealing with timber decay may have been superseded.

The International Book of Wood

ISBN 0- 85533- 081- 3

Published by: Mitchell Beazley from (1976 to 1992)

Colour illustrated reference book covering all aspects of wood and its uses from the anatomy of a tree and timber types to its processing and uses in architecture, engineering and cultural significance.

Panel Infillings to Timber- Framed Buildings

by Kenneth Reid
Publisher: SPAB

The Repair of Timber Frames and Roofs

by James Boutwood
Publisher: SPAB

This pamphlet is intended to provide architects, builders and surveyors with some simple information about the type of repairs which the Society believes should be used when working on the repair of timber framed buildings and roofs.

by Andrew Drew- Edwards and David Lodge
Publisher: SPAB

This pamphlet has been written to help all those who are involved in the care of historic timber bellframes to assess, repair and maintain them. It is not a comprehensive repair manual but a general introduction to the issues and principles involved.

Timber Treatment: defrassing and surface treatment

by Peter Locke
Publisher: SPAB

Two Information Sheets in one. Information Sheet 2 ‘Timber Treatment — A warning about the defrassing of timbers’ explains in a cautionary manner the advantages and more often the irreversible disadvantages of removing surface timber that has been degrade.

Timber Decay in Buildings: The Conservation Approach to Treatment

ISBN 0 419 18820 7
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Tackling issues relating to timber decay, this joint publication from Historic Scotland and English Heritage forms the basis of conservation methods advocated by both organisations.

Conservation of Timber Buildings

by Charles FWB
ISBN 1873394179
Publisher: Donhead Publishing

Structural types: rafter roofs, purlin roofs, post- and- truss, crucks, base- cruck. Timber: properties and effects of environment, oaks and other trees for building, decay of oak, use of unseasoned oak, size of trees, cruck trees, today’s trees.

Conservation of Historic Timber Structures: An Ecological Approach

Authors: Knut Einar Larsen and Nils Marstein

Published by: Butterworth Heinemann, 2000

ISBN 0 7506 3434 0

The Norwegians have been at the forefront of timber building conservation for some time, and this book sets out their approach to the subject as developed internationally through the ICOMOS International Wood Committee.

English Historic Carpentry

by Hewett CA
ISBN 850333547
Publisher: Phillimore & Co Ltd 1980

Timber Decay in Buildings: The Conservation Approach to Treatment

ISBN 0 419 18820 7
Author: Brian Ridout

Published by: E & FN Spon (2000)

Tackling issues relating to timber decay, this publication was jointly sponsored by Historic Scotland and English Heritage and forms the basis of conservation methods advocated by both organisations.

The Environmental Control of Dry Rot

ISBN 1 903570 6 11
Publisher: Historic Scotland

Through an understanding of the dry rot organism practitioners and building managers can control and treat outbreaks by environment- friendly means at lower cost, with reduced intervention and use of chemicals, while conserving the fabric.

Building and maintenance guide 15: Conserving historic timber in buildings

Publisher: London Borough of Islington
Area covered: London
Associated website: http://www.islington.gov.uk/

An introductory guide to the repair of historic timber

Preservation & repair of timber framed buildings

Publisher: Epsom and Ewell Borough Council
Area covered: South East
Associated website: http://www.epsom- ewell.gov.uk/

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A guide to the repair of timber framed building including identifying failures and the appropriate method of repairing them.

Is Timber Treatment Always Necessary?

by Richard Oxley
Pubisher: SPAB

The aim of this Information Sheet is to encourage the prevention and control of timber decay in old buildings by appropriate repair and regular maintenance and to provide a holistic “step by step” approach to avoid unnecessary chemical treatments.

P reservation & repair of timber framed buildings

Publisher: Surrey County Council
Area covered: South East
Associated website: http://www.surreycc.gov.uk/

Advisory Leaflet 2: An introduction to the appropriate repair methods and materials for timber framed buildings.

Publisher: Essex County Council
Area covered: East of England
Associated website: http://www.essexcc.gov.uk/

Advice on the maintenance, repair and conservation of timber cladding on traditional houses and service buildings.

Inform Guide — Timber Window Shutters

Conservation, repair and maintenance

Author: Historic Scotland, 2010

Traditional wooden window shutters have formed part of the fabric of many Scottish houses since the late 17th Century. This Inform Guide will highlight the benefits they bring.


Prevention — Lung cancer

If you smoke, the best way to prevent lung cancer and other serious conditions is to stop smoking as soon as possible.

However long you have been smoking, it’s always worth quitting. Every year you do not smoke decreases your risk of getting serious illnesses, such as lung cancer. After 10 years of not smoking, your chances of developing lung cancer falls to half that of someone who smokes.

NHS Smokefree can offer advice and support to help you quit smoking. You can call 0300 123 1044, or visit the website.

A GP or pharmacist can also give you advice about stopping smoking.

A balanced diet

Research suggests that eating a low-fat, high-fibre diet, including at least 5 portions a day of fresh fruit and vegetables and plenty of wholegrains, can reduce your risk of lung cancer, as well as other types of cancer and heart disease.

Find out more about a healthy diet.


There’s strong evidence to suggest that regular exercise can lower the risk of developing lung cancer and other types of cancer.

Most adults are recommended to do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, plus strength-training exercises on at least 2 days each week.

Page last reviewed: 15 August 2019
Next review due: 15 August 2022


Tuberculosis: the disease, its treatment and prevention

This leaflet gives information on the disease tuberculosis (TB), how it can be treated, and its prevention.


Tuberculosis: the disease, its treatment and prevention

Ref: PHE gateway number 2017738 PDF , 611KB , 12 pages

This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Request an accessible format.

If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.


This leaflet was updated in March 2016.

Health publications orderline

Health and Social Care Publications
PO Box 777

Telephone: 0300 123 1002

Copies of printed publications and the full range of digital resources to support the immunisation programmes can now be ordered and downloaded online. Login to register and place your order.

Updated leaflet on the treatment and prevention of TB.

14 October 2014

The contact details for the tuberculosis (TB) leaflet has been updated.


Transmission-Based Precautions

Transmission-Based Precautions are the second tier of basic infection control and are to be used in addition to Standard Precautions for patients who may be infected or colonized with certain infectious agents for which additional precautions are needed to prevent infection transmission.
Source: Guideline for Isolation Precautions

Use Contact Precautions for patients with known or suspected infections that represent an increased risk for contact transmission.

  • Ensure appropriate patient placement in a single patient space or room if available in acute care hospitals. In long-term and other residential settings, make room placement decisions balancing risks to other patients. In ambulatory settings, place patients requiring contact precautions in an exam room or cubicle as soon as possible.
  • Use personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriately, including gloves and gown. Wear a gown and gloves for all interactions that may involve contact with the patient or the patient’s environment. Donning PPE upon room entry and properly discarding before exiting the patient room is done to contain pathogens.
  • Limit transport and movement of patients outside of the room to medically-necessary purposes. When transport or movement is necessary, cover or contain the infected or colonized areas of the patient’s body. Remove and dispose of contaminated PPE and perform hand hygiene prior to transporting patients on Contact Precautions. Don clean PPE to handle the patient at the transport location.
  • Use disposable or dedicated patient-care equipment (e.g., blood pressure cuffs). If common use of equipment for multiple patients is unavoidable, clean and disinfect such equipment before use on another patient.
  • Prioritize cleaning and disinfection of the rooms of patients on contact precautions ensuring rooms are frequently cleaned and disinfected (e.g., at least daily or prior to use by another patient if outpatient setting) focusing on frequently-touched surfaces and equipment in the immediate vicinity of the patient.

Use Droplet Precautions for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by respiratory droplets that are generated by a patient who is coughing, sneezing, or talking.

  • Source control: put a mask on the patient.
  • Ensure appropriate patient placement in a single room if possible. In acute care hospitals, if single rooms are not available, utilize the recommendations for alternative patient placement considerations in the Guideline for Isolation Precautions. In long-term care and other residential settings, make decisions regarding patient placement on a case-by-case basis considering infection risks to other patients in the room and available alternatives. In ambulatory settings, place patients who require Droplet Precautions in an exam room or cubicle as soon as possible and instruct patients to follow Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette recommendations.
  • Use personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriately. Don mask upon entry into the patient room or patient space.
  • Limit transport and movement of patients outside of the room to medically-necessary purposes. If transport or movement outside of the room is necessary, instruct patient to wear a mask and follow Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette.

Use Airborne Precautions for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by the airborne route (e.g., tuberculosis, measles, chickenpox, disseminated herpes zoster).

  • Source control: put a mask on the patient.
  • Ensure appropriate patient placement in an airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) constructed according to the Guideline for Isolation Precautions. In settings where Airborne Precautions cannot be implemented due to limited engineering resources, masking the patient and placing the patient in a private room with the door closed will reduce the likelihood of airborne transmission until the patient is either transferred to a facility with an AIIR or returned home.
  • Restrict susceptible healthcare personnel from entering the room of patients known or suspected to have measles, chickenpox, disseminated zoster, or smallpox if other immune healthcare personnel are available.
  • Use personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriately, including a fit-tested NIOSH-approved N95 or higher level respirator for healthcare personnel.
  • Limit transport and movement of patients outside of the room to medically-necessary purposes. If transport or movement outside an AIIR is necessary, instruct patients to wear a surgical mask, if possible, and observe Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette. Healthcare personnel transporting patients who are on Airborne Precautions do not need to wear a mask or respirator during transport if the patient is wearing a mask and infectious skin lesions are covered.
  • Immunize susceptible persons as soon as possible following unprotected contact with vaccine-preventable infections (e.g., measles, varicella or smallpox).

The following are examples of signs for Contact, Droplet, and Airborne Precautions that can be posted outside patient rooms.

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Accidents and their Prevention

Dr Hayley Willacy, Reviewed by Dr Colin Tidy | Last edited 28 May 2019 | Certified by The Information Standard

Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our health articles more useful.

Accidents and their Prevention

In this article

Accidents are a major cause of death and disability. About 14,000 people die in the UK, most of them in England and more than 700,000 will be seriously injured in England alone [1] . They cost the UK an estimated £150 billion every year. For children and young people, accidents are the greatest threat to life.

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Three published guidance documents from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) outline recommendations for all those with a strategic role to play in injury prevention, including clinical commissioning groups (CCGs), local authorities and their partners [2, 3, 4] .

There is currently no requirement for primary healthcare teams to undergo training in unintentional injury prevention.

Concepts in accident prevention

  • Primary prevention: removal of circumstances causing injury — eg, traffic speed reduction, fitting stair gates for young children, reducing alcohol consumption.
  • Secondary prevention: reduces severity of injury should an accident occur — eg, use child safety car seats, bicycle helmets, smoke alarms.
  • Tertiary prevention: optimal treatment and rehabilitation following injuries — eg, effective first aid, appropriate hospital care.

Role of clinicians in accident prevention

Clinical roles for health professionals in accident prevention
These include:

  • Advice to patients: health workers are well placed to identify accident risks or medical conditions conferring risk and to advise accordingly — for example:
    • Child accident prevention:
      • Identify hazards (on home visits or if treatment sought for accidental injury).
      • Advise about prevention — eg, stair gates, keeping chemicals out of reach, etc .
    • Patients with medical conditions :
      • Identify and treat accident-causing conditions — eg, obstructive sleep apnoea, visual or balance disorders.
      • Give appropriate advice on fitness to drive.
      • Advise patients on how to minimise accident risks from their medical condition.
  • Identify unacceptable risks and intervene where appropriate — for example:
    • Identify vulnerable children and adults with recurrent injuries or at high risk. This includes those who are experiencing neglect and may require child protection procedures .
    • Consider reporting to the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) patients who fail to comply with medical driving regulations, if they are a serious risk to the public.
  • Accident surveillance: health professionals and their organisations can monitor injury rates and report preventable accidents. NICE recommends establishing local protocols to alert health visitors, school nurses and GPs when a child or young person repeatedly needs treatment for unintentional injuries at an emergency department or minor injuries unit [2] . On a national basis, NICE recommends ensuring that all hospital trusts are made aware of the data collection requirements for the universal and mandatory A&E (minimum) commissioning dataset.

Non-clinical interventions
These include :

  • Advocacy and policy making.
  • Collaboration with other agencies.
  • Promoting accident prevention education and training.
  • Research.

How effective are interventions by health professionals?

Research into child safety practices suggests that safety advice for families can be effective. Reviews have found that:

  • Home safety education (usually given in a face-to-face setting), particularly with the provision of safety equipment, is effective in increasing safety practices [5] .
  • Parenting interventions (usually home-based) may be effective in preventing childhood injury [6] .

Accident prevention advice

This section is intended to outline the major causes of accidents in the UK and to give health professionals some knowledge of how these can be prevented. Advice tips can be found under headings ‘Safety advice for carers of young children’, ‘Home accident prevention’ and ‘Road accident prevention advice’, below.

Specific medical conditions

Doctors are well placed to advise patients on accident risks relevant to their medical problems. For example:

  • Sleep disorders:
    • These may be under-recognised and underdiagnosed.
    • Tools such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and expertise such as sleep disorder clinics are valuable.
  • Diabetes:
    • Hypoglycaemia is an important cause of driving errors.
    • People with diabetes at highest risk are those with a history of mismanagement of hypoglycemia, lower limb neuropathy or greater exposure, ie high-volume driving.
  • Epilepsy:
    • People with poorly controlled epilepsy can be advised how to minimise their risks of injury during a seizure — eg, take a shower instead of a bath, do not iron when alone and other tips. Identified risk factors for injuries include the number of anti-epileptic drugs, history of generalised seizures and seizure frequency.
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):
    • ADHD has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of serious transport accidents.

Accidents and children [7]

Accidents are one of the main causes of death among children aged 1-5 years. About 100,000 children are admitted to hospital annually in the UK and 2 million attend emergency departments. In a typical CCG with a population of 100,000, this equates to approximately 3,300 emergency department visits and 200 hospital admissions for child injuries .

For health workers, important points when advising on child accident prevention are:

  • Offer practical advice, not just general education — eg, advise about car seats or home safety equipment.
  • Use an evidence-based approach where possible and dispel myths — eg, some parents wrongly believe that cooker guards and baby walkers are safe.
  • Promoting safety does not require overprotection (‘wrapping children in cotton wool’) — this would delay development and increase the risk of obesity.
  • Promote sensible precautions in line with the child’s level of development.

Safety advice for carers of young children

Elderly or disabled people and accident prevention

Frailty and health problems make the elderly, particularly those over the age of 75 years, at increased risk of accidents, usually occurring in the home. Falls are the most common cause. Inability to get up after falling puts the person at risk of hypothermia and pressure sores. Hip fractures after falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality.

NICE and Clinical Knowledge Summaries (NICE CKS) have issued guidelines on the assessment and prevention of falls in older people [8] . They state that older people should be asked routinely if they have fallen in the previous year. Those who have fallen, or those considered at risk of falling, should have a multifactorial falls risk assessment and should be considered for interventions, including those to improve their strength and balance, and removal of any home hazards.

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Environmental interventions have a role in safety for disabled or elderly people living at home — this has led to the concept of ‘smart homes’, which incorporate alarm or monitoring devices and other safety features . However, safety for those needing home care has many aspects; this includes not only physical safety but social and emotional well-being .

Accidents in the home

In the UK annually, home accidents cause almost 5,000 deaths and 2.7 million A&E department attendances .

Home accident prevention [9]

See also ‘Safety advice for carers of young children’, above.

Fire and electrical safety

  • Fit smoke detectors on every floor and renew batteries regularly.
  • Plan your fire escape route.
  • Use fireguards.
  • Keep portable heaters and candles away from furniture, clothes and curtains.
  • Fat friers and ‘chip pans’ are a serious fire risk. If there is a chip pan fire, turn off the heat (if safe to do so) and call 999/112/911. Do not move the pan and do not pour water on it (this can cause a fireball) .
  • Do not overload circuits, including using multiple adapters in sockets.
  • Have your wiring checked regularly.
  • Do not use equipment with cracked plugs or worn cables.
  • Always ensure electrical equipment that you buy has been safety tested.
  • Do not touch electrical equipment with wet hands and do not take it into the bathroom.
  • Do not smoke in bed.
  • Keep matches and lighters away from children.
  • Outdoors, use a residual current device (RCD) with electrical power tools.
  • Keep bonfires and barbecues away from buildings, fences and trees and ensure children are supervised.

Heating and cooking

  • Never block air vents. Service heating appliances and sweep chimneys annually.
  • Be alert to the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning (drowsiness and flu symptoms).
  • When cooking, use the back rings of the cooker; turn the handles of pots and pans inwards on the cooker so that they can be less easily grasped by small children.

Medicines and cleaning fluids

  • Always ensure containers are clearly labelled and out of children’s reach.

Other measures

  • Stairs should have banisters or rails.
  • Avoid loose rugs and flooring. Clean up spills to avoid slipping.
  • Only climb up on something firm and strong.
  • When using power tools, use adequate protection including gloves, goggles and sturdy shoes.
  • Improve lighting in halls and stairways.
  • With DIY, always work within your ability, follow instructions, check equipment and keep tools and chemicals away from children.

Road accidents [10]

In terms of numbers of people killed or injured, this is an important area for accident prevention in the UK and worldwide. Although the figures are still high, statistics for Great Britain suggest that the situation is gradually improving. For the year ending June 2018 [11] :

  • 1,770 reported road deaths.
  • 26,610 people killed or seriously injured.
  • 165,100 casualties of all severities, a decrease of 6%.

Common causes of these accidents included speeding, drink driving, not wearing seat belts or careless driving. Around a third involved someone driving during their work. About 10% of those killed were inexperienced drivers.

Driving speed
Higher speed both increases the risk of collision and the risk of serious injury to the driver or others. Even a modest speed reduction helps reduce both the number and the severity of accidents — eg, pedestrians hit at speeds below 30 mph receive mainly survivable injuries but this changes to mainly fatal injuries at speeds of between about 30 mph and 40 mph.

Medical conditions that affect driving
The DVLA issues guidance and regulations with regard to medical conditions that impair safe driving. See ‘At a glance fitness to drive’.

Excessive sleepiness

  • 20% of accidents on motorways in the UK are caused by sleepiness and >300 people per year are killed by drivers falling asleep while driving. Sleepy drivers perform worse on tests than those over the alcohol limit.
  • Increased awareness of sleep disorders and their treatment is needed, by both the public and by doctors.

Car seats and seat belts
The value of seat belts is indisputable. In most vehicles, it is now compulsory for everyone to wear a seat belt, or appropriate child restraint, if available, in the front and back. It is the driver’s responsibility to ensure that passengers are correctly restrained.

Alcohol and drugs
Alcohol impairs judgement, reaction times, co-ordination and concentration. Statistics from the Department for Transport (DfT) show that in 2016 an estimated 9,040 people were killed or injured in drink-drive accidents, a rise of 7% from 8,470 in 2015 [12] . The total number of accidents where at least one driver or rider was over the legal alcohol limit rose by 6% to 6,070 in 2016. The final estimate of drink-drive fatalities of 230 for 2016 is higher than in 2015, but the rise was reported as not statistically significant and fatalities appear stable since 2012.

Legal limits for driving with alcohol in the UK are :

  • 35 μg alcohol per 100 ml of breath; or
  • 80 mg of alcohol per 100 ml of blood; or
  • 107 milligrams per 100 ml of urine

However, most drivers are impaired at a blood alcohol level of 50 mg/100 ml. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) has called for the legal alcohol limit to be reduced to 50 mg/100 ml blood, as it is in many other countries.

It is difficult for drinkers to know how much alcohol they are consuming, as strength of drinks and size of measures vary considerably. Also, the speed of absorption into the body varies with a person’s size, age, weight and gender and whether they have eaten.The same amount of alcohol will give different blood alcohol levels in different people. Therefore, the best advice is not to drink when driving.

Drivers may also be impaired due to the use of drugs, both illicit and prescribed. Any drugs that cause sedation are a problem, including many antihistamines and antidepressants.

Mobile phones and driving
Research has shown that using hand-held or hands-free mobile phones whilst driving increases the risk of drivers crashing, injuring or killing themselves and/or other people, by four times . It is an offence for drivers to use a hand-held mobile phone whilst driving .

Motorcyclists and cyclists
Motorcyclists are extremely vulnerable — despite forming only 1% of road traffic, they account for 20% (one in five) of road deaths and serious injuries. Information on preventing accidents for motorcyclists is available on the RoSPA website.

6,000 UK cyclists are killed or injured annually in reported road accidents, including around 2,500 who are killed or seriously injured. Research has shown that bicycle helmet use is associated with reduced odds of head injury, serious head injury, facial injury and fatal head injury [13] . The reduction is greater for serious or fatal head injury. Further is available on the RoSPA website; safety tips for cyclists are also available .

Road accident prevention advice

Sports, water and leisure safety

The RoSPA website has information on safety in different sports, activities, environmental hazards and holiday leisure pursuits.

Safety in the workplace

Information and ‘safety packs’ for employers are available from the Heath and Safety Executive [14] . Workplace safety is important. In the UK, there are 600,000 workplace injuries annually and 1.2 million cases of ill health caused or exacerbated by work. Small businesses (employing Start now

Further reading and references

American Academy of Pediatricians ; Promoting Safety and Injury Prevention — Bright Futures


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