What are the medical benefits of cannabinoids?

What are the medical benefits of cannabinoids?

Contents

Cannabinoids — the active chemicals in medical marijuana — are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Research suggests cannabinoids might:

  • Reduce anxiety
  • Reduce inflammation and relieve pain
  • Control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy
  • Kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth
  • Relax tight muscles in people with multiple sclerosis
  • Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

From: Medical Marijuana FAQ WebMD Medical Reference

Reviewed by Neil Lava on December 15, 2018

Marcel Bonn-Miller, PhD, adjunct assistant professor, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

National Conference of State Legislatures: «State Medical Marijuana Laws.»

National Institute on Drug Abuse: «Drug Facts: Is Marijuana Medicine?» «Is Marijuana Addictive?»

Drug Enforcement Administration: «Drug Schedules.»

Department of Health and Human Services.

Kaur, R. , April 2016. Current Clinical Pharmacology

PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board: «Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ).»

Schrot, R. , May 2016. Annals of Medicine

Epilepsy Foundation: «Learn About Medical Marijuana and Epilepsy.»

News release, Ohio Gov. John Kasich’s office.

News release, Insys Therapeutics, Inc.

For Marijuana Map:

Governing.com: “State Marijuana Laws Map.”

NCSL: “State Medical Marijuana Laws.”

Marcel Bonn-Miller, PhD, adjunct assistant professor, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

National Conference of State Legislatures: «State Medical Marijuana Laws.»

National Institute on Drug Abuse: «Drug Facts: Is Marijuana Medicine?» «Is Marijuana Addictive?»

Drug Enforcement Administration: «Drug Schedules.»

Department of Health and Human Services.

Kaur, R. , April 2016. Current Clinical Pharmacology

PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board: «Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ).»

Schrot, R. , May 2016. Annals of Medicine

Epilepsy Foundation: «Learn About Medical Marijuana and Epilepsy.»

News release, Ohio Gov. John Kasich’s office.

www.webmd.com

Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom

Introduction

The Common Travel Area (CTA) is the commonly used term for a variety of rights which can be exercised by citizens of Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK). It includes more than the basic right to travel freely between both countries.

When the Common Travel Area arrangement began 1922, it was not contained in any legislation. It was an understanding between Ireland and the UK based on their common history and the difficulties applying immigration controls because of the shared border. Over time, some of the rights came to be included in different pieces of legislation in both Ireland and the UK.

While the Common Travel Area is recognised under the Treaty of Amsterdam, it is not dependant on the European Union and the continuing membership of both countries.

On 8 May 2019, the Irish and UK governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding (pdf) reaffirming the Common Travel Area and identifying the rights and privileges of Irish and UK citizens within the CTA. It also reaffirms the commitment to maintain the CTA following Brexit (pdf).

The Common Travel Area does not relate to goods or customs issues. The movement of goods, the absence of customs posts on the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland, and the absence of customs duties between the UK and Ireland will continue during the transition period (this is the period from 1 February 2020 to 31 December 2020). Beyond that, the future trade and customs arrangements between the EU (including Ireland) and the UK will depend on the outcome of negotiations between the UK and the EU that will take place this year.

Your rights within the Common Travel Area

Common Travel Area rights can only be exercised by citizens of Ireland and the UK. If you are not a citizen of Ireland or the UK, you will not be able to exercise Common Travel Area rights.

The UK, for the purposes of the Common Travel Area, covers England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

Irish and UK citizens have the right to live, travel, work and study within the Common Travel Area.

Irish and UK citizens can live in either country and enjoy associated rights and privileges, including:

  • Access to social benefits
  • Access to healthcare
  • Access to social housing supports
  • The right to vote in certain elections

Border Control and the Common Travel Area

There are no passport controls in operation for Irish and UK citizens travelling between the 2 countries. You do not need to have a passport to enter the other country. However, all air and sea carriers require some form of identification and some regard a passport as the only valid identification. Immigration authorities may also require you to have valid official photo-identification which shows your nationality. As you are being asked to prove that you are an Irish or UK citizen who is entitled to avail of the Common Travel Area arrangements, it is advisable to travel with your passport.

The Common Travel Area also involves some co-operation on matters relating to immigration issues. A third country national, for example, may be refused permission to enter Ireland if they intend to travel onwards to the UK and they would not qualify for admission to the UK under the Aliens (Amendment) Order 1975. Irish immigration officers have the power to carry out checks on people arriving in the State from the UK and to refuse them entry to the State on the same grounds as apply to people arriving from outside the Common Travel Area. These checks are carried out selectively.

In December 2011, the Irish and UK governments agreed measures to secure the external Common Travel Area border. This includes exchanging biographic and biometric visa data and co-operating on information about failed asylum seekers. There is a joint UK-Ireland Common Travel Area Forum which implements these measures.

People with UK visas or residence permits

If you are a citizen of a country whose nationals need a visa to enter Ireland and you have a valid UK visa or residence permit, you may be required to have a visa to enter Ireland before you arrive in Ireland. The Short Stay Visa Waiver Programme allows nationals of a number of Eastern European, Middle East and Asian countries who have a short-term UK visa to come to Ireland without the need for a separate Irish visa. This programme has been extended to 31 October 2021.

Reciprocal visa arrangements: A British Irish Visa Scheme applies to visitors from China since 20 October 2014 and to visitors from India since 9 February 2015. This scheme allows visitors from these countries to travel freely within the Common Travel Area (in this case, Ireland and the UK but not the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man), using either an Irish or UK visa.

You can get further information about visa applications in our document, Visa requirements for entering Ireland, or from Irish embassies and consulates abroad.

Brexit and the Common Travel Area

The UK’s withdrawal from the European Union (EU) will not affect the rights of Irish citizens and UK citizens within the Common Travel Area. The right to live, work and access public services in the Common Travel Area will be protected, regardless of the outcome of the Brexit negotiations.

The Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Consequential Provisions) Act 2019 places many of the Common Travel Area rights in legislation for the first time, particularly in the event of a no-deal Brexit. The Act empowers the relevant ministers to legislate in the areas of providing equal access to healthcare and social welfare.

The withdrawal agreement between the UK and the European Union recognises the Common Travel Area in its Protocol, which deals with Ireland and Northern Ireland. Article 2 provides for the continued operation of the Common Travel Area.

You can read more about the UK leaving the EU in our document What is Brexit?, on our website.

www.citizensinformation.ie

Zhurachka fly — harm or benefit on the site?

companies and institutions place their trust in us

See also:  How to Get Bed Bugs Out of Your Hair

sports and recreation facilities work with us

users enjoy the benefits offered by the programme

number of towns and cities throughout Poland where partner facilities are available

Activities available
within the MultiSport programme

Compare products

Facilities

User instructions* Services offered by sports facilities may be used multiple times a day

>4600 Access to sports facilities throughout Poland

User instructions* Services offered by sports facilities may be used once a day

>2500 Access to sports facilities throughout Poland

User instructions* Use the card in accordance with the number of entries on the card, no more than once a day

>2400 Access to sports facilities throughout Poland

User instructions* Services offered by sports facilities may be used once a day until 4:00 p.m.

>2800 Access to sports facilities throughout Poland

* Important! Please review the offer details of a given facility available through our search engine
Participant may only use one MS card.

Facilities

MultiSport Plus Kids

Services offered by sports facilities may be used multiple times a day

MultiSport Classic Kids

Services offered by sports facilities may be used once a day

Use the card in accordance with the number of entries on the card, no more than once a day

Services offered by sports facilities may be used multiple times a day

MultiSport Classic Dziecko

Services offered by sports facilities may be used once a day

Use the card in accordance with the number of entries on the card, no more than once a day

Search engine

Select location or find a facility close to you.

Frequently asked questions

What is the MultiSport Senior card?

MultiSport Senior is a sports card, designed for people over 60 years of age. It entitles you to use sports facilities throughout Poland, once a day, in the hours before 4:00 p.m.

What activities can I participate in as a MultiSport Senior card holder?

Visit www.kartamultisport.pl/en/objects for a list of all the activities and services that are available to you as a MultiSport card holder.

How can I order the MultiSport Senior card?

If you have the MultiSport or MultiActive card of the “Employee” type, you can order the MultiSport Senior card through the HR Department of your company or the eMultiSport 2 platform (depending on the method of ordering cards selected by the employer).

How much does the MultiSport Senior card cost?

The price of the card is about PLN 49 per month. The price is individually determined with the employer – if you want to see the price list in your company, contact the HR Department.

How many MultiSport Senior cards can I order?

If you have a MultiSport Plus, MultiSport Classic or a MultiActive card of the “Employee” type, you can order 2 MultiSport Senior cards. Holders of cards of the “Kids” or “Accompanying Person” types are not eligible to purchase a MultiSport Senior card.

In which cities can I use the MultiSport Senior card?

You can use the MultiSport Senior card in sports facilities across Poland. The cities where the service is currently offered can be found at www.kartamultisport.pl/wyszukiwarka

I have selected the activities I am interested in. How can I use the services?

To take part in the activities available to MultiSport Senior card holders, visit a sports facility of your choice. Remember to bring the card and an identity document; you should present them at the reception desk.

Can I give my MultiSport Senior card to another person?

The MultiSport Senior card is issued to a specific person and cannot be transferred to others.

How many times per day can I use my MultiSport Senior card to participate in activities?

With the MultiSport Senior card you can join an activity once a day, before 4:00 p.m., seven days a week.

How to acquire an MS Plus card? How much does it cost?

The MultiSport Plus scheme is addressed to companies with at least five (5) employees.

The unit cost of the card depends on the number of employees joining the scheme and the financing method for the MultiSport scheme.

We do not sell MultiSport cards to individuals.

How can I check if my card is active? Can I check it on your website over the Internet?

Regarding this please contact your employer’s HR department or our Helpline: +48 22 242 42 42. If you received a new card, you can check when it will be activated on www.kartamultisport.pl.

How is the MS Kid-type card different from the MS card of the accompanying person?

The card for the accompanying person provides access to the full range of partner services (it works the same as the “Employee” type card).

The MS card with the Kid wording is only a swimming pool card, designated for children under 15 years of age.

We also offer a different kind of card for children up to the age of 15 – the MS Kids card. This card provides a wider range of services:

  • martial arts
  • swimming pool
  • summer swimming pool
  • dance classes
  • salt chamber
  • ice rink
  • climbing wall
  • rope parks

Please enquire whether it is possible to order the Kids-type card at your employer’s HR Department.

How often can I use a MultiSport card?

The use of a partner’s services depends on the type of card held.

The MultiSport Plus card provides unlimited access to services and it is therefore possible to use the services several times a day, e.g. in the morning and evening.

The MS Classic card entitles you to enter the facility of the partner once (1) a day (thirty [30] visits per month).

The MS Active card is six (6), eight (8) or ten (10) entries per month (depending on the agreement), where the card may be used once (1) a day.

I have lost my MS Plus card. What do I need to do in this situation?

Please report the loss of your card to your employer’s HR department.

If the card was ordered and paid for via the online platform, please order a replacement card through it.

You will receive a new card within three (3) to five (5) working days from the date of notification.

How can I resign from the scheme?

If the MS scheme is handled by an HR Department, the resignation must be reported to the company. However, if the cardholder has access to the e-MultiSport platform, he/she should initiate the deactivation of the card via this platform within the prescribed time.

What is an identity document?

It is a document based on which a user’s identity can be established. It should contain the user’s name and photo, and be issued by a public administration body (e.g. ID card, passport, residence card, driver’s license), professional association authority (official identity card), or primary, secondary or post-secondary school (student ID card).
Employee ID badges are not considered identity documents.

What type of document is required for a a child up to 7 years of age (without duty to attend school)?

It is not required to present any additional documents for a child up to 7 years of age (without duty to attend school) holding a dedicated MultiSport card – only a personal membership card is required.

What if I change my name or lose the documents?

A photo ID is required to confirm the identity, so a duplicate identity document must be presented with the card.

When will I receive my duplicate card?

A duplicate MultiSport card is sent within five business days.

www.benefitsystems.pl

Entomology Today

Brought to you by the Entomological Society of America

Stink Bugs May be Good for Something After All

The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has been annoying homeowners and fruit and vegetable growers for years, ever since it made its way to North America from Asia in 1998, where it was fist spotted in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Since then it’s been spotted in at least 36 other states. Although they cause no harm to people or buildings, their invasions have inspired serious animosity and even creativity, such as this rock video by Frankentractor and Friends (below), or this humorous video on how to control them by Mike Raupp, “The Bug Guy” from the University of Maryland (also below).

But now there’s evidence that these pesky stinkers might actually be good for something. According to an article published this year in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Mike Raupp and colleagues conclude that they may actually help feed some wasps and ants by wounding plants, which then leak sap that the wasps and ants can feed on.

In the article “Invasive Stink Bug Wounds Trees, Liberates Sugars, and Facilitates Native Hymenoptera,” the authors report observing stink bugs feeding through the bark of trees and noticing several species of wasps and ants at the feeding sites, which led them to deduce that they were feeding on the sap from the wounded trees.

“The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, H. halys, is economically damaging and has the potential to introduce disease to woody trees as it feeds,” they write. “Resources made available by its feeding, however, directly increase the carbohydrate resources available to insects that are known to provide important ecological services, including biological control of pests and the pollination of plants. H. halys may therefore have an indirect positive role in invaded ecosystems, in addition to its direct negative effect on plants.”

This study shows how truly complex ecosystems can be, and how even damaging invasive species like the BMSB can be beneficial to useful pollinators or insects that attack other insects such as wasps. Don’t get me wrong, I still think these suckers stink, but maybe not as much as I once did.

Richard Levine is Communications Program Manager at the Entomological Society of America and editor of the Entomology Today Blog.

entomologytoday.org

Entomology Today

Brought to you by the Entomological Society of America

Insect-Based Chicken Feed Can Benefit Farmers and Environment

Larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), pictured here in its adult stage, can make for an effective source of protein in animal feed. A new study in Kenya finds an improved cost-benefit ratio and return on investment for chicken farmers using fly meal compared to soybean- or fish-based feed. (Photo credit: Johnny N. Dell, Bugwood.org)

See also:  DIY Strategies For Ridding The Home Of Gross Flies

By Meredith Swett Walker

Chickens of yore foraged for most of their own food, hunting and pecking around the farm and eating plenty of insects—which provided protein—as well as spilled grain and kitchen scraps. Now that most chickens are raised on larger, specialized farms, insects are not a big part of their diet. They are fed commercial chicken feed, which typically contains protein derived from soybeans or fish. These days, the only chickens that get to eat insects are pricey free-range birds or pampered backyard hens.

Meredith Swett Walker

But that could change. In a study published in May in the Journal of Economic Entomology, Victor Ogeto Onsongo and colleagues examine whether fly larvae could replace soybeans or fish meal as a protein source in commercial poultry feed. This research was conducted at the Poultry Research Unit of the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, with colleagues from the University of Nairobi, the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi, Kenyatta University, as well as Makerere University.

As human populations increase, so does our demand for meat, including poultry. This increases demand for soybeans and fish meal to produce poultry feed. But many countries, including Kenya, do not produce enough soybeans and must import them. And demand for fish meal has led to overfishing in Lake Victoria and other areas. Poultry feed is costly to farmers as well as the environment. Feed accounts for about 60-70 percent of production costs for some poultry producers.

Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) could provide a solution. The larvae are a more environmentally friendly source of protein, as they can be raised on various organic waste materials and require less water than soybeans. The larvae’s waste, or frass, can be used as an organic fertilizer. And black soldier flies don’t bite or transmit disease.

They’re good for chickens and farmers, too. Insects have a more nutritious amino acid composition than soybeans, and the chitin in their exoskeletons may help support the immune system. And, using insect meal in poultry feed may help reduce its cost.

Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) can be raised on various organic waste materials and require less water than soybeans. The larvae’s waste, or frass, can be used as an organic fertilizer. And black soldier flies don’t bite or transmit disease.
And, when used for animal feed, insects have a more nutritious amino acid composition than soybeans. (Public domain image)

Onsongo and colleagues raised chicks from one day old to butchering age on conventional starter and finisher feeds as well as feeds containing three different amounts of meal made from black soldier fly prepupae. Nutritional composition of the fly meal was analyzed. Birds’ body weight and feed intake was monitored to calculate the feed conversion ratio, a measure of how efficiently feed is converted into meat.

At the end of the experiment, chickens were humanely butchered and cuts of meat and internal organs were weighed and measured. Samples of the meat were cooked and tasted by volunteers to determine if consuming fly meal affected flavor of the chicken. Researchers also performed a cost-benefit analysis and calculated return on investment to compare conventional feed with feed containing fly meal.

The researchers found that replacing soy or fish meal in poultry feed with fly meal (up to 42 percent in the starter diet and 55 percent in the finisher diet) did not have any adverse effects on weight gain, body composition, or flavor of chickens. But it did reduce the cost of feed and improved the cost-benefit ratio by 16 percent and the return on investment by 25 percent.

Incorporating black soldier fly larvae into feed has the potential to reduce the environmental costs of poultry production as well as help farmers by reducing feed prices. Unfortunately, there is very little fly meal commercially available in East Africa. This research could help convince poultry feed manufacturers to use black soldier fly meal as a protein source. If a market for the insects opens up, commercial production of black soldier flies could create jobs as well as environmental benefits in Kenya and other countries.

Read More

Journal of Economic Entomology

entomologytoday.org

Making barring referrals to the DBS

Disclosure and Barring service (DBS) guidance about making referrals. Also includes information about relevant offences.

Introduction

Advice about when employers and volunteer managers can make a barring referral to the Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS).

This guide is not legal advice and doesn’t cover all aspects or examples of harm, referrals and barring. If you need legal assistance, you should speak with a legal advisor.

What is a referral?

A referral is information about a person. It tells us of concerns that an individual may have harmed a child or vulnerable adult, or put a child or vulnerable adult at risk of harm.

The referral duty doesn’t apply to family or personal arrangements, parents or members of the public. If a parent or member of the public has a safeguarding concern, they should contact the police, social services or the person’s employer.

These agencies can then investigate the allegation and if appropriate make a referral to the DBS.

When a person has been referred, DBS consider if they need to be added to a barred list(s).

You can look at the referral flowchart to help you decide if you need to make a referral.

Who can make a referral?

Under legislation, the following can make referrals to the DBS:

  • local authorities
  • education authority in Northern Ireland
  • health and social care bodies in Northern Ireland
  • keepers of register in England, Wales or Northern Ireland
  • supervisory authorities in England, Wales or Northern Ireland
  • and

The power to refer happens when an organisation is not acting as a regulated activity provider. This will usually be when the organisation is undertaking their safeguarding role.

The power to refer can be used when an organisation thinks a person has either:

  • harmed or poses a risk of harm to a child or vulnerable adult
  • has satisfied the harm test; or
  • has received a caution or conviction for a relevant offence and;
  • the person they’re referring is, has or might in future be working in regulated activity and;
  • the DBS may consider it appropriate for the person to be added to a barred list

Information about regulated activity

Guidance about regulated activity with children and regulated activity with adults is available from the Department for Education and the Department of Health and Social Care.

DBS have also produced some leaflets explaining regulated activity with children and adults.

Who has a legal duty to refer?

Regulated activity providers (employers or volunteer managers of people working in regulated activity in England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and personnel suppliers have a legal duty to refer to DBS where conditions are met. This applies even when a referral has also been made to a local authority safeguarding team or professional regulator.

A personnel supplier may be an employment agency, employment business or an educational institution and are described as:

  • an employment agency that makes arrangements to either find a work-seeker employment with a hirer or to supply him to a hirer to employ
  • an employment business that engages a work-seeker and supplies him to a hirer to work under a hirer’s control
  • an educational institution if it makes arrangements to supply a student following a course at the institution to a regulated activity provider such as a school.

Legal duty to refer: the two conditions that must be met

If you are a regulated activity provider or fall within the category of personnel supplier, you must make a referral when both of the following conditions have been met:

Condition 1

  • you withdraw permission for a person to engage in regulated activity with children and/or vulnerable adults. Or you move the person to another area of work that isn’t regulated activity.

This includes situations when you would have taken the above action, but the person was re-deployed, resigned, retired, or left. For example, a teacher resigns when an allegation of harm to a student is first made.

Condition 2

You think the person has carried out 1 of the following:

  • engaged in relevant conduct in relation to children and/or adults. An action or inaction has harmed a child or vulnerable adult or put them at risk or harm or;
  • satisfied the harm test in relation to children and / or vulnerable adults. eg there has been no relevant conduct but a risk of harm to a child or vulnerable still exists.or
  • been cautioned or convicted of a relevant (automatic barring either with or without the right to make representations ) offence

Relevant conduct in relation to children

A child is a person under 18 years of age.

Relevant conduct is:

  • endangers a child or is likely to endanger a child
  • if repeated against or in relation to a child would endanger the child or be likely to endanger the child
  • involves sexual material relating to children (including possession of such material)
  • involves sexually explicit images depicting violence against human beings (including possession of such images)
  • is of a sexual nature involving a child

A person’s conduct endangers a child if they:

  • harm a child
  • cause a child to be harmed
  • put a child at risk of harm
  • attempt to harm a child
  • incite another to harm a child
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Relevant conduct in relation to adults:

A vulnerable adult is a person aged 18 years or over who is being provided with, or getting a service or assistance which is classed as regulated activity for adults.

Relevant conduct is:

  • endangers a vulnerable adult or is likely to endanger a vulnerable adult
  • if repeated against or in relation to a vulnerable adult would endanger the vulnerable adult or be likely to endanger the vulnerable adult
  • involves sexual material relating to children (including possession of such material)
  • involves sexually explicit images depicting violence against human beings (including possession of such images)
  • is of a sexual nature involving a vulnerable adult

A person’s conduct endangers a vulnerable adult if they:

  • harm a vulnerable adult
  • cause a vulnerable adult to be harmed
  • put a vulnerable adult at risk of harm
  • attempt to harm a vulnerable adult
  • incite another to harm a vulnerable adult

A person satisfies the harm test if they may:

  • harm a vulnerable adult
  • cause a vulnerable adult to be harmed
  • put a vulnerable adult at risk of harm
  • attempt to harm a vulnerable adult
  • incite another to harm a vulnerable adult

What is harm?

This is not defined in legislation. DBS view harm as its common understanding or the definition you may find in a dictionary.

Harm is considered in its widest context and may include:

  • sexual harm
  • physical harm
  • financial harm
  • neglect
  • emotional harm
  • psychological harm
  • verbal harm

This is not a fully comprehensive list, harm can take many different forms.

What is the harm test?

A person satisfies the harm test if they may harm a child or vulnerable adult or put them at risk of harm. It is something a person may do to cause harm or pose a risk of harm to a child or vulnerable adult.

Must I make a referral?

If you engaged a person to work in regulated activity, you have a legal duty to refer where the relevant conditions are met.

The duty to refer applies even when a report has been made to another body such as a local authority safeguarding team.

The duty to refer applies irrespective of whether another body has made a referral to the DBS in relation to the same person.

This helps to make sure the DBS have all the relevant information to consider a case. DBS can then make a fair, consistent and thorough decision about whether to bar a person from working with vulnerable groups.

A person who is under a duty to refer and fails to refer to us without reasonable justification is committing an offence. If convicted they may be subject to a fine up to £5,000.

Can I make a referral to the DBS if the legal conditions are not met?

There could be times when you consider that you should make a referral in the interests of safeguarding children or vulnerable adults even if you have not removed the person from working in regulated activity.

This could include acting on advice of the police or a safeguarding professional, or in situations where you don’t have enough evidence to dismiss or remove a person from working with vulnerable groups.

DBS are required by law to consider any and all information sent to us from any source. This includes information sent to us where the legal referral conditions are not met.

DBS will use legal powers and barring processes to determine whether the person should be barred from working in regulated activity with children and / or vulnerable adults.

If you want to make a referral to us where the referral conditions are not met, you should do so in consideration of relevant employment and data protection laws.

You may want to seek your own legal advice in relation to these cases.

Referrals for automatic barring offences

Anyone convicted or cautioned for certain serious offences will, subject to the consideration of representations where permitted, be barred from working in regulated activity with children and/or vulnerable adults.

How to make a referral

We accept referrals made using our online referral form (further information can be found below regarding how to create an online account and/or make an online referral) or by post (paper).

Either way you’ll be asked to provide prescribed information. This is information that you must legally provide, if you’re under a duty to refer or if you fall within those persons/bodies who are legally required to provide information on request. You should be aware that the legal duty to provide prescribed information may apply whether you’ve made a referral to the DBS or not.

It’s important that you provide us with as much relevant information as you can. DBS rely on the quality of information provided to us. You’re not expected to provide information that you don’t have access to. As part of the process to decide if an individual should be placed on a barred list, any information in your referral may be used by us and could be disclosed to the referred person or other parties.

You can read more about what we do with your information in our data protection and security guide.

Online referral form and registering for an online services account

We recommend making a referral to DBS using our online referral form. To do this you’ll need to register for a DBS online services account, which will enable us to engage and communicate with you more securely.

How to register for a DBS online services account:

  • access the DBS online portal, here
  • select ‘Create an Individual Account’
  • follow the on-screen instructions

Once logged into your DBS online services select the ‘Submit a referral’ option in the Services menu, on the left side of the screen.

Our online form makes it faster and easier for you to send a referral to us. You can:

  • save your referral and complete it later (draft forms are saved for 10 days before being removed)
  • upload electronic documents in support of your referral (subject to technical limitations)
  • use the same form to refer multiple individuals involved in the same incident
  • use the additional attachments space at the end of part 3 if you want to include more than one attachment for each question or if you have any other relevant information to support your referral

Each individual question allows a single document to be attached, which must be less than 10MB and can only be one of the following file types: .jpg, .tiff, .doc, .docx, .xls, .xlsx, .odt, .pdf, .txt.

You can still send us paper documents, or information on digital media (USB or CD/DVD only) if you need to. Any information you attach to the online referral form or send via digital media should be free from password protection or encryption and will be scanned for malware. Where any malware is found you will be asked to resubmit a “clean” version of the information.

Paper referral form (post)

Alternatively, you can complete the DBS paper referral form and read the guidance with it. The paper referral form should be posted to the DBS, with all of the information that has been requested on the form.

Please send any paper referral forms to DBS Barring, PO Box 3963, Royal Wootton Bassett, SN4 4HH.

We cannot guarantee the security of information until it is in our possession, and will not take responsibility for such information until we receive it. For this reason we recommend submitting referrals via our secure online referral form, however if you are using a paper referral form we recommend using registered post.

Should I make a referral when an allegation is first made, or when I temporarily suspend someone?

When an allegation is made, you should investigate and gather enough evidence to establish if it has foundation.

This will inform your processes for any decision to dismiss or remove the person from working in regulated activity.

You should make a referral even if a significant period of time has passed between the allegation and the gathering of evidence to support a decision to make a referral.

You should complete your investigations and disciplinary processes (even if the person has left your employment).

This is particularly important as DBS rely on referral evidence and any other relevant evidence gathered.

The duty to make a referral may not be triggered by temporary suspension, it depends if you have sufficient information to meet the referral duty criteria. You may suspend a person pending an investigation where there have been allegations of harm or risk of harm.

Following investigation, if you decide to let the person return to a position working in regulated activity with children or vulnerable adults then there may not be a legal duty to make a referral.

But, if you decide to dismiss the person or remove them from working in regulated activity then you would need to make a referral.

Will I be informed of the outcome of my referral?

Only if you can prove a legitimate interest in the person you have referred.

If you no longer employ the referred person or let them engage in regulated activity, then you may not be able to show a legitimate interest and won’t be advised of the outcome.

Help with referrals

You can call us on 03000 200 190 if you need help or advice.

One of the headings has been changed to highlight which section of the guidance users need to view in order to register for a DBS online services account.

Updated the link for regulated activity with children.

www.gov.uk

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