Ticks: What Are They & How to Get Rid of Them, No Bite Is Right
What are ticks?
- 1 What are ticks?
- 2 Can ticks harm my pet?
- 3 Are ticks increasing in my area?
- 4 What diseases do ticks carry?
- 5 Lyme disease
- 6 Ehrlichiosis
- 7 Anaplasmosis
- 8 Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- 9 A closer look at Lyme Disease
- 10 How do I know if my dog has ticks?
- 11 What to do if a tick bites your dog
- 12 The Worst Human Parasites
- 13 Plasmodium and Malaria
- 14 How You Get It
- 15 Tapeworm and Cysticercosis
- 16 How You Get It
- 17 How to treat tick bites, what do they look like, how can you get rid of them and which ticks carry Lyme disease?
- 18 How to treat tick bites?
- 19 How can you remove ticks if still in the skin?
- 20 What do ticks bites look like?
- 21 Which ticks carry Lyme disease?
- 22 What is Lyme disease?
Ticks are eight-legged parasites that have highly developed mouthparts that can pierce through the skin of your pet and feed on their blood. Depending on the type of tick, they may be different colours, including: grey, brown, black, reddish-brown or yellow. Ticks feed on blood in order to survive and produce eggs. Eggs develop into larvae, further growing into nymphs, and finally become adult ticks. Tick larvae are usually the size of a grain of sand, nymphs are roughly the size of a sesame seed, and unfed adult ticks can be as small as an apple seed. Adult ticks are an oval shape before they have fed on blood. After attaching and feeding on your dog’s blood, they can increase in size and fully fed females will be round and can be as large as a grape.
Here are how some major species of ticks look at their different life stages:
Partially Fed Female
Fully Fed Female
Photos sourced from: URI TickEncounter Resource Center. Images may not be to scale.
It is important to use a product like K9 Advantix ® II that protects your dog from all major species of ticks, not just one or two.
Can ticks harm my pet?
Aside from being disgusting pests, ticks can cause irritation to dogs if they bite, just as they would to humans. They become engorged as they feed on a dog’s blood – sometimes up to 10-14 days.
If an infected tick bites your dog, there is a risk of disease transmission. Some ticks can transmit disease in as little as 3 hours 1 Fourie JJ, et al. (2013). Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes. Vet Parasitol. 197(3-4):595-603.» data-original-title=»» title=»»>1 . This is why it’s important to reduce tick biting as much as possible. K9 Advantix ® II kills ticks and other parasites through contact, no biting required. Ticks that don’t bite can’t spread disease.
How diseases can be transmitted from ticks to dogs:
1 — The questing tick finds a dog, selects a feeding site, and pierces through the dog’s skin with its mouthpart.
2- Tick saliva facilitates the feeding of the dog’s blood, and is also a medium for transferring disease.
3- The tick may feed on the dog’s blood for 5-12 days, sharing bacteria (disease) it may be carrying.
4- The fully fed tick will grow as it feeds, and eventually detach and drop off the dog. The female tick is now ready to lay thousands of eggs in the environment.
Are ticks increasing in my area?
Ticks have not only been increasing in number, but also expanding across the country in the past five years. This is mainly due to warmer temperatures and the dispersion of ticks on animal hosts like mice, raccoons, deer, etc. With the expansion of ticks, there has also been an increase in reported cases of tick-borne diseases in dogs. Click here if you’d like to learn more about the diseases reported in your area.
There are also tools available online to help you identify, report and track ticks found in Canada. Check out the following resources managed by Canadian Universities:
What diseases do ticks carry?
Tick-borne disease is a very serious problem, especially as infected ticks increase in number. The most common species of ticks in Canada include blacklegged (deer) ticks, American dog ticks, brown dog ticks, and lone star ticks. These ticks carry different diseases that can be transferred to your dog if they bite and feed long enough. The most concerning species is usually the deer tick, as it can carry Lyme disease. However, you should also be concerned about other diseases that can be transmitted much faster than Lyme disease. Here is an overview of common diseases carried by ticks and what symptoms to look for.
Pathogen: Borrelia burgdorferi
Transmission time: as little as 24 hours
Tick Species: Deer tick
- Deer tick
Description: Infection can lead to malaise, lameness, fever and sometimes more serious signs such as kidney or heart disease.
Symptoms: leg lameness, reluctance to move, fatigue
Pathogen: Ehrlichia sp.
Transmission time: as little as 3 hours
Tick Species: Brown dog tick , Lone star tick , American dog tick
- Brown dog tick
- Lone star tick
- American dog tick
Description: Infection of the blood, leading to illness.
Symptoms: fever, weight loss, bleeding disorders, anemia, immune disorders
Pathogen: Anaplasma sp
Transmission time: as little as 4 hours
Tick Species: Deer tick , Brown dog tick
- Deer tick
- Brown dog tick
Description: Infection of the blood leading to changes in blood cell numbers.
Symptoms: fever, lethargy, anemia
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Pathogen: Rickettsia rickettsii
Transmission time: as little as 4 hours
Tick Species: American dog tick , Lone star tick , Brown dog tick
- American dog tick
- Lone star tick
- Brown dog tick
Description: Infection causing severe illness usually appearing within weeks of a tick bite. If left untreated, it can cause death.
Symptoms: Severe fever, lethargy, stiffness, swollen lymph nodes, bleeding disorders
A closer look at Lyme Disease
How is Lyme disease transmitted to dogs?
Lyme disease is caused by a microscopic organism called Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria lives inside the deer tick and is transmitted to dogs when an infected tick attaches and feeds on a dog’s blood, releasing the bacteria (disease) into the dog as it feeds. These ticks usually hide in shady, moist environments and live in leaf litter. Ticks climb onto vegetation to quest (wait for a host) and climb onto dogs as the dogs move through grass, shrub, or bushes.
What are the risks of Lyme disease?
Lyme disease is one of the most common diseases transmitted by ticks so it is important that you are aware of the risk associated with ticks and that your dog receives an appropriate tick treatment. Lyme disease can affect dogs of all ages, sizes, or breeds. It is especially important for your dog to be protected if it is spending more time outdoors. Ticks and tick bites are not always easy to spot on your dog, and symptoms of Lyme disease can sometimes be difficult to detect, so you want to be sure you are providing your dog with the best product to reduce tick biting and attachment.
What are the symptoms of Lyme disease in dogs?
Lyme disease can affect different systems within the body, so symptoms may vary. The most common symptoms in dogs are:
- Reluctance to move
- Leg or joint pain often lasting several days
- Loss of appetite
- Swollen lymph nodes
Can Lyme disease be transferred from pets to humans?
While Lyme disease can be seen occasionally in dogs, and much more frequently in people, it is very rare that cats become ill. Dogs cannot directly transmit the disease to humans. However, the same infected ticks that carry the bacteria that cause Lyme disease in dogs can also attach to and bite humans, leading to disease transmission. If you are spending time outdoors with your dog, it is also a good idea to check yourself for ticks and practice good tick avoidance strategies like protective clothing and insect repellent.
How can I prevent my dog from getting Lyme or other tick-borne diseases?
Prevention and early detection are the two best ways of protecting our pets from tick-borne disease. K9 Advantix ® II works differently from other products to kill all major species of ticks through contact, no biting required. This easy-to-apply monthly topical also kills fleas, lice and mosquitoes, and reduces biting by mosquitoes and stable flies. Be sure to speak to your veterinarian about the health risks of ticks in your area and ask for K9 Advantix® II to make sure your dog is protected.
How do I know if my dog has ticks?
Ticks can be encountered anywhere. While it is most common to find ticks outdoors in leaf litter, shrubs or bushes or shrubs, ticks also exist in non-wooded areas. Interestingly, ticks don’t fly but rather “quest” by stretching out their forelegs to grab and cling onto passing animals.
It is important to check your dog for ticks after you’ve spent any time outdoors. If you feel a small bump on your dog, be sure to part your dog’s fur and take a closer look. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to spot a tick in your dog’s fur. Some other signs that can indicate your dog has a tick include:
- Finding a tick in your home – If you see a tick in your bed sheets, carpet, or on the floor, this is a sign that a member of your family or your dog may have brought a tick into the house. Be sure to do a closer examination of your dog’s fur.
- Excessive head shaking – Ticks like to attach to moist environments, and are many times found around the ears of a dog. If your dog is shaking its head excessively, have a closer look at its head and inside its ears.
- Tick bite symptoms – If your dog has a fever or experiences fatigue, loss of appetite, vomiting, lameness or other unusual symptoms this may indicate that your dog has been infected by a tick-transmitted disease. Be sure to visit your veterinarian if you notice any unusual symptoms.
- Scabs – Ticks bite and feed on blood. If the tick detaches or is removed by your pet licking or scratching, a scab may form. Take a closer look at any unexplained scabs you notice on your dog’s body.
What to do if a tick bites your dog
If you find a tick on your dog, your first priority should be to get it removed.
To remove a tick, follow these steps:
- Wear gloves to avoid any direct skin contact to the tick
- Ensure your pet is relaxed and sitting quietly
- Use tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin surface as possible.
- Using the tweezers, pull firmly straight upwards to remove the tick. Be sure not to twist the tweezers to avoid leaving any tick mouthparts inside your dog.
- After removing the tick, kill it by placing it in a container with rubbing alcohol.
- Save the tick in a sealed container or plastic bag for your veterinarian to identify.
- Keep an eye on your dog for any unusual symptoms. In the event that any unusual symptoms are witnessed, be sure to make an appointment with your veterinarian to have your dog examined.
The Worst Human Parasites
Human parasites are organisms that rely on humans to live yet don’t offer anything positive to the people they infect. Some parasites can’t live without a human host, while others are opportunistic, meaning they’d happily live elsewhere, but they make do if they find themselves in the body.
Here’s a list of particularly nasty parasites that infect people and a description of how you get them and what they do. While any parasite picture probably makes you want to bathe in bleach, the images in this list are clinical rather than sensational.
Plasmodium and Malaria
KATERYNA KON / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Getty Images
There are about 200 million cases of malaria each year. While it’s common knowledge that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, most people think it’s a viral or bacterial disease. Malaria actually results from infection by a parasitic protozoan named Plasmodium. While the disease doesn’t look as frightening as some parasitic infections, its fever and chills can progress to death. Treatments exist to reduce the risk, but there is no vaccine.
How You Get It
Malaria is carried by the Anopheles mosquito. When the female mosquito bites you—males don’t bite—some Plasmodium enters the body through the mosquito’s saliva. The single-celled organism multiplies inside red blood cells, eventually causing them to burst. The cycle is completed when a mosquito bites an infected host.
Tapeworm and Cysticercosis
POWER AND SYRED / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Getty Images
Tapeworms are a type of flatworm. There are many different tapeworms and many different hosts for the parasites. When you ingest the eggs or larval form of some tapeworms, they attach to the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, grow, and mature to shed segments of themselves or eggs. Aside from depriving the body of some nutrients, this type of tapeworm infection is not a serious health risk.
However, if conditions aren’t right for the larvae to mature, they form cysts. The cysts can migrate anywhere in the body, waiting for you to die and presumably be eaten by an animal that has a gut more suited to the worm. The cysts cause a disease called cysticercosis.
Infection is worse for some organs than others. If you get cysts in your brain, it can lead to death. Cysts in other organs can put pressure on the tissue and deprive it of nutrients, reducing function.
How You Get It
You can get tapeworms in many different ways. Eating snail larvae from improperly rinsed lettuce and watercress, undercooked pork or sushi as well as accidentally ingesting a flea or fecal matter, or drinking contaminated water are common routes of infection.
How to treat tick bites, what do they look like, how can you get rid of them and which ticks carry Lyme disease?
A bite from one of these critters can ruin your life so stay on the ball
- 7 Sep 2018, 11:25
- Updated : 7 Sep 2018, 11:34
WALKERS are being urged to cover up to avoid tick bites following an increase in Lyme disease being diagnosed.
There are expected to be about 4,000 new cases of the disease in the UK this year — most of which will remain undiagnosed.
How to treat tick bites?
Wash the area of the tick bite with a lot of warm, clean water.
Then apply a thin layer of petroleum jelly, such as Vaseline, lightly to the wound.
This will keep the bite from sticking to the bandage.
After removing the tick, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
How can you remove ticks if still in the skin?
If you find a tick, remove it as soon as you can.
There are special tick cards but tweezers work as well as if you take care to grip the head as well as the body.
But don’t panic most bites are nothing to worry about.
Infected ticks are thought to have to latch on for at least 24 hours to pass on the infection, and even after this length of time transmission rates remain low.
What do ticks bites look like?
According to the NHS: «The rash is often described as looking like a bull’s-eye on a dartboard».
The skin will be red and the edges slightly raised.
But not everyone develops a rash.
Instead they may develop headaches, dizziness, muscle and joint pain, loss of energy or a high temperature.
Which ticks carry Lyme disease?
All species of tick carry the disease.
But the sheep tick are known to be the biggest carrier and they are all over the British countryside or green areas within urban areas.
They go through three stages of life: larva, nymph and adult.
The nymphs are often no larger than the head of a pin.
These ticks recognise its host by vibrations and temperature.
But they don’t have teeth, instead attaching themselves to humans by embedding their mouth into the skin.
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What is Lyme disease?
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transferred to humans via tick bites.
Symptoms develop after an incubation period varying from three to 30 days and the first sign is typically a bull’s-eye rash.
This is an expanding ring of redness around the tick bite site that may spread out to a foot or more in diameter and last up to a month.
Often this is accompanied by a vague flu-like illness with aches and pains in the muscles and joints, fatigue and headache.
More worrying are the longer-term complications if the diagnosis is missed.
These can include inflammation of the heart, nerve damage arthritis typically affecting the knees.
And even if the infection is spotted and treated promptly with the right antibiotics it is not unusual for people to still be troubled by fatigue and aches and pains for up to six months
afterwards, with some being affected for much longer.
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