Sulfur: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning

SULFUR

Atomic number 16, Azufre, Enxofre, S, Schwefel, Soufre, Sulfur, Sulphur, Zolfo.

Overview Information

Sulfur is a chemical element that is present in all living tissues. After calcium and phosphorus, it is the third most abundant mineral in the human body. Sulfur is also found in garlic, onions, and broccoli.

Sulfur is applied to the skin for dandruff and an itchy skin infection caused by mites (scabies). It is also applied to the skin for acne and skin redness (rosacea), and taken orally for many other conditions, but there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Sulfur is present in all living tissues. It is the third most abundant mineral in the human body. Sulfur seems to have antibacterial effects against the bacteria that cause acne. It also might help promote the loosening and shedding of skin. This is believed to help treat skin conditions such as seborrheic dermatitis or acne.

Uses & Effectiveness ?

Possibly Effective for

  • Dandruff. Sulfur is an FDA-approved ingredient used in common over-the-counter products to treat dandruff. However, available research on its effectiveness is limited. Some research shows that using a shampoo containing sulfur and/or salicylic acid twice daily for 5 weeks reduces dandruff. Shampoo containing both sulfur and salicylic acid seems to be most effective.
  • Itchy skin infection caused by mites (scabies). Applying a jelly containing sulfur to the skin appears to be an effective treatment for scabies in most people. Sulfur treatments are usually applied overnight for 3 to 6 nights. But this treatment is not pleasant due to the smell. Also, there are better and cheaper treatments available, including the drugs ivermectin and permethrin.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Acne. Sulfur is an FDA-approved ingredient used in common over-the-counter products to treat acne. However, there is limited research available on its effectiveness. Most products include sulfur in combination with benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, or sodium sulfacetamide.
  • Hay fever. Early research shows that using a nasal spray containing homeopathic (diluted) amounts of sulfur, luffa, Galphimia glauca, and histamine for 42 days is as effective as common cromolyn sodium nasal spray.
  • A lung disease that makes it harder to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD). Early research shows that breathing in the air from warm sulfur water does not help the lungs to function in people with COPD.
  • Common cold. Early research suggests that taking a homeopathic (diluted) product containing sulfur and German ipecac (Engystol, Heel GmbH) by mouth for up to 2 weeks during a cold helps relieve symptoms.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Early research suggests that drinking water from a sulfurous spring three times daily for 4 weeks reduces total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or «bad») cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. However, it’s not clear from this study alone if sulfur might reduce cholesterol.
  • A skin condition that causes redness on the face (rosacea). Early research suggests that applying a cream containing sulfur to the face once daily for up to 8 weeks reduces fluid-filled bumps on the face and other symptoms caused by rosacea. Some early research shows that sulfur cream may be as effective as the antibiotic tetracycline.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Sore throat (pharyngitis).
  • Symptoms of menopause.
  • Lice.
  • Cold sores (herpes labialis).
  • Warts.
  • Rough, scaly skin on the scalp and face (seborrheic dermatitis).
  • Poison oaky, ivy, and sumac infections.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate sulfur for these uses.

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: There isn’t enough reliable information to know if sulfur is safe or what the side effects might be. It might cause diarrhea in some people.

When applied to the skin: Sulfur is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin appropriately, short-term. Products containing sulfur in concentrations up to 10% have been used safely for up to 8 weeks. In some people, applying sulfur products to the skin may cause the skin to become dry.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Sulfur is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin appropriately, short-term. Products containing sulfur in concentrations up to 6% have been applied safely every night for up to 6 nights. There isn’t enough reliable information to know if sulfur is safe to take by mouth when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and don’t take it by mouth.

See also:  Difference Between Pest and Insect - Difference Wiki

Children: Sulfur is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin appropriately, short-term. Products containing sulfur in concentrations up to 6% have been used safely when applied nightly in children and adolescents for up to 6 nights. Products containing sulfur in concentrations up to 2% have been used safely when applied for 3 hours daily for up to 6 days in infants.

Sulfa allergy: It is commonly thought that people who are allergic to sulfa drugs might be allergic to sulfur containing products. This is not true. People with an allergy to «sulfa» react to the sulfonamide in some antibiotics and related drugs. They do not react to elemental sulfur.

Interactions ?

We currently have no information for SULFUR Interactions.

Dosing

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:

  • For dandruff: Shampoos containing 2% sulfur, alone or with 2% salicylic acid, have been used twice weekly for 5 weeks.
  • For scabies: Treatments containing between 2% and 20% sulfur in jelly have been applied overnight for 3 to 6 nights.

CHILDREN

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:

  • For scabies: Shampoos containing 2% sulfur, alone or with 2% salicylic acid, have been used twice weekly for 5 weeks.

www.webmd.com

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

Amorphous Silica, Diatomite, Kieselgur, Kieselguhr, Moler, Terre de diatomГ©e, Tierra de diatomea, Terre d’Infusoire, Tripolite.

Overview Information

Diatomaceous earth is a type of powder made from the sediment of fossilized algae found in bodies of water. Because the cells of these algae were high in a compound called silica, the dried sediment produced from these fossils are also very high in silica. These deposits are found all over the world. The ancient Greeks used diatomaceous earth to make building materials, like bricks and blocks. Later on it became popular in Europe for various industrial uses.

When taken by mouth, diatomaceous earth is used as a source of silica, for treating high cholesterol levels, for treating constipation, and for improving the health of skin, nails, teeth, bones, and hair.

When applied to the skin or teeth, diatomaceous earth is used to brush teeth or remove unwanted dead skin cells.

Diatomaceous earth is also used in industry. It is used to remove unwanted material from drinking water. It is also used as a filler or to prevent formation of lumps in foods, medicine, paints and plastics, and pet litter. It is used to clean up spills or for insulation in industry, as well as to scrub things. Diatomaceous earth is used as part of various chemical tests. It is also used as an insecticide.

How does it work?

Uses & Effectiveness ?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • High cholesterol levels. Early research suggests taking diatomaceous earth might reduce levels of cholesterol in the blood patients with high cholesterol levels.
  • Constipation.
  • Health of skin, nails, teeth, bones, and hair.
  • Insecticide.
  • Removal of dead skin (exfoliation).
  • Source of silica.
  • Teeth cleaning.
  • Other uses.

Side Effects & Safety

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking diatomaceous earth if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Lung disease: Some forms of diatomaceous earth may be harmful to the lungs, especially if inhaled. Breathing in diatomaceous earth might result in lung problems in people that already have some problems in their lungs. This includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), etc. Use cautiously.

Interactions ?

We currently have no information for DIATOMACEOUS EARTH Interactions.

Dosing

The appropriate dose of diatomaceous earth depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for diatomaceous earth in children or adults. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

  • Antonides, Lloyd E. (1997). Diatomite (PDF). U.S.G.S. Retrieved December 12, 2010
  • Bennett DC, Yee A, Rhee YJ, Cheng KM. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens. Poult Sci. 2011;90(7):1416-26. View abstract.
  • Danil de Namor AF, El Gamouz A, Frangie S, Martinez V, Valiente L, Webb OA. Turning the volume down on heavy metals using tuned diatomite. A review of diatomite and modified diatomite for the extraction of heavy metals from water. J Hazard Mater. 2012 30;241-242:14-31. View abstract.
  • Gallagher LG, Park RM, Checkoway H. Extended follow-up of lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease mortality among California diatomaceous earth workers. Occup Environ Med. 2015;72(5):360-5. View abstract.
  • Mewis I I, Ulrichs C. Action of amorphous diatomaceous earth against different stages of the stored product pests Tribolium confusum, Tenebrio molitor, Sitophilus granarius and Plodia interpunctella. J Stored Prod Res. 2001;37(2):153-164. View abstract.
  • Moisan S, Rucay P, Ghali A, Penneau-Fontbonne D, Lavigne C. Silica-associated limited systemic sclerosis after occupational exposure to calcined diatomaceous earth. Joint Bone Spine. 2010;77(5):472-3. View abstract.
  • Nattrass C, Horwell CJ, Damby DE, Kermanizadeh A, Brown DM, Stone V. The global variability of diatomaceous earth toxicity: a physicochemical and in vitro investigation. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2015 10;10:23.View abstract.
  • Park R, Rice F, Stayner L, Smith R, Gilbert S, Checkoway H. Exposure to crystalline silica, silicosis, and lung disease other than cancer in diatomaceous earth industry workers: a quantitative risk assessment. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59(1):36-43. View abstract.
  • Rushton L. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica. Rev Environ Health 2007;22(4):255-72. View abstract.
  • Tu KL, Sharon VR, Fung MA. What on earth. diatomaceous earth as evidence of delusional infestation. J Cutan Pathol. 2011;38(10):761-4. View abstract.
  • Wachter H, Lechleitner M, Artner-Dworzak E, Hausen A, Jarosch E, Widner B, Patsch J, Pfeiffer K, Fuchs D. Diatomaceous earth lowers blood cholesterol concentrations. Eur J Med Res. 1998 8;3(4):211-5. View abstract.
See also:  10 Non-Toxic Ways to Eliminate Roaches, Dengarden

Have you ever purchased DIATOMACEOUS EARTH?

www.webmd.com

How to drive on a smart motorway

How to drive safely and legally on England’s smart motorways.

Many parts of Highways England’s motorway network use technology to monitor and manage the flow of traffic. The technology is controlled from regional control centres which can activate and change signs and variable speed limits. This helps keep the traffic flowing more smoothly.

The three types of motorway shown on the map are:

  • Dynamic hard shoulder: where the hard shoulder is temporarily opened up to traffic
  • All lane running: where the full width of the road is usable with emergency refuge areas alongside
  • Controlled motorway: with three or more lanes, a hard shoulder and variable speed limits

On some busier sections of motorways we temporarily open the hard shoulder or have converted it to a permanent extra lane so that more vehicles can travel, avoiding the expense and disruption of widening the road.

These technology-enabled sections of motorways have enhancements such as:

  • electronic message signs that display Red X signs and variable speed limits
  • sensors to monitor traffic volumes
  • CCTV cameras
  • emergency areas, with emergency roadside telephones

Quick tips

  • Never drive in a lane closed by a Red X.
  • Keep to the speed limits shown on the signs.
  • A hard shoulder is always identified by a solid white unbroken line — if there’s no speed limit displayed above it or a Red X is displayed, do not use it except in emergency.
  • A broken white line indicates a normal running lane.
  • If the hard shoulder is being used as an extra lane, use the designated emergency areas for emergencies.
  • If your vehicle experiences difficulties, eg warning light, exit the motorway immediately, if you can.
  • If you break down, put your hazard lights on.
  • Most breakdowns are preventable — keep your car well maintained, check your tyres and make sure you have enough fuel for your journey.

Breaking down on a motorway

Knowing what to do in an emergency or a breakdown is key to keeping yourself and others safe.

If your vehicle has a problem on a motorway with no hard shoulder:

  • Move into the left hand lane and put your hazard lights on
  • Exit at the next junction or services OR
  • Follow the orange SOS signs to an emergency area and call for help using the free telephone. This will tell us your location.

If you can’t get off the motorway or to an emergency area:

  • Move your vehicle as close as possible to the left-hand verge, boundary or slip road
  • If you feel you can get out safely with any occupants, consider exiting your vehicle via the left-hand door, and wait behind the safety barrier if there is one and it is safe to do so. Keep clear of your vehicle and moving traffic at all times
  • Call 999 immediately

If your car stops unexpectedly in any lane and it is not safe to get out

  • Keep your seatbelts and hazard lights on and call 999 immediately
  • We’ll close the lane and send help.

If there is a hard shoulder on a motorway, you can use it to stop in an emergency only. If you can, get behind the safety barrier and away from your vehicle and moving traffic. Use the free SOS phone or call Highways England on 0300 123 5000 for help. Why not save the number in your phone now in case you ever need it?

Do not put out a warning triangle in any circumstances.

All motorists should be able to make their own recovery arrangements in the event of a breakdown. We advise you to carry details of your provider with you.

Remember, most breakdowns are avoidable and simple vehicle checks can help you have a safer journey. Check your tyres, fuel, oil and water. However, if your vehicle appears to have problems or is damaged, always try to exit the motorway.

Our control centres

Our regional control centres use CCTV cameras to monitor and manage our motorways. Once they’re aware of your situation (via CCTV or the police), they can set overhead signs and close the lane to help keep traffic away from you.

The control centre can also send a traffic officer or the police to help you, and assist you to rejoin the motorway when appropriate.

Please note that if you break down or are in an emergency, you must call for help as soon as possible.

Essential items to keep in your vehicle

Keep the following items in your vehicle in case you break down:

  • warm clothes
  • hi-vis jacket
  • breakdown cover details
  • charged mobile phone
  • access to a route planner either via your smart phone or an atlas
  • water and food
  • a torch
  • any medication you need

Red X

A Red X sign indicates that a lane is closed to traffic. You must stay out of that lane as there may be an incident or people working ahead, and we may need to keep the lane clear to provide access for maintenance or emergency services.

A Red X can be displayed on gantry signs above each lane or on large signs above the nearside (left hand) of the carriageway.

It’s illegal to drive in a lane closed by a Red X sign. If you’re caught, you could receive a fixed penalty of up to £100 and three points, and in some cases more severe penalties or a court appearance. It’s the responsibility of the police to enforce Red X offences.

See also:  Smoking, vaping and tobacco

For your own safety and the safety of others, never drive in a lane closed by a Red X sign (unless instructed to do so by the police or those instructed by the police, such as our traffic officers).

Driving safely when you see a red X sign

This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Request an accessible format.

If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.

Hard shoulder use and emergency areas

A hard shoulder is always clearly identified with a solid white unbroken line.

On some busier sections of our motorways, we open the hard shoulder to traffic temporarily. If the hard shoulder is open for use, you’ll see a speed limit displayed above it.

If there’s nothing displayed above it, or a Red X is displayed, then you should only use the hard shoulder in an emergency. We only open a hard shoulder when it’s safe to do so. Remember to be vigilant and be aware of breakdowns or stationary vehicles ahead.

On sections of the motorway where the hard shoulder has been converted into a permanent extra lane, this is marked with a broken white line.

Emergency areas are spaced regularly and are clearly marked with blue signs featuring an orange SOS telephone symbol.

If possible, always try to get to an emergency area, even if the hard shoulder is not open to traffic. Emergency areas are set back from the carriageway and provide better protection than the hard shoulder.

You should only use emergency areas in emergencies.

When to use a hard shoulder

Variable speed limits

We sometimes vary the speed limit on certain sections of motorway to help steady the flow of traffic and reduce ‘stop-start’ traffic jams.

Variable speed limits can be set at busy times, in conjunction with a Red X sign or to manage a hazard or incident. They can also be automatically triggered by sensors that monitor traffic flow.

A speed limit displayed inside a red circle is legally enforceable. If you go over the speed limit, you’re breaking the law and could receive a fine. We’ll let you know when it no longer applies by setting the national speed limit sign.

If no speed limits are displayed then the national speed limit applies. When speed limits are displayed, they remain in place until notified that they have ended, or a different speed limit is displayed.

Speed cameras are in operation on our motorways. The police are responsible for enforcing speeding offences.

Always drive to a safe speed according to the conditions and be aware of your stopping distances.

Keep left

When you’re driving along a motorway you should keep left unless you’re overtaking, no matter how many lanes a motorway has.

It’s a simple rule of the Highway Code, but one which some drivers don’t always follow. You should always drive in the left-hand lane when the road ahead is clear.

The other lanes should only be used for overtaking slower-moving vehicles. Once you’re safely past them, you should return to the left-hand lane.

You mustn’t drive on the hard shoulder except in an emergency, or if directed to do so by the police, Highways England traffic officers or by signs.

Following the keep-left rule helps the traffic flow and avoids frustration with lane-hoggers, so we all have a safer, smoother journey.

Campaign materials

If you’d like to support our safety messages, please use these resources.

Breakdowns poster

This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Request an accessible format.

If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.

Red X poster

This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Request an accessible format.

If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.

Variable speed limits poster

This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Request an accessible format.

If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.

Keep Left poster

This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Request an accessible format.

If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.

Updated breakdown information

Added links to Highway Code

New motorways campaign leaflet added

Updated text and campaign materials

Text has been updated

23 November 2016

Updated version of ‘When to use a hard shoulder’ document added

10 November 2016

‘When to use a hard shoulder’ leaflet added

‘Driving safely when you see a red X sign’ document has been replaced with updated version.

www.gov.uk

Share:
No comments

Добавить комментарий

Your e-mail will not be published. All fields are required.