SCOOP ON TOMATOES, POTATOES, CABBAGE: METHODS OF STRUGGLE, PHOTOS AND DESCRIPTION
Scoop — photo and fight with it on tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage
- 1 Scoop — photo and fight with it on tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage
- 2 Step by step instructions to fight
- 3 Fighting scoop
- 4 Means of struggle
- 5 Folk methods of struggle
- 6 Tips for folk remedies
- 7 Conclusion
- 8 Special «Alternative Methods for Haulm Desiccation»
- 9 The in-depth guide to data destruction
- 10 Overwriting
- 11 Degaussing
- 12 Physical Destruction
Scoops — small cute butterflies faded coloringresemble homemade moth, in nature there are various kinds. And harm is not less. It is true that they feed not on wool and household products, but on plants in the garden. Adults do not damage the culture, but caterpillars hatch — the main danger for cultures.
If you want to save your crop — start destruction activities and prevent the occurrence of this pest. Scoop measures to combat it further.
Step by step instructions to fight
With a butterfly scoop in the garden
Scoop and fight with it has a number of features. How to deal with a shovel in the garden read below.
- Predicting with the help of pheromone traps. The traps show the exact time of the beginning of the summer of butterflies. and the emergence of caterpillars. Initially, the years passed in the period of flowering dandelions. But now all the terms are shifted and stretched in time. Therefore, forecasting is very important for timely action.
- In order not to poison the plants with chemicalsfirst you should try to bring scoop folk remedies.
- Attracting natural enemies scoops — trichograms and bracon.
- Around the garden hang bait — traps.
- With insufficient efficiency use biologics against scoop.
- If they did not help completely get rid of the butterflies, connect the «heavy artillery». Garden scoop measures to combat it must include chemical insecticides.
- Finishing the garden season, it is worth deeply dig the whole earth, because the scoops overwinter in the ground. After digging, most of the pests die.
Now you know how to get rid of the scoops in the garden. About caterpillars scoop how to fight further.
- At the beginning of the season dig the ground as deep as possibleto reduce the number of overwintered pests.
- When planting, use alternation of different plant cultures.
- It is imperative to eliminate weeds that serve as the initial food supply for the larvae.
- When the first single instances begin their collection manually.
- If the number of caterpillars begins to increase, pick up a means for their destruction.
Scoop gnawing methods of dealing with it below.
With a scoop
- main measure to reduce the number — digging the soil to a depth of at least 25 cm. It is carried out twice a season — before planting and after harvest. Such a procedure will relieve most of the existing pests in the caterpillar and pupal stages;
- after planting regularly loosen the land between the rows and beds with a thorough inspection. All discovered caterpillars are immediately removed and destroyed;
- weed plants should be eliminated not only in the garden, but also around the whole plot;
- butterfly gnaw lure into drink trapswhich ferments — kvass, molasses, beer, compote;
- For the destruction of the larvae that live in the ground, it is necessary to apply soil insecticides.
Cotton scoop control measures are slightly different, see below.
With a cotton scoop
Cotton scoop — quarantine pest against which special measures are taken. Scoop how to deal with it further.
Quarantine procedures include:
- relentless control over acquired seedlings, seedlings and bushes. Special attention should be paid to cotton., chrysanthemums, tomatoes, corn, roses and eggplants. But at the same time remember that the cotton shovel is almost omnivorous;
- when a pest is detected, the entire batch of acquired sprouts is subjected to fumigation, as well as the container;
- wide and active use of pheromone traps.
Shovel photo and fight with it, see below.
Scoop how to deal with it? The subsequent fight is:
- AT compliance with all the rules of agricultural technology in closed greenhouses and in open areas.
- Constant monitoring and detection of pests of all stages of development.
- Careful and timely collection of weeds with its subsequent burning.
- Preventive treatment of suspicious plants with chemical insecticides.
Potato scoop control measures read on.
Fighting potato scoop in many ways similar to the measures in the garden. How to deal with a potato scoop further.
The features include:
- Firstly pay attention to grass species when cleaning weeds;
- for the destruction of larvae insecticides are used for soil treatment, and for spraying plants;
- do not plant potatoes near tomatoes — potato scoop can get over from one favorite culture to another.
Cabbage scoop measures to combat it, read below.
- Deep digging plot.
- Maximum early planting of seedlings in the open landto avoid mass destruction of sprouts caterpillars moths.
- Regularly inspect the plants and manually collect the detected larvae and eggs.
- Feed cabbage seedlings with superphosphate and potassium chloride.
- With the mass reproduction of pests to carry out the treatment of folk or biological insecticides. They can be done as a preventive measure.
- Chemical spraying needs to be done.when other funds do not work.
Be sure to adhere to the specified dates of the last treatment before eating.
Cabbage scoop and control measures look at the video.
Tomato scoop: control measures and how to get rid of scoops on tomatoes further.
In general, the same activities, as in the garden and on potatoes. So, scoop on tomatoes — methods of dealing with it are a bit different. There are small nuances that distinguish the fight scoops on tomatoes.
- against weeds, the first to destroy the quinoa, white mar, nettles. And also to monitor their reappearance;
- when processing use mainly biological or chemical preparations.
The drug from scoops on tomatoes can purchase in a specialized store. A scoop on pepper how to fight further.
The algorithm of actions is the same as in the garden in general and on potatoes in particular.
Means of struggle
Subdivided into 2 groups — bacterial and avermectins. Bacterial agents contain toxins of microorganisms with a neurotoxin effect on pests.
- Dendrobatsillin. Bacterial remedy, effective against scoop and safe for people. Consumption rate — 25-30 g per bucket of water. You can make up to 2 treatments per season.
- Bitoxibacillin. The product of bacteria, which inhibits the production of digestive enzymes, disrupts the intestines. In addition, it has a negative impact on all subsequent generations of scoops. The consumption rate is quite economical — about 20 ml of funds per hundred, pre-diluted in a bucket of water.
- Lepidocid. A bacterial agent that acts against any leaf-eating caterpillars, including the scoop. Consumption rate of 25-35 g per bucket. Enough for processing 1-2 acres.
- Entobacterin. Microbological remedy for leaf-eating caterpillars. Consumption rate — 3.5 kg per hectare.
- Fitoderm. Bacterial against many pests, including all types of scoops. Consumption depends on the type of cultivated culture and ranges from 1 to 4 ml per bucket of water.
- Agravertine. The agent obtained from fungi. It has a long shelf life, is safe for people and the environment, works against most pests. Consumption — 3 ml per liter of water.
- Actofit. Innovative tool from a number of avermectins. Consumption 4 ml per 1 l.
- Natur Gard. Insecticide from the plant Sophora with neurotoxin properties. Causes paralysis of limbs and death of pests. Consumption 10 ml, diluted in 5 liters of water.
Subdivided into neonicotinoids, organophosphates and pyrethroids. Modern means of the latest generations often have combined composition.
- Proteus. A two-component preparation consisting of deltamethrin (pyrethroid) and thiacloprid (neonicotinoid). The composition also includes oil, which protects the main substances from flushing and evaporation. Per 1 hectare consumes up to 5 liters of the working solution obtained from 7 ml of the product.
- It is ashes. Organophosphate with high toxicity. It has selective properties, does not harm the beneficial insects. Consumption — 2 ml per 5 l of the working solution.
- Karate — Zeon. Insecticide class pyrethroids. Destroys caterpillars and imago. Consumes 100 ml of the preparation to treat a hectare of area.
About the popular methods of struggle, read on.
Folk methods of struggle
- Sagebrush. 1 kg of fresh parts of the plant (you can use the stems and leaves) soak in 3 liters of water and boil for 15-20 minutes. This broth is completely harmless to people, so it can be used often.
- Tomato Tomato. Acts against the cabbage scoops and its larvae. Per 10 liters of water take about 3.5 — 4 kg of fresh raw materials. Boil for 25-30 minutes, filter and dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 3.
- Red or black elderberry. Flowers and leaves (300-400 g) must be boiled in a bucket of water for half an hour. Add liquid soap to the working solution — 40-50 grams.
- Pepper Highlander (water pepper) is a very effective means for the destruction of caterpillars. Apply fresh plants, cut in June or July. A bucket of water requires 1 kg of raw material. After boiling for 30 minutes, the broth must be cooled and filtered.
- Bitter red pepper. You can use both dry (500 g) and fresh (1 kg) raw materials. It must be boiled in 10 liters of water for about an hour. The decoction should be infused for at least 24 hours. Before processing, it is diluted in cold water in a ratio of 1 part decoction to 7-8 parts of water.
- Sarepta mustard. Dry powder (50 g) must be boiled in a liter of water, left to cool for a while. Tightly close and insist for at least a day. Dilute this volume with cold water in the amount of 20 liters. The broth is used for spraying the affected plants and processing planting material.
- Large burdock (burdock). Finely chop the leaves and stems and fold them into a bucket, filling it to the middle and pour water to the edges. Cover and leave for 2-3 days. To improve adhesion, you can add liquid soap — 40-50 grams.
- Large-flowered delphinium. Inflorescence (100 g) chop and infuse 2 days in a liter of water under a closed lid.
- Bulb or green onion. Per liter of water requires a quarter of the average onion. It is better to grind, leave to insist overnight (10-12 hours), filter and use for processing plants. If you feel sorry for onions, you can use the husk (7-8 g per liter).
- Garlic. Infuse a couple of teeth in a liter of warm water for 3-4 days. For spraying infusion diluted with 5 parts of water.
- Black henbane. The most effective this plant becomes during flowering. At this time, cut the ground part, grind and pour water — 10 liters per 1 kg of raw materials. Insist 11-13 hours
How to process tomatoes from scoops read on.
- Wood ash, lime and tobacco powder. The components are mixed in equal quantities and pollinate the affected plants. Apply against the caterpillars scoops.
- Liquid soap and wood ash. In a bucket of cold water pour 2 cups of ash and 1-2 dessert spoons of any soap. Used for spraying plants.
- Potassium permanganate. Processing plants with a solution of manganese has threefold benefits — it works as a means to combat the scoop, as a fertilizer and a disinfectant that kills bacteria and viruses. For spraying bushes and young seedlings, make a glass of strong dark solution of potassium permanganate and pour it into a bucket of water, stir it very well.
- Potassium chloride and superphosphate. Also helps from aphids. In a bucket of water diluted with 5 g of potassium and 10 g of superphosphate. The mixture is infused for about a day, used several times with an interval of 8-9 days up to 3 times per season.
Tips for folk remedies
To scare away butterflies you can decompose or hang eggs shells between the beds of plants and rows.
Lures for catching adult scoops are made from sugary drinks that can roam. These include any syrups, molasses, kvass, juice, beer, liquid jam. Place the bait in small containers such as yogurt jars.. Do not forget to clean the scoop.
Birds are very fond of larvae scoops, so their involvement significantly reduce the population of pests. Flycatchers, titmouses and sparrows especially help. For them, you can make trough and nest boxes. Tits will attract pieces of unsalted bacon.
Scoops are quite susceptible to destruction or deter from attractive for them plants. The most important thing in fighting them is not to be lazy and not to fold their arms.
Even if some remedy was ineffective, you can find another. A huge range of various modern products of biologicalchemical or national origin allows you to choose the most effective.
Special «Alternative Methods for Haulm Desiccation»
With the ongoing discussion about the re-authorisation of the dominant chemical siccative, interest in alternative haulm reduction methods on potato farms is increasing again. For this reason the Special “Alternative Methods for Haulm Desiccation” will provide not only a comparison of the systems of different chemical methods, but also different mechanical methods such as flailing or plucking and cutting. The effects of physical-thermal methods, whether by use of flame guns or electricity, will also be shown.
In conventional cultivation, desiccation alone or a combination of flailing and desiccation have proved successful, as in most cases haulm topping on its own is not sufficient as a haulm reduction measure to avoid regrowth of the stands and the associated impairment of yield and quality. At present four chemical siccative agents with different reaction speeds and efficiency levels for complete termination of the plant growth are available in Germany.
The comparisons will be supported by the firm Belchim Crop Protection.
Flail-type haulm toppers
With the haulm toppers, depending on the goal and the machine setting, the potato haulm is either placed on the ridge or conveyed between the ridges. The latter is essential when the haulm topper is preparing for a chemical measure. Then the stalks must remain accessible. In this case it is important to ensure optimal flailing quality. When using the generally four-row haulm toppers, however, the complete stand must be driven over, row after row, so that the haulm treatment date will depend much more strongly on the soil moisture content than is the case with a field sprayer using the tramlines. In addition, in haulm topping, especially in reproduction cultivation, there is a growing risk of virus and bacteria transfer that counteracts the goal of healthy plant production.
The haulm topper will be provided by Messrs. GRIMME Landmaschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG.
Thermal haulm reduction
In practice equipment with a working width of 3 m prevails for thermal haulm reduction so that by comparison with a plant protection sprayer the area output is much lower. In thermal haulm reduction the energy source is gas which is converted into heat via different burners with an open flame or via special infrared radiators that damage the plant cells, but do not burn the plants. In order to use the heat for as long and as effectively as possible, the through-going combustion chambers of the equipment are closed by solid or flexible boundaries and some also have supporting fans for better distribution of the hot air. To achieve a far-reaching heat effect, a much lower driving speed than for the first application is necessary, which involves a correspondingly higher gas consumption rate coupled with a further reduction in the area output. Flaming is used for final desiccation of the residual stalks in organic cultivation.
The equipment for flaming of the potato haulm will be provided by Messrs. Ruthenberg.
In the electroherb method, high-voltage electricity is passed through plants via metal applicators and the electric circuit is closed with a second applicator on the ground or further plants. Cells in the leaves, stems and roots through which the electricity passes are destroyed far enough without relevant heat effect so that the water supply in the plant is interrupted and the plant dries out. As no soil is moved, the habitat is preserved undisturbed and as far as can be seen from the current status of trials, when used in normal agricultural application contexts there is no relevant damage to organisms living in the soil. As with chemical herbicides, but without the disadvantages of residues and waiting times, the electroherb method can be applied with correspondingly low and uniform dosing for desiccation of field crops. The results of the second trial year for potato desiccation will be presented for the first time at PotatoEurope 2018. The goal here is to provide an efficient alternative method for wide-scale use in agriculture that is suitable for producing high-grade potatoes in an environmentally safe manner without chemical desiccation agents, and if possible without any further mechanical or thermal methods too.
The electroherb method will be presented using equipment from Messrs. Zasso.
After flailing, it is also possible to use multi-row haulm pluckers that pull the stalks out of the soil and thus interrupt the connection between the residual stalks and the tuber nest. In combination with the haulm pluckers or as solo items of equipment, root cutters can also be used that undercut the ridge with broad blades and aim to further limit the risk of plant regrowth.
The in-depth guide to data destruction
A critical part of securing intellectual property is the timely elimination of records and data you no longer need. Here’s the scoop on overwriting, degaussing and physical destruction of media.
Contributing Writer, CSO |
A key part of any information security strategy is disposing of data once it’s no longer needed. Failure to do so can lead to serious breaches of data-protection and privacy policies, compliance problems and added costs.
When it comes to selecting ways to destroy data, organizations have a short menu. There are basically three options: overwriting, which is covering up old data with information; degaussing, which erases the magnetic field of the storage media; and physical destruction, which employs techniques such as disk shredding. Each of these techniques has benefits and drawbacks, experts say.
Some organizations use more than one method. For example, microprocessor maker Intel uses all three, «depending on what we’re trying to do and for what purpose,» says Malcolm Harkins, CISO and vice president of the IT group.
The data destruction market hasn’t changed much in the past few years, says Ben Rothke, an information security professional with extensive experience in data destruction. «If there is any trend, it is that more firms are aware of the importance of data destruction,» Rothke says.
Still, some organizations, particularly smaller ones, need more education about data destruction, according to Jay Heiser, an analyst at research firm Gartner. «We consider this a very important topic, but it is not one that Gartner clients spend a lot of time asking us about,» Heiser says.
«Enterprise clients generally have a pretty good idea of how to deal with this; the practices have been relatively consistent over a period of years, and it doesn’t generate a good deal of attention.»
Unfortunately, Heiser says, there are still many small-to-midsize businesses that haven’t fully thought through the risks of undestroyed data.
There are also persistent questions among all types of companies about how to handle data that’s in the hands of cloud computing providers.
«The concern that I am most often asked about by Gartner clients involves the treatment of data on the part of service vendors, especially software as a service [SaaS],» Heiser says.
While a traditionally outsourced data center provider will typically commit to destroying data at the end of a contract and confirm this destruction in writing, that type of policy is rare to nonexistent for SaaS, Heiser says.
«Although the storage architecture of most SaaS services probably means that data from former customers will quickly be written over and soon become virtually impossible to recover, there’s no good way to know if this is the case,» he says. «The SaaS market also has little or no convention surrounding the treatment of former client data on backup media.»
Cloud services will likely increasingly shape how data destruction is perceived and performed in the coming years, says Ariel Silverstone, vice president and CISO at online travel services provider Expedia.
«With the massive herd heading toward cloud, most vestigial physical destruction remnants are being killed off,» Silverstone says. «In other words, logical destruction, for all but truly classified data, is further entrenched as the norm. The problem is not destruction as much as it is discovery of the data. How do we find the data that we need to destroy?»
As for on-premise data, organizations need to consider several factors before choosing a method of destruction, says Jeff Misrahi, an independent information security consultant and former CISO.
The first is the time spent on data destruction. For example, is this something the company does a lot, or does it have a lot of disks to go though?
The second is cost. Can the company afford to destroy disks or do they need to be reused, and can it afford specialized destruction hardware?
Finally, think about validation and certification. Is data destruction a regulatory compliance requirement? How will you prove to regulators or auditors that you have met the requirements?
Here’s a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of the three main methods of data destruction.
One of the most common ways to address data remanence—the residual representation of data that remains on storage media after attempts erase it—is to overwrite the media with new data.
Because overwriting can be done by software and can be used selectively on part or all of a storage medium, it’s a relatively easy, low-cost option for some applications, experts say.
Among the biggest advantages of this method, Rothke says, is that a single pass is adequate for data removal, as long as all data storage regions are addressed.
Software can also be configured to clear specific data, files, partitions or just the free space on storage media. Overwriting erases all remnants of deleted data to maintain security, Rothke says, and it’s an environmentally friendly option.
On the downside, Rothke notes, it takes a long time to overwrite an entire high-capacity drive. This process might not be able to sanitize data from inaccessible regions such as host-protected areas. In addition, there is no security protection during the erasure process, and it is subject to intentional or accidental parameter changes. Overwriting might require a separate license for every hard drive, and the process is ineffective without good quality assurance processes.
Another factor to consider is that overwriting works only when the storage media is not damaged and is still writable, says Vivian Tero, program director for governance, risk and compliance infrastructure at research firm IDC (a sister company to CSO’s publisher).
«Media degradation will render this [method] ineffective,» Tero says. Nor will overwriting work on disks with advanced storage-management features, she says. «For example, the use of RAID means that data is written to multiple locations for fault tolerance, which means that remnants of the data are scattered in the enterprise storage architecture,» Tero says.
Security practitioners point out that while overwriting is cost effective, it’s not free. «Overwriting is definitely cheaper [than other methods], but you still have to have the headcount to manage it, so there are costs there,» Harkins says.
By following standards created by the Department of Defense and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, «you can be pretty sure the [overwritten] data will be unreadable and unusable,» Harkins says. «There are studies I’ve seen where people will prove that they can find stuff on drives that are overwritten. But I think if you follow the standards you greatly minimize the likelihood that that would be case.»
Still, Harkins says, overwriting is by no means foolproof. There are areas where errors might occur and the data might not be fully overwritten. «In the wrong hands, someone might still be able to recover the data,» he says.
Degaussing is the removal or reduction of the magnetic field of a storage disk or drive. It’s done using a device called a degausser, which is specifically designed for the medium being erased.
When applied to magnetic storage media such as hard disks, magnetic tape or floppy disks, the process of degaussing can quickly and effectively purge an entire storage medium.
A key advantage to degaussing is that it makes data completely unrecoverable, making this method of destruction particularly appealing for dealing with highly sensitive data.
On the negative side, Rothke says, strong degausser products can be expensive and heavy, and they can have especially strong electromagnetic fields that can produce collateral damage to vulnerable equipment nearby.
In addition, degaussing can create irreversible damage to hard drives. It destroys the special servo control data on the drive, which is meant to be permanently embedded. Once the servo is damaged, the drive is unusable.
«Degaussing makes data unrecoverable, but it can damage certain media types so that they are no longer usable,» Harkins says. «So if you’re reusing [those media] this may not be the right method.»
Once disks are rendered inoperable by degaussing, manufacturers may not be able to fix drives or honor replacement warranties and service contracts, Tero says.
There’s also the issue of securing media during the process of degaussing. «If there are strict requirements that prevent exit of failed and decommissioned media from the data center, then the organization must assign physical space in the data center to secure the media and equipment for the disk eradication» process, Tero says.
The effectiveness of degaussing can depend on the density of drives, Harkins says. «We encountered that issue three or four years ago with hard drives in laptops,» he says.
«Because of [technology] changes in hard drives and the size of them, we found that some of the degaussing capabilities [were] diminishing over time.»
How effective the method is also depends on the people doing the degaussing. «If people make mistakes, then your control gets diminished,» Harkins says. «Let’s say the person responsible for degaussing drives was supposed to do it for 15 minutes, but they have to go to lunch so put it in for five minutes instead. You could have breakdowns like that.» But he concedes that all three methods are susceptible to human error.
Organizations can physically destroy data in a number of ways, such as disk shredding, melting or any other method that renders physical storage media unusable and unreadable.
One of the biggest advantages of this method is that it provides the highest assurance of absolute destruction of the data. There’s no likelihood that someone will be able to reconstruct or recover the data from a disk or drive that’s been physically destroyed.
On the down side, physical destruction can be a costly way to get rid of data, given the high capital expenses involved.
«Physical destruction [is] an expensive and not a fiscally sustainable long-term strategy,» Tero says. «The approach also contravenes an organization’s green and sustainability programs.»
But Intel has found that physical destruction is an efficient method of getting rid of data when transporting storage media for degaussing is not practical or secure.
For example, when the company needed to wipe data from thousands of drives in multiple locations, its choices were to either degauss at multiple sites, which would have been costly, or ship the drives to a single location, which would have been risky if the drives got into the wrong hands.
The company ended up stockpiling thousands of old drives while pondering how to destroy them in a way that was not prohibitively expensive but that still resulted in the complete destruction of the data. Intel had been working with scrap contractors that melt down and reclaim precious metals, and someone came up with idea of having them melt down the hard drives and recycle the metal.
«There was no cost impact to the IT budget, and it was also green because the metals were getting recycled,» Harkins says.
However, Harkins points out that the effectiveness of physical destruction methods depends on how much of the medium was actually destroyed. «I might still worry about drilling holes in a hard drive,» which might render the drive unusable but not destroy the data that’s left in unaffected spaces, he says.
Bob Violino is a contributing writer for Insider Pro, Computerworld, CIO, CSO, InfoWorld, and Network World, based in New York.