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Scientific Report On Preferred Habitat Of Woodlice

fourteen jointed limbs. Woodlice form the suborderOniscidea within the order Isopoda, with over 3,000 known species. The woodlouse has a shell-like exoskeleton, which it must progressively shed as it grows. The moult takes place in two stages; the back half is lost first, followed two or three days later by the front. This method of moulting is different from that of most arthropods, which shed their cuticle in a single process. Metabolic rate is temperature-dependent in woodlice. In contrast to mammals.

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Scientific Report

exoskeleton 4 to 5 times. A pillbug consists of three basic body parts, the head, thorax, and the abdomen. Pillbugs eat decaying plants and animals as well as some living plants. The purpose of this experiment was to learn how to demonstrate the scientific method and to learn if pillbugs are attracted to cornstarch. In this experiment I hypothesize that if a pillbug is exposed to cornstarch and sand then the pillbug will spend more time near the cornstarch and repel from the sand. The equipment.

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Preferred Habitat of Alope Spinifrons

Abstract This investigation examined the preferred habitat of the prawn Alope spinifrons for the purpose of keeping the prawn in optimum conditions in captivity. The survey took place on shoreline between Matapouri Bay and Wooleys’ Bay on the Tutukaka Coast. A. spinifrons populations were surveyed, water chemistry, temperature and depth were noted as well as substrate type and flora and fauna sharing the area. A. spinifrons preferred sheltered rocky areas where there was good water circulation.

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Woodlice Research

Woodlice — Porcellio Scaber Research: Introduction: [The following is summarised from: http://soilbugs.massey.ac.nz/isopoda.php] Common Names: Slaters, pill bugs, sow bugs, woodlice, Maori papapa Scientific Name: Arthropoda (Phylum) Crustacea (Class) Isopoda (Order) Oniscoidea (Suborder). Description: Slaters are apart of the Isopoda order, meaning they have an equal number of legs. They are also a crustacean, but unlike most crustaceans they are terrestrial opposed to marine dwellers.

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Woodlice Investigation

nvestigation into the Factor of Light and Dark Affecting Woodlice Predictions It was expected that a woodlice would prefer a damp, dark, but moderately warm surrounding. Normally one would expect to find slaters under logs or concrete slabs in one’s garden. Under these large objects, the sun cannot reach directly; therefore it is darker, damper and colder than the surroundings. Nevertheless, in winter we do not see woodlice crawling around very often, and, also at night, it may .

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How to Write a Scientific Report

Social Sciences School of Chemical & Life Sciences LC0236: Teamwork and Communication Toolbox (TCT) CA2, Scientific Report Brief WARNING NOTE You are reminded that plagiarism is a serious offence. Penalty will be imposed on those who reproduce another person’s work and opinions as their own without proper acknowledgement. Answers bearing striking similarities to material from textbooks/ reports or answers from students in other groups will be investigated and an appropriate penalty imposed on the.

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Investigation in the Habitat of Woodlice

LAB REPORT WOODLICE Daan Rijpkema May 2009 T4Y — General Science X Words TABLE OF CONTENTS Aim. 2 Hypothesis. 2 Materials .

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Woodlice Investigation

Woodlice Investigation Introduction: The ecological niche of the woodlice Porcellio scaber. The woodlouse Porcellio scaber is native to Europe but also commonly found in New Zealand. They live in cool, dark, damp microhabitats such as in rotting wood, under rocks, in caves and leaf litter. Small insectivorous rodents and birds as well as some spiders feed on woodlice. In the rotting log from which I gathered my specimens there were also millipedes, crickets, weta and spiders living. Woodlice.

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How to Write a Scientific Report on Drosophila

APPENDIX 5 — Writing Reports Report 1: Drosophila F1 Generation Report General Notes: This report is very much a practice run to get you used to this style of report writing, rather than simply filling in lab sheets. It should not be a long report (no longer than these notes, in fact). Scientific writing is not like writing essays in other genre. In many ways it is easier! There are three important rules to scientific writing and if you adhere to these, the rest is quite easy: 1. Sentences.

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habitat

A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism.[1][2] It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a speciespopulation.[3] A habitat is made up of physical factors such as soil, moisture, range of temperature, and availability of light as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence of predators. A habitat is not necessarily a.

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Woodlouse

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Other Invertebrate Pests

Management

Woodlice can be sampled by objects that provide shelter, such as upturned-flower pots, or items of food, such as bread dough. Woodlice are most common in soils with neutral or alkaline pH, good crumb structure, high organic matter content, and where soil bacteria and other macro-decomposers such as earthworms and millipedes flourish. They tend to be absent from acid and waterlogged soil. Due either to the disturbance or lack of shelter, woodlice are virtually absent from thoroughly tilled land. On the other hand, straw or other coarse mulch provides good habitat for woodlice and can lead to crop damage. Though infrequently damaging, woodlice can be suppressed with liquid, granular, dust, and bait applications of insecticide applied to the soil around seedlings, or to protected habitats where woodlice tend to aggregate. Bait formulations developed for slugs and snails are sometimes recommended for woodlice.

Wolbachia

Feminizing Wolbachia

In many woodlice species (pill bugs: Crustacea, Isopoda), a Wolbachia causes infected genetic males to develop into functional females. The feminizing Wolbachia accomplishes this through the infection of the male-hormone-producing gland. Without this hormone, genetic males develop into females. The spread of such an infection through a population can result in a severe shortage of males. Because males are needed for reproduction, this has led to counteradaptations by the nuclear genes in such a way that males will be produced even if the individual is infected. The effects of the Wolbachia and the counteradaptations against the feminization have led to a dynamic system of sex determination in some species of woodlice.

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Feminizing Wolbachia have also been discovered in a moth (Ostrinia scapularis: Crambidae). Infected individuals grow into females, but how the Wolbachia accomplishes this transition is not known.

Chemical Ecology

4.09.17 Arthropoda: Crustacea, Isopoda

Upon molestation, many woodlice (Isopoda; more than 10 000 species) may discharge a malodorous sticky fluid (in Oniscus asellus: amount 48–54 μg per individual) from the uropods, where the material is produced by internal gland cells. The fluid material is collected within the uropod grooves and forms a small droplet at the uropod tips, which may be pulled into long threads. 90,91 The proteinaceous secretion is unusually rich in glycine (21%) and proline (14%) and coagulates because of a polymerization process. The maximal molecular weight of the protein amounts to 13 500. The low level of hydroxyproline (0.5–1%), cysteine (0.5%), and valine (3%) indicates that the isopod material is not related to collagen-like, mollusk adhesive-like, or elastin-like proteins. 90 The secretion although not toxic evidently represents a deterrent to various ants and is also directed against spiders. 92

Additional glands, opening laterally of tergal plates, also discharge upon molestation. The chemically unknown secretion is said to have deterrent activities against spiders. 90

Sex Determination

Thanumalaya Subramoniam Ph.D, D.Sc, (Madras Univ); FNA, FNASc, FAAS, in Sexual Biology and Reproduction in Crustaceans , 2017

1.6.2 Cytoplasmic Sex Determination in Isopods

Another peculiarity found in Isopoda is that more than 40% of the terrestrial woodlouse species have been reported to display sex ratio distortion toward the female sex; in contrast, most of their aquatic counterparts have a sex ratio close to 1:1. Sex ratio distortion and intersexuality in isopods have been ascribed to the influence of an endocytoplasmic bacterium (called F bacterium) that lives in the cells of all tissues of females, but not males ( Bouchon et al., 2008 ). They cause female-biased sex ratios in the thelygenic females. In the isopod A. vulgare, the female:male ratio in a Wolbachia-infested population frequently exceeds 10:1. This bacterium belongs to the genus Wolbachia and is a Proteobacteria member. Incidentally, these microorganisms are concentrated in the oocytes and are maternally inherited. Therefore, all zygotes inheriting these bacteria will develop a female phenotype, regardless of their sexual genotypes. Notably, the ZZ males are changed to phenotypically functional females, which in turn produce female-biased broods. According to Juchault and Legrand (1981) , some population of Armadillium were entirely ZZ, with females produced only by such “epigenetic” factors ( Fig. 1.2 ). Antibiotic elimination of these bacteria, however, suppresses this feminizing effect on the host. Wolbachia bacteria are also thermosensitive, temperature above 30°C destroy many of the symbionts in the host tissues. Usually symbiont transmission is 90% efficient and hence the sex ratio in broods of infected females is strongly female biased. However, intersexual phenotypes possessing features of both sexes, and sometimes total sterility do appear in the progeny of certain Wolbachia-affected individuals, as a result of incomplete feminization ( Legrand et al., 1987 ). Evidently, Wolbachia does not alter the genotype of the infected isopods and therefore, they have their effect on the postembryonic sexual differentiation, such as the androgenic gland formation and functioning. Alternatively, the parasitic sex factors inhibit the expression of the “male gene” carried by the Z heterochromosome, thereby preventing the growth of androgenic gland, which would induce the development of male gonads through secretion of the androgenic hormone. The feminizing factors can be considered to be selfish genetic elements because they bias their host’s sex ratio to increase their own transmission. Conversion of males into females by such intracellular symbionts has obvious genetic advantage to Wolbachia, as they are primarily transmitted down the maternal line. Hence, a male host represents an evolutionary “dead end” for the bacterium; their ability to convert male to female host confers a strong selective advantage.

Figure 1.2 . Endosymbiont-mediated host sex determination: feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia infection in A. vulgare, characterized by sex ratio tilting toward females through conversion of genetic ZZ males into phenotypic ZZ females.

Adapted from Cordaux, R., Bouchon, D., Greve, P., 2011. The impact of endosymbionts on the evolution of host sex-determination mechanisms. Trends Genet. 27, 332–341.

Female-biased sex ratios have also been reported in certain strains of A. vulgare, which do not harbor Wolbachia. The feminizing agent responsible for the abnormal sex ratios in these strains is known to be the “f factor.” Legrand and Juchault (1984) first indicated a link between the f factor and the Wolbachia bacteria in A. vulgaris. When WZ females were inoculated with Wolbachia and maintained in inbred lines, an f lineage appeared spontaneously, following a lack of Wolbachia transmission in the descendants of one female. This experiment revealed the possibility that the f factor could be a virus associated with Wolbachia or a part of the unstable DNA element of the infected Wolbachia, which becomes incorporated into the nuclear genome of the isopod. As no experimental transfection of the f element is possible by inoculation, f could be transposon-like, carrying bacterial feminizing information. Crossing experiments have indicated that this stable binding of f factor occurs to a male chromosome (Z chromosome), thereby creating a W-like chromosome, resulting once more in purely chromosomal sex determination. This adduces further evidence to the fact that the only difference between female (Z) and male (W) seems to be the presence or absence of the female determinant, as the rest of the chromosome is identical. In this way, the evolution of a heterochromosome has been suggested to have occurred from a sex-determining homologous pair, by cytoplasmic sex-determining factors from infection of an unstable element of the bacterial DNA into the nuclear genome of the host ( Fig. 1.3 ). This phenomenon also illustrates the appearance of a new sex-determining mechanism in isopods through cytoplasmic factors. It is well known that in animals, the original sex-determining mechanism is nuclear, but in Crustacea, cytoplasmic effects on the evolution of the sex-determining mechanism are evidenced in isopods. This is similar to the reported conditions in other animals and plants, where nuclear–cytoplasmic interactions might have favored evolution from hermaphroditism to separate sexes ( Avise, 2011 ).

Figure 1.3 . Diagrammatic representation of chromosomal sex differentiation affected by Wolbachia infection. Infection of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts in an A. vulgare population leads to a shift from chromosomal to cytoplasmic sex determination (red—light gray in print version). Wolbachia gives rise to the f element, a non-Mendelian feminizing sex factor (blue—dark gray in print version). The f element ultimately becomes stably integrated into a Z chromosome, hence generating a W-like chromosome and restoring chromosomal sex determination with female heterogamety (green—gray in print version). Genetic conflicts between host genome and the feminizing Wolbachia or the f element result in selection of nuclear resistance genes (black).

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Adapted from Cordaux, R., Bouchon, D., Greve, P., 2011. The impact of endosymbionts on the evolution of host sex-determination mechanisms. Trends Genet. 27, 332–341.

Macroecology of Sexual Selection

Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez,, . Regina H. Macedo, in Sexual Selection , 2013

Arthropods

Terrestrial arthropods comprise representatives of four major groups: insects, arachnids, myriapods (centipedes and millipedes), and crustaceans of the order Isopoda (woodlice). There is no doubt that diversity of morphologies, behaviors, and perhaps physiological strategies can thwart generalizations. Nonetheless, we will explore some general common features of these groups to develop large-scale predictions. Like many other groups of organisms, abiotic factors, such as severe temperature, limit the occurrence of arthropod species at extreme latitudes, whereas limits of species towards the equator are set by biotic interactions, such as predation, diseases, and competition ( Schemske, 2002, 2009 ; Chown and Nicolson, 2004 ), although this latter factor, though potentially significant, has not been substantiated by any studies to date. In fact, arthropods are almost absent from the most severe climates that combine cold temperatures and low precipitation levels ( Sanways, 2005 ). Although some arthropod species with specialized physiological mechanisms endure freezing temperatures in temperate and cold zones, most species go through their entire life cycles in the warm months, when they grow fast, reproduce, and eventually die ( Chown and Nicolson, 2004 ). On the other hand, hot and humid environments, such as the Amazon forest, hold a huge diversity of long-lived arthropods, some of them reaching 10 years or more ( Adis, 2002 ).

In temperate and cold regions, a short period of favorable climatic conditions probably constrains development time, leading to fast sexual maturity and small body size (especially among predators). Moreover, time-consuming activities, such as post-zygotic parental care, can be expected to be rare. Females are expected to lay a large number of eggs and hide them in protected places, where they probably will overwinter (see, for example, Tallamy and Schaeffer, 1997 ; Machado and Macías-Ordóñez, 2007 ). Semelparity, therefore, is expected to be the rule, and for the few iteroparous species the time for egg replenishing is likely to be long since resources are scarce and concentrated in time ( Tallamy and Brown, 2001 ). A final consequence of the short mating season, when a large number of individuals are reproductively active at the same time, is that the most frequent mating system should be a scramble competition polygyny, in which temperature may play an important role influencing the relative mating success of different phenotypes (see, for example, Moya-Loraño et al., 2007 ). As predicted by theory, a large number of males within the searching area makes territoriality unprofitable ( Thornhill and Alcock, 1983 ). In some cases, however, protandrous males of low-density species may be able to monopolize some key reproductive resource so that the observed mating system is a resource-defense polygyny.

At the other extreme, arthropod species living in hot and humid environments, with resources available throughout the year, are predicted to have a slow development time when compared to their relatives from temperate and cold regions. Intense predation and fungal infection on eggs select for post-zygotic parental care, which indeed appears to be more common among tropical species ( Costa, 2006 ). High temperatures, however, should accelerate embryonic development, so that the period of parental care is not expected to be long. For predatory arthropods, which are generally food deprived while caring for the offspring (see, for example, Thomas and Manica, 2003 ; Machado and Macías-Ordóñez, 2007 ), parental care is expected to be followed by a fast period of egg replenishing, which is a direct consequence of abundant food sources. Even for species that do not exhibit any form of post-zygotic parental care, favorable and stable climatic conditions should favor iteroparity, so that individuals are expected to have several reproductive events throughout the year. Since the mating season is long, there would be no selective pressure on reproductive synchrony and, at any given moment, populations should be composed of reproductive females and non-reproductive females. A higher degree of female reproductive asynchrony would result in a more male-biased operational sex-ratio and thus in potentially stronger sexual selection ( Shuster and Wade, 2003 ). A common mating system under this scenario is expected to be some kind of resource- or female-defense polygyny ( Thornhill and Alcock, 1983 ). In such circumstances, male–male competition is expected to be fierce.

As a result of intense male–male competition, we also predict that weaponry, such as antlers, horns, forceps, and claws employed in agonistic interactions between rivals for female access, will be more common in arthropods in hot and humid environments than in any other types of environments. Moreover, since the expression of weapons in males is costly, and there is a trade-off between the investment in weapons and somatic structures ( Nijhout and Emlen, 1998 ), only rich food environments may offer enough resources to allow males to invest in elaborate weaponry. Parasites can also be expected to have better environmental conditions in the tropics ( Schemske et al., 2009 ), generating high immunological costs in their host species. Thus, costly secondary sexual traits in host species, which may or may not be used as weapons, would become honest signals in these environments.

Whenever a subset of males bearing well-developed weaponry or large body size is able to monopolize most of the copulations, there is opportunity for alternative male tactics to evolve ( Shuster and Wade, 2003 ; Taborsky et al., 2008 ). Individuals of the alternative male morph (sneakers) generally do not invest in weapons or large body size, but rather allocate their scarce resources to optimizing their mating opportunities by maximizing the fertilization of gametes ( Simmons et al., 2001 ). A final consequence is that alternative male morphs are expected to be more common and the intensity of sperm competition is expected to be higher among species living in hot and humid environments than in any other environment.

Volume 4

Integumentary reinforcements

Many animals have evolved integumentary reinforcements that can be used to protect them against piercing and crushing attacks of predators. These include the chitinous exoskeleton of millipedes, decapods, woodlice and copepods, scales of fish and pangolins, dermal plates of sticklebacks, lizards, crocodiles, dinosaurs and armadillos, among others, the carapaces of turtles and shells of mollusks. Integumentary reinforcements comprise the most diverse range of defensive morphologies with divergent structural organizations, including isolated elements embedded in the skin (e.g., dinosaurs), interlocking and/or overlapping elements (e.g., armadillos) and rigid structures (e.g., mollusks). Nonetheless, all these morphologies consist of biomineralized hard tissues, giving them an obvious function – protection. In lobsters, the strength of the exoskeleton, not the type of weaponry (i.e., long spiny antennae or claws), directly relates to the perceived predation risk ( Barshaw et al., 2003 ). In a similar fashion, Broeckhoven et al. (2015) showed that the dermal armor of armadillo lizards (Ouroborus cataphractus), which is notably more robust than that of closely related species, provides an effective barrier against bites from mammalian predators such as mongooses. Some animals respond to a predator attack by withdrawing into their protective shell or carapace. Evidence of the potential effectiveness of this strategy is seen among the land snail Satsuma caliginosa found distributed among Japan and several other islands in the same region. Snails found on the same island as snail-eating snakes have a modified shell, with the shell extended into the aperture opening, changing both its shape and size. Predation trials with snail-eating snakes show that this narrowed aperture opening gives the snails a significantly increased chance of escaping a snake attack over snails of similar size with a rounded opening ( Hoso and Hori, 2008 ). It must be noted that integumentary reinforcements can also act as weapons and be actively used during predatory attack. For instance, Morii et al. (2016) show that shells of Karaftohelix snails can be used actively or passively in defence. Passive defence snails have shells with narrower apertures to prevent predators from entering, similar to the example given above. In contrast, active defence snails use their shells to swing it against predators ( Fig. 2 ).

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Fig. 2 . In land snails of the genus Karaftohelix, two divergent antipredator strategies exist: snails either retreat their soft body into their shells (a) or swing their shell around in an attempt to escape from predators by flipping away or knocking over the predator (b). This example illustrates that passive defenses such as body armor can be also be actively used.

From Morii, Y., Prozorova, L., Chiba, S., 2016. Parallel evolution of passive and active defence in land snails. Scientific Reports 6, 35600.

CAVES

Floor Community

The total biomass of a 25 m 2 of the groundfloor of the Liang Pengurukan cave near Bohorok in North Sumatra is 63.38 g of which 90% are contributed by a single species of woodlouse (Isopoda). This is also accounted for 99% of the animals food of secondary consumers like spiders (Fam. Araneae) and scutigerid centipeds ( Fig. 12.6 ).

FIGURE 12.6 . Pyramid of biomass for the Liang Pengurukan cave floor community 1

spiders 16 individuals /1.12 g .m −2 biomass

scutigerid centipeds 1 individual /0.05 g .m −2 biomass

wood lice/sow bugs 11.250 individuals /57.25 g .m −2 biomass

cricket 1 individual /4.65 g .m −2 biomass

cockroaches 3 individuals /0.31 g .m −2 biomass

(after Whitten et al., 1984 ). Copyright © 1984

This relationship between the primary and secondary consumers is part of the foodweb including the predominant coprophages and necrophages, and a relatively large community of predators such as the centipede Scutigera sp.(Chilopoda), the assasin bug Bagauda sp.(Hemiptera), beetles like Elateridae, Scarabaeidae and Carabidae, medium sized to large spiders living on the walls and venturing to the ground when hungry, like the world’s most primitive spider Liphistus sp.(Fam. Araneae) whose abdomen is still segmented.

While most of the coprophages reley on the usually hard and dry feces of insect-eating bats, the cockroaches (Blattaria) ingest feces of the fruit-eating bats which is soft and rich of carbohydrates. This sort of feces is also the preference of crickets, like the Raphidophora sp. (Orthoptera) with a body length of 50 mm and an antennae length of 90 mm. Small psocoptoran flies and some fungi digest also this food resource, while the caterpillars of the moth Tinea sp. (Lepidoptera) exploits the hard and dry feces part of the “guano” layer inside the caves.

As the understanding of the existing cave ecosystems grows, the food webs become more and more complicated. A small group of larger predators are also entering the caves. To this group belongs the shrew Crocidura sp.(Insectivora) and the toad Bufo asper (Fam. Bufonidae).

Spiders – The Generalist Super Predators in Agro-Ecosystems

15.5 Prey Selection by Spiders

Prey selection by the spider has been studied by several ecologists. Savory (1928) stated that ‘spiders will eat all kinds of flies, wasps, bees, ants, beetles, earwigs, butterflies, moths and harvestmen, and woodlice and other spiders whenever the opportunity occurs; they show no trace of discrimination’. His views were supported by many records of prey species captured by free living spiders and by feeding tests with caged spiders ( Turnbull, 1973 ). Lycosidae and Pisauridae are generally rapid runners also with good eyesight ( Magni et al. 1965 ). On sighting a potential prey, they orient their body to bring the prey into the centre of vision of two large frontal eyes, charge forward, and seize the prey with the forelegs and chelicerae and subdue it with venom.

Miscellaneous Pests

Blunt snout pillbug

Widespread and often common in heated greenhouses, occasionally causing damage to ornamental plants.

1139 . Blunt snout pillbug (Armadillidium nasatum).

Description

Adult: 21 mm long; grey, with a pale median line and pale lateral patches; snout drawn into a narrow, square-sided projection.

Life History

Adults occur throughout the year, usually hibernating in piles of soil. Breeding occurs from April to October, there being two or more generations each year. Females deposit about 50 eggs, and these are retained in a special pouch on the underside of the thorax. The eggs hatch in about 1–2 months. Young, white, 12-legged woodlice (each about 1 mm long) then escape from the maternal pouch to begin feeding. Individuals acquire the typical adult coloration after about two weeks, and a seventh pair of legs appears after two moults. Further moults occur, even after the adult stage is attained, but individuals do not reach sexual maturity until the following year. Mortality of young woodlice is high and few individuals survive for more than a couple of months; adults, however, may survive for up to four years.

Damage

Woodlice produce irregular holes in leaves, mainly in those close to the ground; growing points of young plants may also be destroyed. Stems of potted plants and transplants are often grazed but those of older plants are rarely attacked.

Iridovirus, Infection and Immunity

Stephanie K. Watson, James Kalmakoff, in Encyclopedia of Immunology (Second Edition) , 1998

Host range and classification

Iridoviruses vary in their host range: some exhibit a broad range of host species while others are restricted to one or two specific hosts. Both TIV and CIV have a wide host range, infecting dipteran, coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts. CIV has been shown to infect over 100 insect species, woodlice, centipedes and two species of Crustacea. The greater wax moth Galleria mellonella(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is highly permissive to most iridoviruses and is used for general virus propagation. Iridoviruses infecting insects have not been found to infect any vertebrates. The current classification scheme for these viruses uses names according to the host species of initial isolation and a type number relating to the chronological order of discovery. A system using PCR sequencing and DNA–DNA hybridization methods is currently being investigated for classification of iridoviruses.

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