Reduced sensitivity of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, to the organophosphate dichlorvos — JONES — 1992 — Journal of Fish Diseases — Wiley Online Library

Reduced sensitivity of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, to the organophosphate dichlorvos

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland

Dr R. Wootten, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.Search for more papers by this author

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland

Dr R. Wootten, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.Search for more papers by this author


Abstract. Anecdotal reports from the Scottish fish farming industry suggested a reduction in the sensitivity of salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, to the organophosphate dichlorvos. In this study, pro‐adult and adult lice were collected from marine salmon sites showing a variety of ‘sensitivities’ to dichlorvos and subjected to dichlorvos exposure at a range of doses for a 48‐h period in vitro. From the lice mortalities, 24 and 48 h LC50 values were calculated, and using a ‘sensitive’ source of lice as a reference, resistance ratios calculated. The data generated suggests that L. salmonis from different geographic areas shows differences in sensitivity to dichlorvos. The implications for the salmon farming industry are discussed.

How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs in Your Shoes – 7 Easy Tricks to Eradicate the Infestation

​Today, I am going to discuss about the most irritating and frustrating issue related to our daily life which is bed bugs infestation inside our shoes.

That survey specifically mentioned that about 99.6 percent home owners said that they had performed bed bug treatment in the past year. This figure is really higher as compared to the 25% of home owners who reported to be done this treatment 15 years ago.

So, this research study clearly emphasizes the fact that bed bug infestation ratio in average American families is astronomical in modern days. And this clearly underlines the importance of protecting our household items including our shoes from these bad guys.

Of course, many people have the doubt whether it affects our costly footwear items which leads to this question.

​Can Bed Bugs Live in Your Shoes?

My answer is definitely Yes!

Besides backpacks and luggage; shoes are another personal items that are susceptible to bed bug infestation.

These little annoying parasites can inhabit every pair of shoes that you have in your wardrobe.

This could cause you a skin infection every time you wear your shoes. Yet eliminating them can prove to be quite a challenge, especially if you are using a trial and error method.

​How to Check Shoes for Bed Bugs?

​If you are unable to get rid of these nuisance causing, relentless insects from your footwear then you should not worry. I am going to show you my 7 most efficient ways to get rid of bed bugs from your shoes.

But before that, let me tell you first about few tips to check your shoes for bed bugs presence. So, here are some common symptoms that may suggest your shoes are infested by bed bugs.

A. Your feet get bed bug bitten whenever they are in the infested shoes. Itchiness and inflammation of the affected areas of the foot are the most common symptoms of bed bug bites. Additionally, those areas will turn red.

B. Your shoes produce an unpleasant, musty odor, which originates from the insect’s scent glands.

C. You notice bloodstains on your socks or in your shoes whenever you remove the shoes.

D. You notice bedbug-shed skins, eggshells and fecal spots in the hidden areas inside your shoes or this organic matter comes out of your shoes when you shake.

​What do I do with My Shoes for Bed Bug Treatment?

​Consider these 7 smart tricks below to get rid of bed bugs infestation from your expensive footwear items.

​1. Freeze Your Shoes

​One of the most efficient methods of getting rid of bed bugs is subjecting these organisms to extreme temperature conditions (cold in this case). That is because they will not be able to endure any freezing point temperatures beyond zero degree Celsius.

Simply put all of your shoes in a large polythene paper bag and let the package be in your freezer for one hour or more. Putting your shoes inside the freezer for full night will be the most efficient way to eradicate these micro-organisms from your footwear.

That will kill all the parasites plus their eggs so that new parasites will not hatch. After that, you can wash your shoes or sneakers to remove bed bug matter before drying and putting back in the wardrobe.

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​2. Use Your Dryer

​As said above, bed bugs are unable to withstand extreme temperatures. That said, blowing hot air inside your infested shoes is a good way to eliminate the parasites.

All you need is to set your dryer temperature to extreme hotness and these insects will be killed in just few seconds. We recommend temperatures above 70 degrees Celsius to get the best results.

​3. ​Use Heat Box or Zappbug Heater

​This method is almost similar to the previous one only that it entails the use of a heat box. Heat boxes, which are designed for killing bed bugs through heat treatment, are readily available online.

These boxes simply apply high amount of heat that will kill stubborn and nuisance causing insects like bugs. Simply buy this heat box online and place your shoes in the box for a couple of minutes to eliminate bed bugs.

If your shoe pairs are too many to fit into the box at once, repeat the process until you have subjected all your shoe pairs for this heat treatment.

You may also use a bed bug heater​ also known as a Zappbug heater instead of a heat box.

You do not have to buy a heat box if you already have a bed bug or a Zappbug heater as both heaters work through the same mechanism, which is to produce higher temperature and killing th​ese parasites in the process.

I recommend you to watch the following video to understand how Zappbug works more efficiently in removing all types of bed bug infestations from your household items.

​4. Use a Good Bed Bug Spray

​There are many insecticides that can be used to kill bed bugs. Look for an effective bed bug spray and spray onto the inside of your shoes according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

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Some sprays are so powerful that they will completely wipe out bugs inhabiting a shoe just by using the spray few times in a week. Whereas other sprays will work slowly hence need to be sprayed more times to completely eliminate the target.

​5. Use Your Washing Machine

​A washing machine is also a good way to wipe out bed bugs from your shoes.

Firstly, it should be noted that bed bugs thrive best in dirty, unhygienic conditions. Secondly, these parasites hate water and washing detergents, which are necessary to wash shoes in a washing machine.

Thirdly, they will be affected by the amount of heat a washing machine generates. Fourthly, bed bugs will die instantly if submerged in water and this job is best performed by your washing machine.

In other words, your house washer or washing machine offers the ideal conditions to eliminate the bugs. In fact, this is one of the best and the most efficient methods to deal with bed bugs that are living inside your shoes, boots and sneakers.

Not all shoes are machine washable though, especially leather and suede. As such, be sure to check what the label says before putting your shoes in a washing machine.

​6. Use a Dichlorvos Strip

​Pest strips, which feature a resin plastic with an insecticide such as Dichlorvos, can be a good way to rid your shoes of stubborn bugs.

These strips work by releasing the insecticide through vapor over durations of weeks or months. That said, you could buy and place one inside your shoe closet to wipe the nuisance causing parasites out of your footwear.

However, I also recommend to read this research article before you try this method. There are few precautions that you must take if you decide to use these types of strips to get rid of bed bugs from your home.

The most efficient Dichlorvos strip that I have found online is Nuvan Prostrips. It makes use of controlled release technology. When you place these strips inside your shoe closet or wardrobe, it works by gradually releasing deep penetrating vapor inside the closet or shoes.

This vapor is very strong and odorless which actually kills all types of visible and hidden insects and micro-organisms inside your wardrobe and closet.

​7. Seek Help from a Professional Exterminator

​Looking for help from a trustworthy exterminator is so far the easiest way to have your shoes freed from relentless bed bugs. A professional exterminator specializes in eliminating bothersome rodents and insects, including bed bugs.

These professionals make use of variety of proven methods and treatments. They usually are more experienced and well equipped to deal with all kinds of bed bug infestations.

With this method, all you have to do is sit back and wait for the results after you have paid one to do the job. It is also one of the most effective methods to have your shoes entirely get rid of bed bugs.

I have already found a useful website for US consumers where you can search and locate the best professional exterminators in your area.

​Final Thoughts

​Yes, bed bugs are very stubborn living organisms. But it is not impossible to completely annihilate their presence from your home and shoes.

If you think your footwear is infested by these annoying parasites based on the symptoms above, then I suggest trying out the above treatment options.

You can try freezing your shoes, using a drier, or applying a method among the various heat treatment methods described above. If none of the bed bug elimination methods seems to work, try using a good bed bug spray, Nuvan Prostrips or even your washing machine.

If the problem still persists, then seek the services of a professional exterminator and you can be confident the insects will be wiped out completely.

Using a washing machine is, however, the best method as it provides more unfavorable conditions necessary to eliminate the relentless creatures, ensuring close to 100 percent kill rate.

In the end, I just want to wish good luck to you and recommend to try any of the above mentioned bug treatments for your shoes.

How to Get Rid of Carpet Beetles

Carpet beetles are known to be home pests inhabiting carpets, furniture, leather products and furniture. Today we’ll explain what causes carpet beetles, whether they live in beds, compare them to bed bugs, find out what methods you should use to deal with them and pick the 7 most effective sprays, powders and traps.

Table of Content:

Know Your Enemy: Carpet Beetle

As a rule, they are oval Attagenus beetles 2-5 mm long. Not all 200 species that are considered Attagenus prefer to live near people. We are most interested in three kinds of these pests. Adult beetles’ appearance resembles that of ladybugs, which is why some people don’t pay attention to them and don’t even think they are dangerous pest insects. Sometimes, they are also confused with cloth moths as both insects can damage woolen clothes. Remember that moth larvae leave random holes in clothes while the industrious carpet beetle’s larvae tends to gnaw out entire pieces of clothing or carpet. Moreover, carpenter beetle larvae shed their bristled brown skin when molting and that helps to identify them.

The beetles lay eggs near food sources and household objects of vegetable or animal origin in dark places. Larvae hatch within two weeks and immediately begin to feed before pupating. The damage caused by them is visible on cloth, carpets or any other organic-made products. In fact, these larvae are scavengers and they will feed on other animals’ remnants if there is a chance. You can detect larvae at home by their typical bristly chitinous covers which they shed.

Adult beetles don’t do any harm to the household and feed on pollen. Be careful when cutting flowers though as you can also bring home some larvae that will gnaw your carpet and sweaters.

Let’s study the three most common carpet beetle species.

Varied Carpet Beetle

Adults are about 0.1 of an inch long, and have black elytra with random whitish, brown and yellow spots. You can encounter them in spring and at the beginning of the summer, near windows. Larvae have an elongated body thickly covered with brown hairs in lighter and darker strips. Larvae are larger than adults and can reach 0.2 of an inch.

Furniture Carpet Beetles

This species is slightly larger than the previous one but is also motley. Its elytra are black with random whitish, yellow and orange spots. Larvae are initially white and then gradually they darken to velvet.

Black Carpet Beetle

These larvae and beetles are monophonic and shiny. Black adults can grow to reach 1/8 – 3/6 of an inch, while brown larvae are usually larger and can be 5/6 of an inch long. Black carpet beetles are most spread in California.

Carpet Beetles vs Bed Bugs

Some people wonder whether carpet beetles live in beds. Sometimes they do. The answer to the question “Do carpet beetles bite?” though is a definite no. Carpet beetles are easy to confuse with bed bugs, but don’t worry: it’s quite easy to distinguish these insect species from one another.

Carpet Beetles Bed Bugs
Size From 1/8 to 3/16 of an inch long Up to ¼ of an inch long
Color Black, brown, spotted Brown or reddish black (for full bed bugs)
Habitat Carpets, clothes, curtains, furniture, bed sheets Mattresses, furniture, spots behind wallpaper and paintings
Biting Non-biting Biting
What do they feed on? Cloth (leather, fur, wool and silk) and dead organic matter, i.e. skin particles, hair and feathers Blood-feeding

A grown blood-fed bed bug can reach ¼ of an inch. Bugs are brown, don’t have elytra or a long thick bristle like carpet beetles do. Instead, their paws extend beyond their body and they have a blood-sucking proboscis. Larvae and adults found in beds don’t bite; they merely consume exfoliated upper layers of skin and hair. They tend to live under covers in a secluded manner.

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The Scientists’ Recommendations for Getting Rid of Carpet Beetles

According to the University of California, primary protection lies in observing sanitary rules and timely cleaning. To minimize pest infestation, you should remove clusters of down, dead insects or hair as they serve as food for larvae. Beetles can use old cobwebs and birds’, wasps’ and rodents’ waste as nests for their eggs.

Clean the carpets, fabric upholstery, furniture, and cabinet shelves regularly. Regular vacuum cleaning is sufficient. Carpet beetles are also attracted by dirty clothes that are sweaty or stained with food. By all means, wash your clothes after finding any pests in them.

The degree of the danger of beetles’ settling in the furniture depends on the level of their penetration. If it is deep enough, dry cleaning or fumigation are effective. Naphthalene can be used when storing clothes.

What Is Effective for Killing?

Carpet beetle traps is the first method. Their main peculiarity is that they act on adults. A beetle about to breed on the fertilized eggs reacts to pheromones and doesn’t reach its destination.

Boric acid is the second organic method. This substance is used in all kinds of life spheres: in medicine, in the food industry and in the fight against insect pests.

The University of Kentucky names other organic treatments, such as cedar and freezing. Newly hatched larvae die when exposed to cedar, but older larvae and adults are not affected. The heartwood of red cedar has a vapor that is toxic to larvae, but after cedar is more than 36 months old, it is useless for control. Bags containing cedar chips should be replaced regularly to help provide control. Freezing has also been used to kill carpet beetles. Infested materials should be placed in plastic bags and loosely packed in a chest freezer at -20°F for three days.

Sprays are effective for carpet treatment and for reaching inaccessible spots where the pests usually hide. Products containing hlorpyrifos, permethrin, bendiocarb and allethrin, are effective against carpet beetles, according to the University of Kentucky experts’ claim. Don’t use treatments containing these ingredients on clothes and bed sheets.

In extreme cases, when you are unable to deal with these pests on your own, consult professional exterminators.

Top-7 Carpet Beetle Sprays, Traps and Dusts

The list below contains several insecticides containing deltamethrin, cyfluthrin and bifenthrin, as well as boric acid and insect traps. The scientists name such products and brands as Tempo SC Ultra, Demand CS, Suspend SC, DeltaDust, Kicker, and Ortho so we trust them. We’ve picked goods, both for home and professional use (highly concentrated ones), which are available online.

Powerful Carpet Beetle Killers: Sprays and Dusts

We’ve picked the most trustworthy products, such as an insecticide powder, a ready-to-use spray and some cut-rate concentrated insecticides to be used in a garden sprayer.

1. Delta Dust Multi Use Pest Control Insecticide Dust, 1 LB

Delta Dust is one of the many accessible deltamethrin-based insecticides approved for indoor use. This universal insecticide powder is available in one-pound packs. The dust is sprayed around the places where the pests inhabit or where they are undesirable and kills various insects. It also creates a repelling barrier for pests.

You can apply it with a paint brush or use a more convenient handle such as Pest Pistol Mini Duster. However, be prepared for a thorough cleaning after the treatment as although the users confirm that the dust is indeed effective against carpet beetles, this method is quite dirty since the dust flows everywhere.

Proper Use of No-Pest Strips in Your Home

By Chris Williams on February 11, 2014.

It has come to my attention that some of our customers don’t know how to use No-Pest Strips properly or safely. I’m talking about those yellow resin or plastic strips that you can hang in enclosed spaces to kill certain pests. “Enclosed spaces” is the operative word here. I’ll explain more later.

When I was young, the Shell No-Pest® Strip was readily available. Today the product you see in stores is the Hot Shot® No-Pest®Strip. A similar product, the Nuvan® Prostrip™, is used by pest control professionals. All of the No-Pest strips are impregnated with the pesticide dichlorvos, also known as DDVP, and sometimes called Vapona by oldtimers. Dichlorvos is an organophosphate type of pesticide. Most organophosphates have been banned over the years for various reasons, but DDVP strips survived the cut because of their high volatility and specialty use as a pest fumigant.

No-Pest Strips give off dichlorvos vapors, essentially fumigating the space in which they are placed. The strips are designed to be used in spaces that can be closed off and not occupied for extended periods. No-Pest Strips kill household pests such as flies, cockroaches, silverfish, clothes moths, spiders, beetles, and earwigs. Placed properly, they are effective for up to 4 months. The yellow resin strips are enclosed in a plastic holder that can be hung or stood up in the area to be treated. But the area to be treated cannot be:

  1. a living space
  2. a kitchen
  3. a space that people or pets occupy more than 4 hours a day
  4. space that is smaller than the minimum treatment area allowed by the label

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently reported on a 13-year study of 31 poisoning cases resulting from misuse of No-Pest Strips. Most of the illnesses reported by the CDC occurred when people were exposed to the strips for more than 4 hours a day. Fortunately, victims of dichlorvos overexposure recover quickly once removed from the treated area.

Allowed Uses of Dichlorvos No-Pest Strips (but read the label!)

  • No-Pest Strips are useful for fumigating infested items that can’t be washed or treated with liquid pesticides, heat, or other methods. The items and No-Pest Strip are placed in a closed-off closet or other room that is not occupied for an extended period of time. Items must be aired-out for at least 2 hours after treatment and before use.
  • No-Pest Strips can be used to kill pests in larger spaces like cabins, vacation homes, mobile homes, and boats only if these spaces remain unoccupied for at least 4 months after placement of the strips.
  • No-Pest Strips can be used, according to label directions, in parts of a home that are not occupied for more than 4 hours a day such as garages, attics, and crawlspaces.

Precautions When Using Dichlorvos No-Pest Strips

  • Wash hands with soap and water after handling strip.
  • Do not remove the strip from its holder or cut it into smaller pieces.
  • Do not place strips in living areas like bedrooms or family rooms.
  • Do not place strips in kitchens or anywhere that food is handled or served.
  • Do not allow children or pets to sleep or play in areas where strips have been placed.
  • Never place a No-Pest Strip in or around a bed to kill bed bugs. Hot Shot® markets a Bedbug Mattress & Luggage Treatment Kit that includes a 16 gram dichlorvos strip and a king size mattress treatment bag which can also be used to treat luggage.
  • Do not overapply. One 65 gram strip will treat 900-1200 cubic feet, about the size of a 10 x 13 room with an 8 foot ceiling.

Remember, if you really want to eliminate pests and assure the safety of your family, call a professional.

CDC Warning on Misuse of Pest Strips


CDC Warning on Misuse of Pest Strips

Every week, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) publishes a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). It’s meant mostly for doctors, public health practitioners, epidemiologists, and other scientists. It’s not something you read over dinner for light entertainment. Unless, you know, you’re a bug nerd like me.

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Last week I noticed this interesting story in the MMWR:

Notes from the Field: Acute Illness Associated with Use of Pest Strips — Seven U.S. States and Canada, 2000–2013. CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), January 17, 2014 / 63(02);42-43

Dichlorvos-impregnated strips (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, or DDVP pest strips) were first registered in 1954 under the trade name Vapona™ by Shell Chemical Company. These pest strips have been used by entomologists, museums, and other conservators for museum fumigation for decades.

DDVP is highly volatile, so does an excellent job of diffusing through an enclosed space. I’ll repeat – Highly Volatile. A block of DDVP emits vapors that repel and kill insects within 1,200 cubic feet for up to 4 months. It’s a strong smell that makes me nostalgic. It’s the smell of museum specimens and unopened cabinets of curiosities. It’s the smell of old insect collections.

It’s the smell of death and beautiful dead things.

Nerves communicate across gaps, or synapses, chemically. Organophosphates block transmitters, and overstimulate nerve fibers and muscles.

DDVP kills insects so well because it is one of the last organophosphate pesticides still available for indoor use in the US. Organophosphates can be dangerous, and misuse can result in ending up on your back twitching like a dying roach.

Organophosphates kill bugs by preventing nerve cells from turning stimulating signals off. They block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is present in all animal nervous systems. Overstimulating nerve cells this way leads to tremors, paralysis, and death. Fortunately, the amount of DVPP it takes to kill an insect is small compared to what it takes to cause symptoms in humans.

The critical safety element is how you use this pesticide. The CDC Report suggests that’s where the problem lies. Thirty-one cases were reported to The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sentinel system of acute dichlorvos pest strip–related illness between 2000 and 2013. That might not seem like a lot, but in the words of the study lead author, Dr. Rebecca Tsai, «it’s definitely an underestimate of what is happening.» The sentinel system has just 12 participating U.S. states. Of that small subsample of states, only those cases reported to State Public Health Departments are known about by the CDC.

Twenty (65%) of the 31 cases involved using DDVP incorrectly and in violation of the instructions and safety labels. As someone who’s been trained to only use DDVP with eye protection, gloves, and a respirator if in an enclosed space, this is chilling to read:

«The majority of these illnesses resulted from use of the product in commonly occupied living areas (e.g., kitchens and bedrooms), in violation of label directions. Contributing factors other than using strips in occupied areas included excessive application, placing strips in sealed bags to treat infested items, lack of skin protection (e.g., gloves or prompt skin washing), placing strips in closets and pantries, cutting and tearing strips into smaller pieces, and using a heater and fan to accelerate vapor dissemination from strips.»

The CDC suggests that part of the reason for misuse of DDVP strips relates to confusing packaging. This photo shows two over-the-counter DDVP containing products that Americans can buy at most large box retail stores:

The first package is typical of the main use of this compound: for hanging up in places where there are no humans, or using in sealed compartments. It does has a graphic on the back showing visually that it’s not meant to be used in living spaces. Or at least not around a television.

The second package shows a new use of DDVP: bed bug control. Recent research on using DDVP as a fumigation agent for bed bugs has shown promising results.

The instructions on the DVPP bed bug package say to seal the pest strips in the bag with the mattress for a week to make sure the bugs are gone. The back of the package has a lot of instructions in tiny print. «Do not use in areas where people will be for extended periods of time» is pretty vague. How long is «extended»? If you are bagging up your bed or furniture, probably a lot less time than you usually spend in your bedroom.

Bed bugs were clearly the motivation for some unwise uses of DDVP. Having read and discussed some of the case reports, I’m a little amazed there were not more serious injuries. I agree with the CDC that better packaging and labeling would be helpful in making sure that people use DDVP with appropriate caution.

If it were up to me, I’d at least have something along the lines of «FOR THE LOVE OF GOD DON’T TOUCH THIS STUFF WITHOUT GLOVES» on the packaging. There should be a way to more clearly indicate that this compound has a track record of neurological damage and is a Group B2 probable human carcinogen.

The other part of the label that ought to change are stronger instructions to only work with this material in well-ventilated areas. The thing that lets DDVP kill is building up a vapor pressure–basically, having a high concentration of the nasty stuff in the air. You can put DDVP in a small, enclosed space–but then you have to leave and not breathe any of it.

In the United States, DDVP is still available over the counter and for use in the home. DDVP has been restricted use only in the European Union since 2002.

DDVP has been under investigation by the EPA for decades. EPA referred DDVP to Special Review process in 1980 because of studies suggesting DDVP was carcinogenic and neurotoxic. For the next 10 years, DDVP sat in Special Review, and nearly all of its uses on food products were revoked. In 1995, Amvac, the new owner of the trademark, voluntarily cancelled use of Vapona in foggers, aerial applications, and food manufacturing. After that, things get a bit murky. In 2007, EPA removed DDVP from Special Review. Several different non-profits, including American Bird Conservancy and Natural Resources Defense Council, protested. In 2008, use of DDVP in dog flea collars was discontinued voluntarily. And now, some new uses of DDVP are being added as a bed bug fumigation agent.

I covered another CDC Morbidity and Mortality report recently that found hundreds of injuries due to misuse of pesticides in attempts to control bed bugs. The problem there, as here, is two-fold.

First, good clear information on what works to control insects is sometimes hard to find. It does exist–each state Health Department and Extension Service have many good, science-based publications on that topic. A great example is this series of Spanish, Hmong, Somali, and English videos about how to deal with bed bugs. There is an excellent article on how to safely use these pest strips here. Somehow, that information isn’t making it out to the people who need it.

And that leads me to the second problem: income. If you are low income, you are more likely to have a pest problem, and less likely to be able to afford professional pest control. You may not have a smart phone or computer that will let you access or find available resources. And that is why funding for State Extension and Outreach and Public Health Services is important to all of us.

While the CDC reported the problem, it’s the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) that actually regulates pesticide sales and labels. Any changes as a result of this report (and the earlier one about bed bugs) must come via EPA. New and clearer packaging initiatives have been promoted by the EPA in the past, so here’s hoping they continue that great trend.

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