PRESTIGE — FROM THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE: INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF THE DRUG
«Prestige» from the Colorado potato beetle: how to process potatoes before planting
- 1 «Prestige» from the Colorado potato beetle: how to process potatoes before planting
- 2 «Prestige»: description, composition and release form
- 3 The principle of the drug and the advantages of its use
- 4 Instructions for use of the drug «Prestige»: when to process and how
- 5 Security measures when working with the drug «Prestige»
- 6 Harm and benefits of the drug «Prestige»
- 7 Storage conditions and shelf life of chemical means
- 8 Colorado Potato Beetle Management
- 9 Introduction
- 10 Biology and Life Cycle
- 11 Management Options — Commercial Grower
- 12 Management Options — Home Gardeners and Certified Organic Growers
The main pest of potatoes is still the Colorado potato beetle. For many years, gardeners are trying to find an effective tool in the fight against it. Of all known today, one of the best is the prestige beetle drug. What is this tool and what are its features, we will tell further.
«Prestige»: description, composition and release form
The drug is a concentrated suspension, which is diluted in different proportions, depending on the method of application. The tool consists of pentsikuron (150 g / l) and imidacloprid (140 g / l). The latter is attributed to chloronicotinyls — substances that have a fast and powerful contact action. Penticurone is a pesticide aimed at fighting fungal diseases. Thus, “Prestige” is not only a poison from the Colorado potato beetle, but also a means of fighting fungal infections of plants.
The drug begins to actively act as soon as the treated planting material is planted in the ground. Thanks to moisture, Prestige moves from the tuber to the surrounding soil, creating a protective halo around it. During germination and growth of the tops of the plant absorbs the tool, spreading it to all cells. Thus, protection against lepidopteran and even-winged pests is maintained throughout the growing season. «Prestige» for processing potatoes helps in the same period to protect the plant from powdery mildew, brown rust, scab, rot and other fungal diseases.
Important! To ensure that the drug has the maximum effect, it is desirable to use it together with neighbors. If your plots are close, nothing is separated, and the neighbors refuse to use it, no matter how much you handle the landing, the bugs will fly around again and again.
The principle of the drug and the advantages of its use
The tool has two active components. Imidacloprid fights insects. Penetrating into the body of an insect, it affects its nervous system, blocking the transmission of impulses, because of which the insect is paralyzed and dies. Penticurone is a pesticide that is a fungicide with a long lasting protective effect.
Did you know? The advantage of the drug is that you can process the tubers once before planting, and you will not have to use the anti-beetle remedy anymore. But it does not act against the wireworm, although the instruction promises that the worm will not harm the tubers.
Instructions for use of the drug «Prestige»: when to process and how
According to the instructions «Prestige» from the Colorado potato beetle can be used to process tubers before germination, just before planting, as well as to protect seedlings.
Important! The mixture must be prepared on the day of application and mix well before direct spraying. Processing material 2 hours before planting.
Important! On the question of whether it is possible to process sliced potatoes with “Prestige”, there is no answer in the instruction, but experienced gardeners strongly discourage this.
You can process the tubers and before germination, in about 10-15 days. This increases the protection of potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle before planting and for the entire growing season. In this case, the suspension is dissolved in proportions of 30 ml of concentrate per 600 ml of water. It is also sprayed from a spray bottle and allowed to dry after processing. Then the potatoes lay on the germination, and before planting, re-processing according to the principle described above.
Did you know? Such potatoes can be simultaneously treated with biologically active substances and growth regulators. Each potato must be processed at least 90%. But it is desirable to pre-test for compatibility.
Security measures when working with the drug «Prestige»
The drug belongs to the third class of toxicity. This means that it is harmful to humans. Therefore, before preparing the suspension, it is necessary to protect the skin of the hands and the respiratory tract by wearing rubber gloves and a respirator. During the spraying of the drug should wear a hat, protective clothing and a mask to protect the face.
Important! Processing potatoes before planting «Prestige» does not eliminate the need to use drugs from other pests and diseases.
At the end of the treatment, the clothes are removed, they are sent to the wash, the hands and face are thoroughly washed, the throat and nasopharynx are washed with water, and a shower is taken. Do not forget to wash your entire inventory well.
Harm and benefits of the drug «Prestige»
«Prestige» from the Colorado potato beetle, according to the instructions for use, completely leaves the tubers in 50-60 days. Therefore, they can only process potato varieties that ripen in August: medium late or medium. It is not recommended to use it for early varieties, since the poison will not have time to get out of the tubers.
It is the toxicity of the drug is its main drawback. Therefore, it is recommended to use it as a last resort, when no other less aggressive means has helped. Another unpleasant feature of the drug is that it is quite expensive.
But in general, the processing of potatoes «Prestige» has an effective impact that they would not say to those who doubt its harm or benefit. Of course, provided that the original drug was used, and not fake. On the market there are a lot of drugs of dubious quality with a similar design and an identical name. Need to know that the original drug is produced only by Bayer and distributed through official representatives in the country. The label on the preparation must be in the state language of the country in which it is implemented. It should have a set list of information, including how to prepare the solution correctly. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to purchase the drug at proven specialized points.
Storage conditions and shelf life of chemical means
The drug should be stored in its original packaging in a dry place where the temperature is kept at a level from -20 ° C to +40 ° C. The place must be inaccessible to animals and children. Food, water, feed and combustible materials should not be kept nearby. It can be stored for no more than two years.
Gardeners have been struggling for many years over the question of how to treat potatoes for pests before planting. Today, they are offered an effective tool «Prestige», which not only destroys pests, but also protects the plant from a number of fungal diseases. It affects not only the tubers, but also the tops, and therefore has a complex effect, increasing the yield of potatoes. The only drawback of the drug — the third class of toxicity. It can be used only for late and medium potato varieties, since it is derived from plants no earlier than two months later. You also need to be careful when handling planting material, to comply with a number of protective measures. In addition, the cost of the drug rather big, and there is a big risk to buy a fake.
Colorado Potato Beetle Management
David W. Ragsdale and Edward B. Radcliffe
Department of Entomology
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in commercial production and home gardens in Minnesota. Larvae and adults both feed on foliage and if left untreated, complete defoliation of plants (Figure 1) is possible. The Colorado potato beetle was first recognized as a pest of potato in Colorado in 1859 after settlers introduced potatoes into the insect’s native range of the eastern Rocky Mountains. The native host for this insect is a relative of potato, buffalo bur (Solanum rostratum). It took the beetle about 30 years to adapt to potato. But, once Colorado potato beetles had adapted to feeding on potato, the beetles migrated to the east using potatoes grown in farms and gardens throughout the Great Plains and Ohio River Valley. On average, the Colorado potato beetle expanded its range eastward approximately 85 miles per year, reaching the East Coast by 1874. The insect has since become established in Europe and spread eastward to the Urals and Turkey. Potato growers have struggled to control this insect since 1865 when the first broad-spectrum insecticide, Paris green (lead arsenate), was dusted onto potato leaves to protect the foliage from Colorado potato beetles.
Biology and Life Cycle
Adult Colorado potato beetles (Figure 2) are about half the size of your thumbnail, oval in shape, and are a yellow-orange color with 10 narrow black stripes on the forewings (elytra). The adult Colorado potato beetle overwinters in the soil either in the potato field itself or in field margins. In Minnesota, the beetle overwinters most successfully in windbreaks and other wooded areas surrounding potato fields. The following spring, adults begin to emerge (Figure 3) at about the same time potatoes emerge. Adults feed for a short while in the spring, then begin to mate and lay clusters of 10 – 30 yellow eggs on the underside of the leaf (Figure 4). Females typically lay 350 or more eggs during their lives that can last several weeks. The Colorado potato beetle has few natural enemies, and those that do feed on the eggs, larvae, pupae, or adults have little impact on the Colorado potato beetle populations.
Eggs hatch within 1-2 weeks, depending upon temperatures (Table 1). Larvae remain aggregated near the egg mass when young (Figure 5) but begin to move throughout the plant as that leaf is consumed (Figure 6). Larvae molt four times getting progressively larger each time. Over 75% of the defoliation caused by the immatures occurs during the last (4th) larval instar (Figure 7). Young larvae are brick red with a black head capsule while 3rd and 4th instar larvae are pink to salmon colored with a black head capsule. The sides of the larvae have two rows of dark spots. Larvae can complete development in as little as 8-10 days if the average temperatures are in the mid 80’s while it will take over a month if temperatures average near 60 F. The fourth instar larvae eventually drop from the plant, and burrow into the soil to pupate.
|Table 1. Colorado potato beetle development (days) in relation to average daily temperatures.|
|Average Daily Temperature (F)||Days for eggs to hatch||Days to complete larval development||Days to complete pupation||Days for Summer adults to appear|
* No insects pupated at these temperatures. Adapted from Vegetable Insect Management, Meister Publishing.
Summer adults (Figure 8) begin to emerge in 1-3 weeks following pupation. In southern and central Minnesota, there is generally a partial second generation. Which is to say, that some of the summer adults feed only briefly then migrate to the field margins, windbreaks and wood lots where they burrow into the ground to overwinter. Other summer adults will feed voraciously, mate, and lay eggs. The primary trigger that determines whether individual beetles mate or go into reproductive dormancy is daylength at the time of adult emergence. By mid summer, a potato field can have all stages of Colorado potato beetles, eggs, larvae and adults. You can tell if you have overwintering adults or summer adults by looking at the hind or membranous wings. The overwintered adults have a smoky-orange cast to their wings with distinctive orange veins. The hind wings of the summer adults are clear.
Management Options — Commercial Grower
The Colorado potato beetle is one of the few “super” pests in agriculture. This species has developed resistance to most insecticides. Care must be used when targeting Colorado potato beetles to select an effective insecticide. You should also recognize that once you have to increase the rate to get adequate control, resistance to that insecticide is likely present in the population. Commercial growers have a number of insecticides that perform well. Fortunately, many of the newer insecticides have a unique mode of action giving growers the opportunity to delay the onset of resistance by rotating chemical classes. If growers carefully select insecticides for Colorado potato beetle control, these products should remain effective for years to come. Repeated use of the same insecticide or other insecticides from the same chemical class will speed development of insecticide resistance. Slowing the onset or even preventing insecticide resistance is called resistance management and all growers should practice some form of resistance management.
For the home gardener and certified organic producer, the choice of effective chemicals is limited and none will give perfect control. Insecticide choices for commercial growers are given in Table 3 and products available for home gardeners and certified organic growers are given in Table 4. There are more insecticides available to commercial growers but nearly all of these insecticides are classified as restricted use materials so that to purchase them you must be a certified pesticide applicator. Also, many insecticides are sold only in large quantities making them generally impractical for the home gardener.
Resistance Management. There are several key components of any resistance management program. First and foremost is to not repeatedly use the same insecticide or other insecticides having a similar mode of action to control Colorado potato beetles on the same farm in successive years. In fact, growers should not use the same insecticide to control the overwintering generation and the summer adults and any larvae they produce (2nd generation) in a given growing season. Historically, it has taken from 4 to 10 generations of repeated exposure to the same or similar insecticide for resistance to occur in Colorado potato beetles. In Minnesota this can mean 3-5 years in southern and central Minnesota where there are 2 generations per year and 4-10 years in the Red River Valley where Colorado potato beetles have a single generation most years. A good “rule of thumb” is if an insecticide performed well for you against the overwintering adults and young larvae don%;t use it on the summer adults or again the following spring. Switch insecticides and if possible use an insecticide from a different chemical class that has a different mode of action (Table 3 and Table 4).
Cultural Control. Crop rotation is an effective method of reducing your risk to Colorado potato beetles. The greater distance a potato field is located from a last year%;s potato field, the later in the season the field will become colonized with beetles, greatly reducing the potential for damage. Colorado potato beetles cannot fly unless temperatures reach 70 F. In early spring in Minnesota, daytime temperatures can be substantially below 70 F effectively making beetles walk from the overwintering site to locate a potato field.
Resistant Varieties. NewLeafâ potato varieties are marketed under contract with NatureMark, a subsidiary of Monsanto (http://www.naturemark.com/pages/Home.html). These genetically modified plants have incorporated a bacterial gene from Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis that produces a protein that is toxic only to beetles. There are a limited number of varieties that have been genetically engineered and are available for commercial use only (Table 2). Currently, NatureMark does not market the NewLeaf variety of potatoes to the home gardener and commercial growers must sign a Technology Agreement that stipulates that:
- NewLeaf seed may only be used for production of one crop,
- Potatoes must not be replanted or held over for seed use the following growing season,
- NewLeaf seed may not be resold without penalty,
- NewLeaf varieties may comprise no more than 80% of potato acres on an individual farm unit, for the purpose of resistance management.
|Table 2. NewLeaf potato varieties produced by NatureMark Potatoes.|
|Variety||Beetle Control||Plant disease control|
|NewLeaf 6 Russet Burbank||Yes||None|
|NewLeaf Plus 82 Russet Burbank
NewLeaf Plus 129 Russet Burbank
NewLeaf Plus 350 Russet Burbank
|NewLeaf Y 101 Russet Burbank||Yes||Yes, PVY|
|NewLeaf 6 Atlantic
NewLeaf 31 Atlantic
NewLeaf 36 Atlantic
|NewLeaf 5 Superior||Yes||None|
|NewLeaf Y 46 Hi-Lite||Yes||Yes, PVY|
|NewLeaf Y 2 Shepody
NewLeaf Y 15 Shepody
When using NewLeaf potato varieties beneficial insects are not harmed. This is an important feature because natural enemies can be relied upon to provide effective control of other potato pests such as aphids. NewLeaf potatoes produce the protein toxin in all green tissues and beetle mortality is essentially 100%. To slow down the development of resistance to this protein toxin, commercial growers must agree to plant at least 20% of their potato acreage to standard varieties and use conventional insecticides for Colorado potato beetle control on this 20%.
Chemical Control. Commercial production of potatoes is nearly impossible without using insecticides to control Colorado potato beetles. Commercial growers have the option of using systemic insecticides applied to the soil or seed at planting or apply insecticides to foliage after crop emergence. Using a systemic insecticide at planting is justified if there is a history of beetle treatment each growing season. If beetle pressure is not always severe, foliar applied insecticides can be the better choice because that permits assessment of beetle pressure before deciding on treatment. Also, invasion of a field may occur from one side of the field and treating field edges or “hot spots” is an option available to those who use a foliar applied insecticide.
All insecticides are most effective on very young larvae. Eggs and pupae are not susceptible to chemical control and adults can be difficult to control. Targeting application toward young larvae helps prevent damaging populations and allows resistant adult beetles to mate with susceptible beetles keeping selection pressure for insecticides resistance low. If sprays are targeted against overwintering adults, the only survivors will be resistant individuals. When resistant individuals mate, their offspring are resistant thus fixing the resistance gene in the population. Once resistance has become fixed in a population, reversion to susceptibility occurs only after many generations of non-exposure and may never revert to pre-exposure levels
Foliar materials are best applied between 15 and 30% egg hatch for best control.
A second foliar application may be necessary if egg laying continues over an extended period. You can predict 15-30% egg hatch by flagging 100 egg masses in the field and checking them daily. Alternatively, insecticide application could begin when egg hatch has occurred on 5-10% of the plants. Waiting to spray until beetles are in the late 3rd and early 4th instar is not a wise strategy. Large larvae are difficult to control and since the 4th instar larvae are responsible as much as 75% of the feeding damage, earlier treatment is usually necessary to prevent economic damage. Determining if a beetle population is large enough to treat is not easy. Potatoes can tolerate up to 30% defoliation prior to flowering but only 10% defoliation at the onset of tuber initiation. Failure to control the first generation larvae may translate into large numbers of summer adults that emerge and feed during the critical tuber initiation and tuber bulking stage.
It is particularly important in potatoes that insecticides used to control Colorado potato beetle don’t flare aphids. Multiple applications of foliar insecticides to control summer adults and larvae of Colorado potato beetle are commonly associated with aphid outbreaks. Insecticide applications disrupt the predators and parasitoids that would otherwise hold aphid populations in check. Additionally, when fungicides are used repeatedly to prevent foliar diseases such as late blight in combination with insecticides, aphid populations can build to such high levels that foliage will die. The only insecticides that provides reliable control of green peach aphid are imidacloprid (Admire and Provado) and methamidophos (Monitor). By keeping insecticide applications at a minimum, green peach aphids generally will not reach pest status. Repeated use of insecticides for either Colorado potato beetle or potato leafhopper control can flare green peach aphid populations.
*Note: For specific rate recommendations for a given product, or label changes, refer to the annually revised “Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers” (BU-7094-S).
Management Options — Home Gardeners and Certified Organic Growers
For homeowners, the general use insecticides that are available locally are largely ineffective because of widespread insecticide resistance of the Colorado potato beetle. An example of this is the insecticide Sevinâ (carbaryl). Insecticides derived from botanical sources, e.g., rotenone and neem, may be available from catalogs or larger nurseries and greenhouse supply centers. The botanical insecticides can give adequate control of Colorado potato beetle provided they are applied frequently and young larvae are targeted. In general, botanical insecticides break down rapidly and need to be reapplied frequently and generally give poor control of large larvae and adults. There are a few insecticides that are derived from bacterial toxins. One available to the home gardener is a product from Bonide, Colorado potato beetle beater.
Cultural control practices such as crop rotation is largely ineffective because of space consideration in home gardens. Planting an early maturing variety will also allow you to escape much of the damage caused by adults emerging in mid-summer. Check you seed catalogs for varieties that mature in less than 80 days. Yield on early maturing varieties are not as large, and often these varieties do not store as well as the popular Russet Burbank potato. Mechanical destruction of the insects is always an option and depending upon the size of the garden can be effective. Remember to look on the underside of leaves for egg masses and remove or crush the egg masses when found.
If you choose to use an insecticide to control Colorado potato beetles, the same resistance management strategies apply to home gardeners as they do to commercial growers.
All insecticides are most effective on very young larvae. Eggs and pupae are not susceptible to chemical control and adults can be difficult to control. Targeting application toward young larvae helps prevent damaging populations and allows resistant adult beetles to mate with susceptible beetles keeping selection pressure for insecticides resistance low. Foliar materials are best applied between 15 and 30% egg hatch for best control. Because eggs may be laid over a several week period, repeated application is necessary for good control. Waiting to spray until beetles are in the late 3rd and early 4th instar is not a wise strategy. Large larvae are difficult to control and since the 4th instar larvae are responsible as much as 75% of the feeding damage, earlier treatment is usually necessary to prevent severe crop loss. Potatoes can tolerate up to 30% defoliation prior to flowering but only 10% defoliation after flowering.
Altogether, control of Colorado potato beetle in the home garden can be a challenge, but not an impossible task. Armed with knowledge of the insect’s biology, damage potential and available control options should allow you to successfully produce a crop.
*Note: For specific rate recommendations read and follow the directions on the product label. You may also refer to the annually revised “Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers” (BU-7094-S).