Oral Psoriasis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What Is Oral Psoriasis?

Articles On Psoriasis Locations

Psoriasis Locations

Psoriasis Locations — What Is Oral Psoriasis?

Most folks think of psoriasis as a skin problem that shows up on spots that everyone can see, like your elbows, knees, and scalp. But symptoms of this disease may happen in places you don’t expect, like inside your mouth.

If that’s the case, it’s called oral psoriasis. It’s not a serious medical problem, but it may be uncomfortable. And it can be a struggle to get the right diagnosis. Why? It’s so rare that most doctors have never seen it before, and some aren’t sure it even exists.

What Are the Symptoms?

It can be hard to tell if you have oral psoriasis. The symptoms are often mild and come and go quickly. And doctors don’t even agree on what all the symptoms are.

But in general, experts think that while signs can appear in different spots in your mouth, they’re most common on the inside of your cheeks. You might notice:

Patches of red skin with yellow or white edges

  • Sores
  • Peeling skin on the gums
  • Blisters with pus (pustules)
  • Pain or burning, especially when eating spicy foods
  • Changes in how things taste

Oral psoriasis may be linked with other conditions, like:

  • Fissured tongue: grooves or trenches on your tongue
  • Geographic tongue: red patches on your tongue that look like islands on a map
  • Swollen or infected gums

People who have oral psoriasis tend to have symptoms on their skin too, such as thick, scaly patches. The symptoms in your mouth will probably get better or worse along with the symptoms on your skin. So if psoriasis symptoms show up in your mouth, you’re likely to have skin flare-ups, too.

How Do I Know if I Have It?

This can be tricky because oral psoriasis is controversial. Some experts don’t believe it’s really a type of psoriasis. They think the symptoms are caused by another condition.

To figure out what’s causing your symptoms, your doctor may:

  • Ask you questions about your medical history (and your family’s)
  • Take a small sample of skin from inside your mouth to check under a microscope
  • Do genetic tests

Your doctor will also want to rule out other conditions that cause similar symptoms, like:


What’s the Treatment?

Many people with oral psoriasis don’t need treatment because they’re not bothered by it. But if it hurts, you can start with some simple steps:

  • Rinse your mouth with a mixture of lukewarm water and salt.
  • Don’t eat spicy foods when symptoms are acting up.
  • If you smoke, stop.

If those home remedies aren’t enough, talk to your doctor. Other options include:

  • Mouth rinses that lower acidity in your mouth and help with pain
  • Medicines you can put on the sore areas in your mouth, such as steroids
  • Pills or capsules (like cyclosporine) for severe symptoms

If you take medications by mouth for skin psoriasis, they should also help with your oral symptoms.

Talk to Your Doctor

For now, there’s a lot we don’t know about who gets oral psoriasis and how to treat it. We don’t even know how many people have it. And experts think that in part, that’s because dermatologists who treat psoriasis don’t usually check inside people’s mouths.

So if you have psoriasis on your skin and notice symptoms in your mouth, tell your doctor. It’s the fastest way you’ll get the treatment you need. And you may actually help your doctor better understand this unusual condition.


Mayo Clinic: «Psoriasis,» «Geographic Tongue.»

DermNet New Zealand: «Oral Psoriasis.»

Dermatology: «Oral Psoriasis: An Overlooked Enigma.»

Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: «Oral Psoriasis — A Diagnostic Dilemma: A Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature.»

Archives of Dermatological Research: «In Search of Oral Psoriasis.»

National Psoriasis Foundation: «About Psoriasis,» «Pustular Psoriasis,» «Erythrodermic Psoriasis.»

American Academy of Oral Medicine: «Fissured Tongue.»

Rajendran, R. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology, 7th edition, Elsevier, 2012.



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Causes — Psoriasis

Psoriasis occurs when skin cells are replaced more quickly than usual. It’s not known exactly why this happens, but research suggests it’s caused by a problem with the immune system.

Your body produces new skin cells in the deepest layer of skin. These skin cells gradually move up through the layers of skin until they reach the outermost level, where they die and flake off. This whole process normally takes around 3 to 4 weeks.

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However, in people with psoriasis, this process only takes about 3 to 7 days. As a result, cells that are not fully mature build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, causing flaky, crusty red patches covered with silvery scales.

Problems with the immune system

Your immune system is your body’s defence against disease and it helps fight infection. One of the main types of cell used by the immune system is called a T-cell.

T-cells normally travel through the body to detect and fight invading germs, such as bacteria. But in people with psoriasis, they start to attack healthy skin cells by mistake.

This causes the deepest layer of skin to produce new skin cells more quickly than usual, triggering the immune system to produce more T-cells.

It’s not known what exactly causes this problem with the immune system, although certain genes and environmental triggers may play a role.


Psoriasis runs in families, so you may be more likely to get psoriasis if you have a close relative with the condition, but the exact role genetics plays in psoriasis is unclear.

Research has shown that many different genes are linked to the development of psoriasis, and it’s likely that different combinations of genes may make people more vulnerable to the condition.

However, having these genes does not necessarily mean you’ll develop psoriasis.

Psoriasis triggers

Many people’s psoriasis symptoms start or get worse because of a certain event, called a trigger. Knowing your triggers may help you avoid a flare-up.

Common psoriasis triggers include:

  • an injury to your skin, such as a cut, scrape, insect bite or sunburn – this is called the Koebner response
  • drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
  • smoking
  • stress
  • hormonal changes, particularly in women – for example, during puberty and the menopause
  • certain medicines – such as lithium, some antimalarial medicines, anti-inflammatory medicines including ibuprofen, and ACE inhibitors (used to treat high blood pressure)
  • throat infections – in some people, usually children and young adults, a form of psoriasis called guttate psoriasis develops after a streptococcal throat infection, but most people who have streptococcal throat infections don’t develop psoriasis
  • other immune disorders, such as HIV, which cause psoriasis to flare up or appear for the first time

Psoriasis is not contagious, so it cannot be spread from person to person.

Page last reviewed: 9 May 2018
Next review due: 9 May 2021


What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

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Cancer can start anywhere in your body, even the parts you never really think about. Take the salivary glands, for instance. They make the saliva — spit — that keeps your mouth and throat moist. This fluid contains enzymes that help to break down your food. It also plays a big role in helping to prevent infections in your mouth and throat.

You have hundreds of salivary glands in and around your mouth. Some are so small you can only see them with the help of a microscope. Because there are so many salivary glands, and so many types of cells in those glands, there are also hundreds of types of salivary gland cancer. Most of them are extremely rare, and more than half of salivary gland tumors turn out to be benign (not cancer).

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

It’s what happens when abnormal cells in these glands grow out of control. Normal salivary glands are made of many different types of cells. Tumors can grow in any of them.

There are two main types of salivary glands — major and minor. You can see the major ones with the naked eye. The minor ones (and there are hundreds of them) are only visible with a microscope.

There are three sets of major salivary glands on each side of the face. Most salivary gland cancers start here. The major gland sets are:

  • Parotid glands. These are the largest salivary glands. About 70% of salivary gland tumors start here. Most of the time, they’re benign.
  • Submandibular glands. These are located below the jaw. About 15% of salivary gland tumors start here. Nearly all of them turn out to be malignant (cancer).
  • Sublingual glands. These are located under the tongue. It’s rare for a tumor to start here.

Most often, cancers of the minor salivary glands start in the roof of the mouth.

Risk Factors and Causes

Doctors don’t know for sure what causes salivary gland cancer.

It usually doesn’t run in families. You’re more likely to get it as you age. Your chances also go up if you’ve had radiation therapy on your head or neck. Men get it more often than women do. Salivary gland cancer also shows up in people who’ve worked in plumbing, rubber manufacturing, and asbestos mining.



Doctors usually find salivary gland cancer when a patient shows up with the following symptoms:

  • Lumps in the mouth or side of the face
  • Pain in the mouth, cheek, jaw, ear, or neck
  • Difficulty swallowing or opening mouth widely
  • Fluid draining from the ear
  • Facial numbness

Sometimes, a dentist first notices these symptoms. If you have them, it doesn’t mean that you have a tumor. Even if you do, remember that most salivary gland tumors are benign. Your doctor will do a physical exam, order an MRI or CT scan, and get a tissue sample for a biopsy to make sure.

If it does turn out that you have a cancerous tumor, your doctor will stage it based on its size and location.

  • Stage I tumors are very small (less than 2 centimeters across), and they don’t spread to other parts of the body.
  • Stage II cancers are a little bigger (between 2 and 4 cm) but still in the original gland.
  • Stage III cancers have moved out of the gland, possibly to the lymph nodes in the same side of the neck.
  • Stage IV cancers have spread to the lymph nodes and maybe other parts of the body.

Doctors also give salivary gland tumors a grade of 1 to 3 that measures how fast the cancer cells seem to be growing:

  • Grade 1 (low-grade) cancers have the best chance of being cured. They grow slowly and don’t look much different than normal cells.
  • Grade 2 cancers grow moderately fast
  • Grade 3 cancers grow quickly


Your options will depend on the size, stage, grade, type, and location of your cancer. Your doctor will also take into account your age and general health.

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Surgery is the most common treatment for salivary gland cancer, especially early-stage and slower-growing cases. It may involve taking out part of a salivary gland or the entire gland, removing lymph nodes, and maybe reconstructive work on your face and neck.

Radiation and chemotherapy aren’t the first line of defense for salivary gland cancer, except in advanced cases. You might have radiation after surgery to destroy any possible remaining cancer cells.


American Cancer Society. “What is Salivary Gland Cancer?”

Oral Cancer Foundation: “Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma.”

Mayo Clinic: “Salivary Gland Cancer.”

National Cancer Institute: “General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer.”


If You Have Head or Neck Cancer

What is head and neck cancer?

Cancer can start any place in the body. Cancer that starts in the head and neck can have many names. It depends on where the cancer starts. All of these cancers start when cells in part of the head or neck grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should.

Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells in the head or neck can sometimes travel to the lungs and grow there. When cancer cells do this, it’s called metastasis. To doctors, the cancer cells in the new place look just like the ones from the head or neck where it started.

Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when head or neck cancer spreads to the lung (or any other place), it’s still called head or neck cancer. It’s not called lung cancer unless it starts from cells in the lung.

Ask your doctor to use these pictures to show you where the cancer is.


Can frankincense treat cancer?

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Frankincense oil is a natural remedy that comes from the resin of a tree. People have used it in traditional medicine for centuries, and some say that it can offer numerous health benefits, including cancer treatment.

Frankincense comes from the Boswellia tree. It has a long history in myth and folk medicine, especially in India and African countries. In the Bible, it is one of three gifts that the wise men offered to Jesus, possibly because of its apparent healing powers.

Substances that occur in frankincense have a number of possible health benefits.

These include controlling bleeding, speeding up the wound-healing process, improving oral health, fighting inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, and improving uterine health.

Studies have suggested that certain substances in frankincense may be useful as a cancer treatment. Current research is limited, but early results appear promising.

Here we will look at some of the reasons why frankincense might help to treat cancer.

Frankincense and inflammation

Share on Pinterest Frankincense comes from the Boswellia tree, which grows in India and Africa.

Frankincense contains boswellic acid, which may help fight inflammation.

Inflammation causes redness, swelling, and heat. It happens after an injury and during many illnesses.

The body uses inflammation to fight infection. When inflammation occurs, the body produces white blood cells as part of its defense mechanism. Inflammation also causes swelling, redness, and pain.

Long-term inflammation, especially when it occurs in multiple areas of the body, is associated with a wide range of health issues, such as arthritis.

In 2006, a study published in Planta Medica showed a number of ways the boswellic acid in frankincense might fight inflammation.

The authors noted that Boswellic acid inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, and it might also target free radicals and cytokines. All of these play a role in inflammation.

The role of frankincense in reducing inflammation could have important implications for cancer treatment. A number of studies have linked inflammation to cancer.

Frankincense and cancer cells

Frankincense might not just reduce inflammation. It may also attack cancer cells directly.

This, say some researchers, could benefit people with leukemia and other types of cancer.

One of the challenges of cancer treatment is that, unlike bacteria or viruses, cancer cells are not foreign invaders. Instead, cancer occurs when the body’s cells grow out of control, attacking healthy tissue.

This process makes it difficult to fight cancer without also killing healthy cells. In fact, most cancer treatments do kill healthy cells.

Chemotherapy, for example, kills many healthy cells as it fights cancer. This is why people often lose their hair, experience nausea, and become more vulnerable to infection during chemotherapy.

Some evidence suggests that frankincense might target cancer cells without harming healthy cells.

A laboratory study of bladder cancer, published in 2009, looked at how frankincense affected cultures of normal and cancerous bladder cells. The oil targeted cancerous cells, but it did not destroy healthy cells.

In 2015, further lab research found similar effects in breast cancer. The investigators found that frankincense could kill breast cancer cells and disrupt the growth of future cancer cells.

In 2016, scientists describing the properties of frankincense noted that it contains substances that have anti-tumor properties. These could prevent cancer cells from growing and lead to controlled cell death, or apoptosis.

These are early results, but they offer hope that substances that occur in frankincense might one day fight some forms of cancer without the potentially life-threatening effects of chemotherapy.

When we hear that a natural substance is useful for treating a disease, it often means that the substance, such as frankincense, contains compounds or chemicals that have therapeutic properties.

A person will not use whole frankincense, for example, to cure a disease, but scientists may find a substance within frankincense that they can turn into a medication or therapy.

In addition, scientists have only looked at compounds in frankincense as a cancer treatment in laboratory studies. They do not know how it might affect cancer in a living human being.

Before using a frankincense-based product to treat cancer, researchers must perform human trials to prove that it works and that it is safe.

Human bodies are complicated systems, and natural products such as whole frankincense are also complex.

Any drug or substance that can solve one problem may have other, unwanted effects on the body.

Before giving people frankincense or its derivatives, scientists must work out a safe dosage, explore potential side effects, and decide how best to deliver treatment.

Research is still in its early stages. Frankincense is unlikely to form the basis of a mainstream cancer treatment in the near future.

Frankincense is available as an extract and an essential oil, but people should talk to a doctor before trying it as a treatment for cancer or any other health condition.


Frankincense is not an alternative to mainstream cancer treatments, and it cannot replace standard treatment.

No research currently supports using the oil in place of other cancer treatments. People may, however, use it as a supplement to medical treatment.

The United States Food and Drug Administration have not approved frankincense as a drug for any specific disease. There are no scientifically proven guidelines for its use, and there is no official control over what a product contains when people purchase it.

People use essential oils in aromatherapy. This means they inhale the aroma of the oil, usually with a diffuser.

People should never swallow an essential oil, and they should always dilute it with a carrier, for example almond oil, before applying it to the skin.

Essential oil manufacturers suggest a range of ways to use frankincense.

Topical application

  • Skin care: Add a drop or two to a favorite lotion.
  • Bath soak: A few drops in a bath tub create an aromatic soak, and the body may absorb some of the oil. Mix the oil first with some full-fat milk so that it does not separate and stay on the surface of the water.
  • Relaxation: Use frankincense on pulse points during meditation or yoga, or apply a few drops of oil to a hot compress.

Nobody should ever ingest an essential oil, but people can swallow frankincense extract.

It is important to follow the manufacturer’s guidelines on dosage. Interactions with other drugs or side effects are much more common when the extract is taken by mouth.

Users should watch carefully for side effects, and they should stop use immediately if any ill effects develop.

Frankincense is natural, but like many other natural substances, it can be poisonous.

Some people who have used frankincense extract have experienced:

It remains unclear how it might interact with other medications.

People who are pregnant, lactating, have a history of allergic reactions, or have a weakened immune system, should avoid using frankincense extract or essential oils unless their doctor says otherwise.

At least one trial has looked into the use of frankincense for medical purposes.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) note that in a 2011 study of people with osteoarthritis, those who used an extract that came from Boswellia serrata gum resin, a frankincense resin, had better pain relief than those who used a placebo.

Other diseases it may help with include:

Authors of a study published in 2016 suggested that, apart from fighting inflammation, it might have benefits that are “expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic.”

In 2017, other scientists concluded that it may contribute to wound healing.

However, anyone who is considering using frankincense for medical purposes should speak to a doctor first.


Night Folk

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Night Folk




The Night Folk are an antagonistic faction featured in Red Dead Redemption 2 and Red Dead Online.


The Night Folk are a group of crazy, psychopathic killers who live in and around the swamps of Bayou Nwa. They attack people by setting up traps at night and then rob, loot and pillage everything of value before brutally murdering their victims in extremely gruesome ways. They can sometimes be seen carrying the corpses of their victims and dead bodies (whole, partial or otherwise) can be found hanging from and strapped to trees all over the swamp, often brutally gutted, dismembered and otherwise disfigured.

They only use bows and melee weapons and wear tattered, torn and heavily worn clothes and at other times they can be found covered in dirt (for camouflage) and wearing primitive, hand-made clothing. They do not speak but make animal noises to signal their attacks on people and many people are not even sure whether or not the Night Folk actually are truly human.

While the Night Folk are known to stage attacks during the daytime, they have a much heavier presence during nighttime and unless one wants to risk getting into a fight with them, it would be wise to avoid Bayou Nwa at all costs at night.

Missable Items

  • Night Folk Victim’s Note
  • Night Folk Wagerer’s Note


Red Dead Redemption 2 Night Folk Encounters RDR2 A Fine Night for It


Roof Claims

Hail storm damage may lessen the life of your roof and cause leaks that impact your home’s interiors. If you need to file a claim, State Farm ® works with you throughout the insurance claim process.

Do I Have Hail Damage to My Roof?

A State Farm claim handler may assist in explaining the difference between normal wear and aging versus damage caused by a hail storm.

Common characteristics include:

  • Random damage
  • Impact marks
  • On wood roofs, splits with sharp edges

How Do I File a Roof Claim?

Report your claim as soon as possible.

Which Roofing Contractor Should I Choose?

  • It is your choice as to who you select and hire to provide an estimate or complete repairs to your property.
  • Select an established, licensed, or bonded roofer. (Not all jurisdictions require licensing of roofing contractors).
  • Get references as well as certificates of insurance (both liability and workers compensation), and verify they are active when your work is scheduled.
  • Ask your claim handler if your claim is eligible for the State Farm Premier Service Program and the Roofing Services Program. If eligible, your claim handler can explain the details of the Roofing Services Program and determine if the program is available in your area.
  • You may refer to the Contractor Locator page on statefarm.com ® to see contact information for Roofing Network Service Providers (RNSPs) listed. You may contact any roofing network service provider whose information appears on the Contractor Locator page to get details and additional information regarding services they provide or to get assistance with identifying and selecting participating contractor(s) within their network who service the customer’s geographic area who may be available to complete roofing repairs to your property.

Note: State Farm does not warrant or guarantee the performance of any Roofing Network Service Provider or contractors you select.

What Should the Roof Repair Estimate Include?

Request a detailed estimate (written or digital).

  • Quantity of all materials needed (include all roofing items including vents, flashing or other wind or hail damaged items)
  • Labor charges
  • Work specifications
  • Approximate starting and completion dates
  • Payment procedures
  • Building permits secured (if applicable)
  • Warranty details – review all conditions and make note of any that may void the warranty.


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