Onion Thrips

Tobacco thrips onions, cucumbers, indoor plants

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Thrips tabaci Lindeman

Onion Thrips
From: University of California

A. Adult B. First instar larva C. Second instar larva
Adult Onion Thrips
From: CSIRO Entomology
Life Cycle
From: NC Extension
Adults: Adult females of onion thrips are about 1.1 to 1.2 mm long, yellow, with brownish blotches on the thorax and the median portion of abdomen. Antennae are gray with the first segment lighter than other segments. Males are rare.

Eggs: The eggs are very small, about 0.2 mm long, kidney shaped, and white. They are deposited within plant tissues.

Larvae: The first instar larva is white, about 0.35 to 0.38 mm long. The second instar larva is yellowish, about 0.7 to 0.9 mm long.

Pupae and Prepupae: The pupa and prepupa are similar to the second instar larvae in color and shape, except for having small wing pads.

Distribution: Onion thrips have been found in most countries throughout the world.

Host Plants: Onion thrips are extremely polyphagous. They inhabit leaves, shoots, and flowers of many plants. It prefers to feed on onions, but feeds on many field crops, vegetables, various flowers, and bedding plants. It may cause heavy damage to chrysanthemums and carnations.

Damage: Generally feeding of onion thrips cause yellowing or dropping of leaves, buds, or flowers. High infestation results in stunted growth, brown blisters, white blotches, silvery whitish areas or feeding scars. Young terminal leaves frequently show malformation when heavily attacked, with crinkly surfaces, sunken and raised thin areas, marginal erosion, margin curling inwardly, and a chlorotic yellowish appearance with grayish color along all large veins. Young buds may be killed as soon as they come out. In addition, they freely feed within flowers, attacking the tender portions.


Thrips: How to Identify and Get Rid of Thrips ASAP

Terrible thrips! They invade the garden, sucking the juices out of leaves and stems and the life from your plants. They cause scarring on fruit and vegetables and spread plant diseases like the tomato spotted wilt. Finding them in your plant beds is never a good thing, because by the time you find them, they’re often widespread.

Thankfully, there are some things that we can do to wipe out these pests and keep them at bay. I’ll go over what they are, what they do to your plants, and how to stop them.

Listen to this post on the Epic Gardening Podcast

Organic Control Options:

Environmental Control Options:

Preventative Options


Common Name(s) Thrips, corn lice, thunderbugs, storm bugs, freckle bugs, thunderblights, harvest bugs, corn flies
Scientific Name(s) Thousands of species in the order Thysanoptera
Family Terebrantia, Tubulifera
Origin Worldwide
Plants Affected Most commercially-farmed crops, many ornamental plants, trees, etc. There are many different varieties which prefer particular plants, such as onions, tobacco, cannabis, rose, avocado, and citrus.
Common Remedies Insecticidal soaps, neem oil, pyrethrin sprays, diatomaceous earth, kaolin clay, predatorial insects (ladybugs, lacewings, Trichogramma wasps, minute pirate bugs, thrips predator mites), sticky traps.

What Are Thrips?

Thrips are long, slender insects that are rarely over a quarter-inch in length in their adult form. Yellow, black, or brown are common colors for adults, and the larval stages tend to be yellow or green. These insects fall into the Thysanoptera order of insects.

Some varieties have fringed wings, but they are not strong fliers. Others have mostly vestigal wings that don’t work at all.

There are over 4500 species, and some indications put it closer to 6000.

While there are varieties which wreak havoc on your plants, other types are actually beneficial. These beneficial species will attack and consume other insects, including other varieties of thrips. It’s difficult to tell the good ones from the bad, so most people opt to simply eradicate them all.

Life Cycle of Thrips

Females are capable of producing eggs asexually if they lack a mate. Unlike most caterpillar species, they eat or rasp out a hollow in plant matter in which to lay their eggs, providing them shelter from potential predators.

The eggs are shielded from weather conditions in the soft tissues of the plant. When they hatch, there’s a food source at hand.

Most go through two larval stages as nymphs before becoming adult. A few types have more larval stages, some reaching as many as five. Once they have reached the end of their nymph development, they will pupate and become adult. This process can take 8-15 days during warm weather, and as long as a month in colder weather conditions.

Some varieties can enter diapause. Diapause is almost like suspended animation. Thrips can survive like this as adults, pupae, or eggs.

The average lifespan for these bugs is about 45 days.

Here’s an interesting video on these pests’ life cycle!

Common Habitats

Throughout the winter months, thrips bury themselves under leaf cover, dig underground, or occasionally infest locations such as the walls of houses or sheltered parts of fences.

In the warmer months of the year, they live on and around the plants that they are consuming. On trees, that will often be in the leaves and bark of the tree. On other plants, it will be on the leaves or stems or in the flower blossoms.

What Do They Eat?

Most of the pest types feed on plant juices. They bite or saw their way into the plant stem to drink from it, or use their syringe-like mouths to extract liquid from leaves.

These pests infest most commercial food crops. They can scar fruit or vegetables on the surface, causing damage to the fruit. There are also varieties that will infest roses, trees, or other ornamental plants.

As they lay their eggs inside plant stems or stalks, it can be hard to find the eggs. It’s important to check for adult or nymph stages on blossoms, leaves, or stems.

There are some varieties that are beneficial. These species tend to feast on other pest types, including mites and aphids. They also will eat plant pollen when pests are not available. It’s very difficult to distinguish between the good and bad types of these bugs.

Generally, if you see no damage on your plants, but you do see the thrips themselves, you probably have the good type and do not need to be concerned.

How To Get Rid Of Thrips

Some species are developing resistances to particular pesticides. The pesticides will still kill these pests, but it may take longer to wipe them out.

If you follow the below steps, you should be able to eliminate thrips from your yard and protect your plants from future attack!

Organic Control

Insecticidal soaps or insecticides may be necessary for moderate infestations. A product such as Safer Soap applied heavily on all surfaces of the plant will kill what’s on your plant and discourage new thrips from moving in.

For a slightly more potent combination, mix some neem oil with some of your insecticidal soap. The neem oil adds an extra layer of killing power while remaining environmentally friendly.

Especially bad outbreaks may require more powerful options. At that point, use a pyrethrin spray such as Safer Brand Yard & Garden Spray, which combines pyrethrin with fatty oils to smother and poison thrips.

Environmental Control

Eliminate grass and weeds around your plant beds. Thrips can live in grassy or weedy locations. Similarly, remove any plant debris around your plants to remove a potential home.

Keep your greenhouse clean. A cleaned greenhouse that is bare of plant debris is less likely to develop pest issues.

Don’t forget your beneficial insects! There is a type of mite called the thrips predator mite which will happily eat your thrips, as well as spider mites and pollen. The minute pirate bug also eats them. Ladybugs and lacewings are both great at reducing populations. Finally, the Trichogramma wasp is known to destroy some varieties.


Inspect new plants before introducing them into your yard or your greenhouse. These irritating little pests will spread quite rapidly from the new plants to older ones.

It may be wise to keep plants separated in a quarantine area away from your greenhouse or garden for a couple weeks so that you can keep an eye on them.

Thrips tend to avoid plants which have been liberally dusted with diatomaceous earth or kaolin clay. Diatomaceous earth feels like knife blades to small insects. Kaolin clay coats the plant’s foliage with a gritty dust that insects do not like.

Adultscan be caught on sticky traps. Hanging these around your plants will help to reduce the population numbers.

Damage on onion stalks. Source: Scot Nelson

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Will nematodes help keep my thrips population down?

A: Yes and no. As thrips often overwinter and pupate in the soil, beneficial nematodes can be helpful at wiping out any underground.

Since most of the population is made up of adults or nymphs who are above-ground, nematodes should not be your only beneficial insect addition. However, they won’t hurt, and they can help kill off a number of garden pests!

Q: Do thrips bite?

A: Yes, they do. While thrips aren’t harmful to humans or our pets, people who have sensitivities to bug bites might experience some slight irritation.

Usually, washing the bite in warm to hot water with soap will reduce any itching it may cause. It’s more of an annoyance than something to be concerned about.

Q: Are there greenhouse thrips?

A: Thrips are almost as much of a problem in greenhouse environments as spider mites are.

Hanging sticky traps around your plants and being vigilant should keep the population down. If you do find thrips in your greenhouse, use insecticidal soaps, neem oil, or pyrethrin sprays to wipe them out.

Q: I heard milk will kill thrips. Is this true?

A: Scientific studies are being done to investigate the use of milk in garden settings. An interesting paper was released from Punjab University in India which suggested that on roses, milk could help reduce the spread of aphids, thrips, and spider mites.

More study is still needed to compare milk’s use to other organic pest control methods. If you’re curious, you can read the study’s findings at this site.


tobacco thrips

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Synonyms for tobacco thrips

injurious to growing tobacco and peanuts


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13,000 acres valued at $126,000,000 (Boatwright & McKissick 2009), is an unusual onion production region because the dominant species attacking onions has traditionally been tobacco thrips , Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Sparks et al.

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While not usually threatening to plants, leafminer control is often necessary to manage the highly visible tunnels in leaves that can reduce crop value.

Found in greenhouses, home gardens and landscaped areas across the country, leafminers are the larval (maggot) stage of an insect family that feeds between the upper and lower surfaces of leaves. On heavily infested plants it is not uncommon to find 6 or more maggots per leaf. Although damage can restrict plant growth, resulting in reduced yields and loss of vigor, healthy plants can tolerate considerable injury. Host plants include beans, blackberries, cabbage, lettuce, peppers, and a variety of ornamental flowers, citrus trees and shrubs.


Adults (1/10 inch long) are often black to gray flies with yellow stripes and clear wings. They are similar in appearance to small, hunched-back house flies and lay their eggs on the undersides of leaves. Larvae are worm-like maggots (1/3 inch) which are often pale yellow or green in color. They create winding tunnels that are clear, except for the trail of black fecal material (frass) left behind as they feed.

Note: In some cases, pathogenic fungi and bacteria may enter old mines left from eradicated insects. This can cause leaves to turn yellow and drop.

Life Cycle

Mature larvae overwinter in the soil under host plants. As temperatures warm in the spring larvae pass to the pupal stage and appear as young adults in late April. Mated females use their needle-like ovipositor to lay up to 250 eggs just under the surface of the leaf epidermis. Deposited eggs may appear as small raised spots on the leaf. Within 10 days hatching larvae tunnel through the mid-leaf tissue, feeding as they go and leaving tell-tale wavy lines that are visible on the surface. Larvae mature in 2-3 weeks, and when ready to pupate, leave the leaf and drop to the soil. Once on the ground, they dig 1-2 inches into the soil and pupate. Adults emerge within 15 days as adult flies. There are several generations per year.


Various types of leafminers attack various kinds of plants. They’re found on broadleaf trees, including elm, aspen, hawthorn, and poplar as well as shrubs and bushes, including lilacs. Damage can be limited in initial stages of infestations but increase as leafminer numbers multiply, and even minor infestations, while not killing a plant, will cripple its hardiness. Leafminers are a major cause of poor harvest numbers in home gardens as they weaken individual vegetable plants. They’re especially fond of spinach leaves and their tunneling severely decreases the attractiveness and value of the crop.

How to Control

Natural, and organic control methods work best when fighting leafminer problems. That’s because they don’t harm the naturally occurring beneficial insect populations that largely keep the leafminer and other harmful pests under control. While pesticide use can encourage leafminer outbreaks, natural controls and beneficial insects prevent as well as cure these pest problems. Don’t wait until you spot leafminer tunnels in your plants’ leaves, especially if you’ve had problems with them in the past. Be prepared with the products you’ll need to prevent and destroy infestations. Then stay vigilant.

  1. Monitor plant leaves closely. At the first sign of tunneling, squeeze the leaf at the tunnel between two fingers to crush any larvae. Done soon enough, this killing larvae can allow plants to survive minor outbreaks. Pick off and destroy badly infested leaves in small gardens.
  2. The more healthy the plant, the less chance that leafminers will hurt it. Maintain plant health with organic fertilizers and proper watering to allow plants to outgrow and tolerate pest damage. Keep your soil alive by using compost and other soil amendments.
  3. Use floating row covers (Harvest-Guard) to prevent fly stage from laying eggs on leaves.
  4. The parasitic wasp Diglyphus isaea is a commercially available beneficial insect that will kill leafminer larva in the mine. The wasp is especially beneficial to indoor growers of ornamentals and vegetables.
  5. Use yellow or blue sticky traps to catch egg laying adults. Cover soil under infested plants with plastic mulches to prevent larvae from reaching the ground and pupating.
  6. Safer® BioNeem contains azadirachtin, the key insecticidal ingredient found in neem oil. This concentrated spray disrupts growth and development of pest insects and has repellent and antifeedant properties. Best of all, it’s non-toxic to honey bees and many other beneficial insects.
  7. Fast-acting botanical insecticides should be used as a last resort. Derived from plants which have insecticidal properties, these natural pesticides have fewer harmful side effects than synthetic chemicals and break down more quickly in the environment.

Note: Pest outbreaks often occur after general pesticide applications. This is because many of the pest’s natural enemies are affected by the pesticide.

Recommended Products

Yellow Sticky

Use to attract and capture whiteflies, thrips, fungus gnats, flea beetles & more!


Floating row covers let in sun, water and air. but keep bugs out! Protects to 26°F.

Leafminer Parasite (Miglyphuså¨)

Soon after release, the leafminer parasite will attack larvae in the mine.

Garden Insect Spray (Spinosad)

An effective insect killer that was recently discovered from soil in a rum distillery.


Onion Family Growing Problems: Troubleshooting

Onion Growing Problems: Space onions well apart to avoid many growing problems.

Onions and their close relatives–chives, garlic, shallots, and leeks–are among the oldest of home garden plants. Allium is the genus for these crops. All varieties of Allium require loose, well-drained soil rich in nitrogen.
There are hundreds of varieties of onion family plants. All suffer from similar pest, disease, and cultural problems

Here is a troubleshooting list of possible onion family growing problems with control and cure suggestions:

• Plants produce many leaves but no bulbs. Planting time incorrect or temperatures are too warm. Bulbing onion and garlic must be exposed to temperatures of 32° to 50°F for 1 to 2 months before planting to induce bulb formation. Place garlic cloves in the refrigerator for 4 weeks before planting or plant early in season so that cloves are chilled.

• Plants are stunted; worms boring into roots.Wireworms are the soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles; they look like wirey-jointed worms. Check soil before planting; flood the soil if wireworms are present. Remove infested plants and surrounding soil. Keep the garden clean and free of plant debris.

• Leaves turn silvery and white streaked or blotchy; leaves may become distorted. Onion thrips are most common during dry warm, weather. Keep the garden clean. Blast thrips with water to wash them away. Use insecticidal soap.

• Leaves die back from tips; root turn pink to red to yellow; yields is reduced. Pink root is a soilborne fungus. Plant in well-drained soil; rotate crops to reduce disease in soil. Plant resistant varieties: Sweet Spanish, Excel, Granex.

• Leaves have yellow or white spots; stalks wilt, bend and die. Gray to purple mold forms on leaves. Downy mildew is a fungus that attacks during wet, humid weather. Remove and destroy old plants debris. Keep the soil well drained. Allow plants to dry out between irrigations. Keep the air circulating in the garden. Plant resistant varieties.

• Leaves fade, wilt, and yellow; leaf tips turn brown. Tunnels and cavities in bulb; plant may die. Onion maggot is a white legless larva of an adult fly. . Destroy disfigured plants after harvest. Destroy flies during the growing season.

• Leaves yellow and wilt; leaf tips die back. Seedlings thicken and become deformed. Older plants are stunted limp; bulbs are swollen at the base. Stem and bulb pest nematodes are microscopic wormlike animals that live in the water that coats soil particles; they enter plant roots and secrete a toxic substance. Do not plant garlic or onions in areas where onions, garlic, leeks or chives grew in previous years; parsley and celery are also hosts. Remove and destroy infested plants immediately. Use certified seed.

• Onion necks are thick; plant growth is stunted. Phosphorus or potassium deficiency is likely. Side dress plants with compost tea or aged compost.

Neck of bulb becomes spongy and water-soaked and gray or brown mold develops. Botrytis rot or neck rot is a fungal disease. Remove and destroy infected plants. Keep weeds out of garden where fungal spores may harbor.

• Onions set flower and go to seed; bulbs are hollow. Nip off flower stalks and flowers so that plant will put energy and nutrients into bulb formation not seed production.

• Bulbs are small but look white and normal. Wrong variety planted or seed or plants planted at the wrong time. Plant a variety suited for your region at the proper time. Keep garden free of weeds; onion family members do not compete well with weeds.

• Leaves yellow, bulbs have soft, watery rot and decay; bulbs may be speckled black. Bulb rot also called white rot is a soilborne fungal disease. Remove and destroy infected plants. Rotate crops. Keep weeds out of garden where fungal spores may harbor. Plant resistant varieties: Elba, Globe, Grandee, Hickory.

• Onion bulbs split into two or three sections. Watering is uneven. Water so that soil is fully moist and then allow the soil to dry to 4 inches deep before watering again. Mulch to keep soil evenly moist. Stop feeding plants 7 weeks before harvest.

• Flavor of sweet onions is pungent. Heat stress and water stress can cause onions to become pungent flavored. Sweet onions are best grown in cool weather with even watering.

• Elongated blisters and streaks on seedlings and bulb scales. Smut is a fungal disease that resulting in dark, slightly thickened areas on leaves. Black lesions appear on the scales of forming onion bulbs. Remove and destroy infected plants. Plant resistant varieties: Evergreen Bunching, White Welch, Winterbeck.

Onion Growing Success Tips:

Planting. Plant onions in full sun. Onions grow best in light loam or sandy soil rich in organic matter. Onions can be grown from sets–small bulbs–or seed. Onion sets are easier to start than seed. Place the set in the soil so that the top of the small bulbs are level with the soil surface. Small sets are less likely to bolt.

Plant time. Generally, onions are planted in the fall in warm, southern regions and in the spring in cool northern regions.

• In southern regions, plant short-day onions in the fall, allow them to root and grow foliage before they go dormant as temperatures drop in winter. Mulch over-wintering onions and remove the mulch in spring. These onions will form bulbs in late spring.

• In northern regions, plant onions in the spring. Sow seed indoors 8 to 10 weeks before transplanting onions into the garden. Set out transplants as early as 4 to 6 weeks before the last average frost date in spring.

• Several days below 50°F or one or two days below 30°F will cause sets to bolt, so do not plant too early.

Care. Keep onions evenly moist. When the tips of leaves turn yellow bulbs are nearing maturity and watering can stop. Keep planting beds weed free. Side dress onions with aged compost during the growing season, up to about a month before harvest.

Harvest. Green onions can be harvested at any size suitable for use. Bulb onions are ready for lifting when the leaf tops begin to yellow and die back. Cure onions for storage for 1 or 2 weeks, and then store them in a cool, dry place.


The Gardening Cook

Growing Onions indoors – 6 Ways to Grow Onions in Containers

This article shows you how to use onions as indoor plants. Growing onions indoors is a fun project and one that the kids will love to help with.Onions are easy to grow both outdoors and inside. They are one of those vegetables that we use often and the demand for this means that they are a great vegetable to grow.

Many gardeners think that they would love to grow onions, but they also assume that one needs a large amount of space to grow them. This is not necessarily the case and there is an easy answer to this problem.

Just try your hand at growing onions in containers. Doing this will allow you to have onions growing on a small patio or deck garden, or even have them growing inside your home.

There are many types of this versatile vegetable. Find out about the onion varieties here.

If you don’t have the space for a full scale vegetable garden outside, you can still grow onions indoors.

You can even have an endless supply of them if you do it just right since onions are a cut and come again vegetable. (they will regrow from the original stock with roots.)

Onions are a very persistent vegetable. They will sprout, regrow, and sprout again. Just look at this basket of them. Many have already sprouted and could be used to make new plants.

Growing onions indoors gives you an endless supply when you need them.

There are lots of ways to grow onions outdoors, but they usually require a big garden space. Outside, onion sets are often used,(basically small undeveloped onions) but when we are thinking about the task of growing this useful vegetable inside, we have to think outside the box.

Most of these ideas will end up giving you onion tops, rather than onion bottoms, since those require quite a bit of space to grow.

But the sprouts of onion have a lovely taste, too, and can be used in all sorts of recipes, in addition to using them as garnishes.

For today’s project we will focus on the ways to grow them in a more confined area. Here are a few of the ways to grow onions indoors. Kids will love these projects too!

Growing onions in containers

Growing onions in pots is easy. You won’t get a large crop like you do outside, but the top will give you a part of the plant that you can use in recipes. Place a small whole onion in potting soil in a pot and it will spout new growth.

You can either slice off the onion where the roots are, or place a small whole onion on soil and it will grow, in time. When it has developed repeat the process as often as you like.

Growing onions in water

Onions don’t even need soil to grow. Growing onions in water is a project the kids will love because they can see the roots growing through the sides of the glass.

If you place a sprouted onion with the roots down in a glass of water, it will continue to grow on the top with new shoots.

You can either cut off the top part and use it in recipes, or plant the whole onion, roots and all, in soil and watch it grow.

Onions can be a decorative plant too, as this photo shows. The onions are sitting in a bowl of water lined with pebbles. I also force paperwhites using the same technique with great success.

All types of onions will regrow. One of my latest experiments was to try to grow vidalia onions from bottoms that would normally end up in the trash or compost pile. My onion sprouted quickly and gave off new growth in just a few days.

Growing onions from onions

Don’t discard those old onion bottoms in the trash. You can create an endless supply of them without ever having to buy more. This can be done with all types of onions.

The roots of onions are very persistent. In this photo whole onion bottoms are planted in soil and the green sprouts are growing. If you cut off the green parts to use in salads, more will grow.

Cut and come again onions

Growing green onions indoors is a cinch! This is one of my favorite ways to grow onions. I buy one clump of spring onions at the store. Then I place them in a jar of water and cut just the green tops for recipes.

You will have new growth before you know it and never have to buy spring onions again. See my tips to re-grow spring onions in water here.

Growing Onions Vertically in Soda Bottles

This idea is such a fun one for kids to do. Grow onions vertically on a window sill. You will need a 5 liter bottle that you have made holes in.

Fill the bottle with potting soil and onion sprouts and watch your harvest grow indoors! The kids will be fascinated growing onions when they see the soda bottle covered with onion tips that have grown out of the holes in the bottle.

Growing Onions from Seed

Spring onions don’t take up much room outside and will send up flowers quite easily. I had one batch that took up just a square foot of space and it lasted about 4 years before it finally gave up the ghost.

Onions are biennials and will produce seed in their second year.

The plant sends up stalks with flower heads on them. These are called umbrels. When they go brown, cut them off the plant and place them in a paper bag and allow them to dry completely for a few weeks.

Once dry, give the bag a shake to separate the seeds from the other matter in the flower head and store them in a cool, dry place.

The seeds can be used to plant in soil both indoor and out and spring onions grow very easily indoors from these seeds. (Store bought seeds work too.)

Grow lights are a big help for starting seeds indoors.

Planting sprouted onions

Onions sprout easily and that is good for getting more plants for free. This project can be done on a deck.

Get a 4 gallon container and add some wood chips about half way up. Fill the rest of the pot with potting soil. (the wood chips will act as drainage.)

Keep the soil evenly moist and the sprouted onions will grow for you. The roots on the bottom will love the new, rich soil!

Do you ever reach into the onion bin and find an onion that has sprouted where the sprout actually splits the onion? Don’t just use part of it and discard. Put that sprouted part to work.

Slice into the onion to expose the sprout and carefully cut the onion in two (take care not to disturb the sprout).

Carefully cut around the sprout and plant. You can use the part not planted but will end up with another onion too!

Growing onions from sets

If you are interested in growing real onions and not just their tops, buy onion sets. These are small, dry onion bulbs that have been grown the previous year. They are very easy gardeners to grow.

Just press the small onions into the soil up to their tops, barely covered with soil 3-4 inches apart in rows. Since whole onions require room to grow, you won’t be able to grow many unless you have a really large pot.

Sunlight is also an issue. Onions need a LOT of sunlight, so a south facing window is best. Normally, whole onions are grown outdoors or in pots on a patio.

The tops will be ready in 20- 30 days. Whole onions take 100 to 175 days to reach maturity.

Admin note: This post first appeared on my blog in January of 2017. I have updated the post to add more information and photos and also added a few new ways to grow onions indoors. I’ have also included a printable project card and a video for you to enjoy.

Would you like a reminder of this post for ways to grow onions indoors? Just pin this image to one of your gardening boards on Pinterest.

Have you discovered other ways for growing onions indoors? Please share your tips in the comment section below.


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