Illnesses and Injuries Related to Total Release Foggers — Eight States, 2001-2006

Illnesses and Injuries Related to Total Release Foggers — Eight States, 2001—2006

Total release foggers (TRFs), sometimes called «bug bombs,» are pesticide products designed to fill an area with insecticide and often are used in homes and workplaces to kill cockroaches, fleas, and flying insects. Most TRFs contain pyrethroid, pyrethrin, or both as active ingredients. TRFs also contain flammable aerosol propellants that can cause fires or explosions. The magnitude and range of acute health problems associated with TRF usage has not been described previously. This report summarizes illnesses and injuries that were associated with exposures to TRFs during 2001—2006 in eight states (California, Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington) and were investigated by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and state health departments participating in the SENSOR-Pesticides program.* During 2001—2006, a total of 466 TRF-related illnesses or injuries were identified. These illnesses or injuries often resulted from inability or failure to vacate before the TRF discharged, reentry into the treated space too soon after the TRF was discharged, excessive use of TRFs for the space being treated, and failure to notify others nearby. The findings indicate that TRFs pose a risk for acute, usually temporary health effects among users and bystanders. To reduce the risk for TRF-related health effects, integrated pest management control strategies that prevent pests’ access to food, water, and shelter need to be promoted and adopted. In addition, awareness of the hazards and proper use of TRFs need to be better communicated on TRF labels and in public media campaigns.

States participating in the SENSOR-Pesticides program and CDPR conduct surveillance on pesticide poisoning. In addition, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene through the New York City Poison Control Center (NYCPCC) has access to data on pesticide poisoning. No other states or cities conduct pesticide poisoning surveillance. Cases of acute TRF-related illness or injury consistent with the national case definition for acute pesticide-related illness or injury ( 1 ) (Table 1) and occurring during 2001—2006 (the latest years for which complete surveillance data were available) were provided to CDC by these surveillance programs. Cases of TRF-related illness or injury were classified by the state agencies as definite, probable, possible, or suspicious, according to pesticide exposure and health effects criteria (Table 1). CDC classified the cases provided by NYCPCC. Data from the state agencies and NYCPCC were compared, and duplicate cases were eliminated. In addition to receiving reports from poison control centers, each surveillance program obtains case reports from several other sources, principally state agencies with jurisdiction over pesticide use (e.g., departments of agriculture) and workers compensation claims ( 2,3 ). Some California cases might have been missed because the CDPR contract with the California Poison Control System to receive poisoning reports lapsed after 2002 and was not reestablished until late 2006. Detailed information was collected on each case, including demographic data, signs and symptoms, illness or injury severity, † Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity category, § identity of implicated pesticides, location of the exposure, and information on factors that might have contributed to the exposure. Three recent case reports are provided to illustrate common patterns observed in the surveillance data.

Case Reports

Case 1. In March 2008, a woman aged 38 years from Washington visited an emergency department with headache, shortness of breath, nausea, leg cramps, burning eyes, cough, and weakness after she was exposed to fumes from three TRFs (in 6-ounce cans) deployed nearly simultaneously by a downstairs apartment neighbor. One TRF each was set off in the crawlspace beneath the house, in the neighbor’s apartment, and in the hallway. The building was an old house converted into apartments, with a single ventilation system connecting all apartments. The neighbor had orally notified some of the tenants but not the patient. The patient recovered completely within 3 days, and the illness was classified as low severity. The TRF dispensed a toxicity category III pesticide product that contained permethrin and tetramethrin as active ingredients.

Case 2. In September 2007, a man aged 34 years who worked as a maintenance worker at an apartment complex in Michigan forgot to disarm the smoke detector before activating a TRF. Because the building elevator shuts down if a smoke detector is triggered, the maintenance worker (without respiratory protection) reentered the mist-filled apartment to disarm the detector. He had onset of cough and upper airway irritation approximately 1 hour after exposure, contacted a poison control center, and did not seek additional medical care. His symptoms resolved within 24 hours, and his TRF-related illness was classified as low severity. He was exposed to a toxicity category III pesticide product with pyrethrins, cyfluthrin, and piperonyl butoxide as active ingredients.

Case 3. In August 2007, a man aged 54 years in California simultaneously set off nine TRFs in his small 700 square foot (6,000 cubic foot) home. Each 1.5-ounce TRF can was designed to treat 5,000 cubic feet of unobstructed space and released a toxicity category III pesticide product containing cypermethrin. When the man returned 6 hours later, a strong odor prompted him to open the doors and windows and to vacate. Entering a second time 4 hours later, the man had onset of headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. He visited an emergency department, where he was treated symptomatically for TRF-related illness with a nebulized anticholinergic bronchodilator, intravenous hydration, and intravenous medication for headache, nausea, and bradycardia. He completely recovered after 36 hours, and his illness was classified as moderate severity.

Surveillance Data

A total of 466 cases of acute, pesticide-related illness or injury associated with exposure to TRFs during 2001—2006 were identified. SENSOR-Pesticides reported 368 cases, CDPR reported 40 cases, and NYCPCC reported 58 cases. Median age of affected persons was 35 years (range: 0—90 years); 255 (57%) were female, and 55 (13%) were exposed while at work. Race information was available for 137 patients, of whom 101 (74%) were white, 17 (12%) were black, and 19 (14%) were of other races. Ethnicity information was available for 158 patients, of whom 31 (20%) were Hispanic. Three cases occurred among pregnant women, and approximately 44 cases occurred among persons with asthma.

A total of 372 (80%) cases were classified as low severity, 84 (18%) cases were moderate severity, and nine (2%) were high severity. One death was classified by the Washington State Department of Health as suspicious. (This death occurred in a female infant aged 10 months who was put to bed the evening of the day her apartment was treated with three TRFs. The infant was found dead the next morning.) Twenty-one persons were hospitalized for 1 or more days (range: 1—35 days), and 43 persons lost time from work or other usual activities because of their illness or injury.

A total of 394 (85%) TRF exposures occurred in private residences (Table 2). Among the 388 cases for which information was available regarding who activated the TRF, 197 (51%) of the illnesses involved the person who activated the TRF.

Among the 463 cases for which information on the implicated TRF product was available, 449 (97%) occurred in persons who were exposed to products with pyrethrin, pyrethroid, or both as active ingredients (Table 3). Health effects most commonly involved the respiratory system (in 358 [77%] cases) (Table 2). The most common factors contributing to exposure included an inability or failure to vacate before the TRF discharged, early reentry, excessive use of TRFs for the space being treated, unintentional discharge of a TRF, and failure to notify others nearby (Table 2).

Reported by: K Wheeler, MPH, D Kass, MSPH, New York City Dept of Health and Mental Hygiene; RS Hoffman, MD, New York City Poison Control Center. M Lackovic, MPH, Louisiana Dept of Health and Hospitals. Y Mitchell, MS, New York State Dept of Health. R Barrett, MPH, Florida Dept of Health. B Morrissey, MS, Washington State Dept of Health. L Mehler, MD, California Dept of Pesticide Regulation. B Diebolt-Brown, MA, Texas Dept of State Health Svcs. J Waltz, MPH, Oregon Dept of Human Svcs. A Schwartz, Michigan Dept of Community Health. GM Calvert, MD, Div of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; SE Luckhaupt, MD, EIS Officer, CDC.

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Editorial Note:

TRFs are registered by EPA for use by home owners and others. When activated, the TRF cans are designed to empty their contents completely. No special training or licensing is required to use a TRF. Although numerous media reports in recent years have described injuries and property destruction resulting from explosions caused by activation of TRFs in the presence of ignition sources (e.g., gas pilot lights and electrical appliances, such as air conditioners and refrigerators, that cycle off and on) (D. Richmond, California Department of Pesticide Regulation, personal communication, 2008), this is the first report in the scientific literature to describe the range of exposure circumstances and acute health problems associated with TRF usage.

TRFs generally release pyrethroids, pyrethrins, or both. Pyrethrins are insecticides derived from chrysanthemum flowers (pyrethrum) ( 4 ). Piperonyl butoxide and n-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide often are added to pyrethrin products to inhibit insects’ microsomal enzymes that detoxify pyrethrins ( 4 ). Although pyrethrins have little systemic toxicity in mammals, they appear to possess some irritant and sensitizing properties ( 4 ) and have been reported to induce contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma ( 5,6 ). In addition, anaphylactic reactions ( 4 ) and health effects involving the neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems have been reported ( 6 ). Pyrethroids are a class of synthetic insecticides that are chemically similar to natural pyrethrins ( 3 ) and have low potential for systemic toxicity in mammals. Signs and symptoms of pyrethroid toxicity include abnormal skin sensation (e.g., burning, itching, tingling, and numbness), dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, seizure, irritability to sound and touch, and other central nervous system effects ( 4,7 ). Propellants and other solvents in the TRFs also might contribute to observed symptoms ( 4 ).

The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, the number of reported cases is probably an underestimate of the actual magnitude of illnesses and injuries associated with TRFs. The surveillance systems that identified cases are passive and, therefore, might have missed some TRF-related illnesses and injuries. Second, in 2006, only 10 states had pesticide poisoning surveillance systems, and the data in this report might not be representative of the 40 states without such surveillance systems. Third, because most (85%) TRF-related case reports were obtained from poison control centers, some California cases might have been missed when the contract between CDPR and the California Poison Control System was not in effect. Fourth, TRF-related illnesses and injuries also might have been missed because exposure and health effects information was insufficient to satisfy the case definition in some instances (e.g., approximately 68 reports were excluded because information on TRF ingredients were not available, and approximately 100 NYCPCC reports were excluded because health effects data were missing or sparse). Finally, although all cases were consistent with case definition criteria, the possibility of false positives cannot be excluded. Because clinical findings of pesticide poisoning often are nonspecific and no standard diagnostic test exists, some illnesses related temporally to TRF exposures might be coincidental and not caused by TRFs.

TRFs can reduce pest populations and often are used by consumers as a low cost alternative to professional pest control services. However, because of their design to broadcast pesticides, they have a substantial potential for unintended exposures, especially when the pesticide label is ignored or misunderstood. Greater efforts are needed to promote safer alternatives to TRFs. Integrated pest management (IPM) control strategies need to be promoted and adopted. IPM can reduce indoor insect populations and minimize the need for insecticides ( 8 ).

The public also should be warned about TRF dangers through broad media campaigns that explain the importance of reading and understanding the pesticide label, using the correct number of TRFs, and taking necessary precautions (e.g., turning off ignition sources and promptly leaving the premises). TRF labels should be improved to make information easier to find and understand. Current TRF labels indicate the number of cubic feet that one container will treat effectively for pests, which requires the user to employ arithmetic to calculate both the volume of space to be treated and the number of TRFs needed to treat a space of that size. Use of delayed-release TRFs also might prevent illnesses and injuries by allowing the user to vacate the premises before the insecticide is released. Notices should be posted on the exterior of spaces where TRFs are used, indicating when the TRF treatment will be made and when reentry into the space is permitted. Coinhabitants (and nearby neighbors, when multiunit housing is treated) also should be informed at least 24 hours before a TRF treatment is started.

References

  1. CDC. Case definition for acute pesticide-related illness and injury cases reportable to the National Public Health Surveillance System. Cincinnati, OH: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 2005. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/pesticides/pdfs/casedef2003_revapr2005.pdf.
  2. Calvert GM, Plate DK, Das R, et al. Acute occupational pesticide-related illnesses in the US, 1998—1999: surveillance findings from the SENSOR-Pesticides program. Am J Ind Med 2004;45:14—23.
  3. Calvert GM, Sanderson WT, Barnett M, Blondell JM, Mehler LN. Surveillance of pesticide-related illness and injury in humans. In: Krieger RI, ed. Handbook of pesticide toxicology. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2001:603—41.
  4. US Environmental Protection Agency. Recognition and management of pesticide poisonings, 5th edition. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1999. Available at http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/safety/healthcare/handbook/handbook.htm.
  5. CDC. Illnesses associated with occupational use of flea-control products—California, Texas, and Washington, 1989—1997. MMWR 1999;48:443—7.
  6. CDC. Illnesses associated with use of automatic insecticide dispenser units—selected states and United States, 1986—1999. MMWR 2000;49:492—5.
  7. Ray DE. Pyrethroid insecticides: mechanisms of toxicity, systemic poisoning syndromes, paresthesia, and therapy. In: Krieger RI, ed. Handbook of pesticide toxicology. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2001:1289—303.
  8. Blessing A, ed. Pesticides and pest prevention strategies for the home, lawn, and garden. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service; 2001. Available at http://www.btny.purdue.edu/pubs/ppp/ppp-34.pdf.

* Under the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk (SENSOR)-Pesticides program, CDC provides cooperative agreement funding and technical support to state health departments to conduct surveillance of acute, occupational, pesticide-related illness and injury. Funding support also is provided by the Environmental Protection Agency. Health departments in 10 states (Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington) participated through 2006. Additional information is available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/pesticides.

† Severity for SENSOR and CDPR cases was coded using standardized criteria (available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/pesticides). Low-severity illnesses or injuries consist of illnesses and injuries that generally resolve without treatment and where minimal time ( 5 days), and can result in permanent impairment or disability. Deaths are fatalities resulting from exposure to one or more pesticides. NYCPCC uses similar criteria for coding severity.

§ EPA classifies pesticide products into one of four toxicity categories based on established criteria (40 CFR part 156). Pesticides with the greatest toxicity are in category I, and those with the least are in category IV.

5 days), and can result in permanent impairment or disability. Deaths are fatalities resulting from exposure to one or more pesticides. ¶ Cases of TRF-related illness or injury were classified as definite, probable, possible, or suspicious. Additional information available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/pesticides/pdfs/casedef2003_revapr2005.pdf. ** The Environmental Protection Agency classifies pesticide products into one of four toxicity categories based on established criteria (40 CFR part 156). Pesticides with the greatest toxicity are in category I, and those with the least are in category IV. †† Each case might have more than one factor contributing to exposure. §§ Many patients reported signs and symptoms in more than one organ system.» width=»641″ height=»489″>
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Date last reviewed: 10/15/2008

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5 Reasons Not to Return a Tenant’s Security Deposit

A Landlord’s Right to Deduct

When a tenant moves into a rental property, he or she will pay the landlord a security deposit in addition to first month’s rent. This deposit will typically be returned to the tenant at the end of the lease term, as long as the tenant follows all the terms of the lease agreement. Learn five reasons a tenant may not be entitled to the return of their security deposit, in whole or in part.

5 Times a Landlord Does Not Have to Return a Tenant’s Security Deposit

Each state has specific security deposit laws landlords and tenants must follow, including the reasons you can keep a tenant’s security deposit. However, here are five of the most common reasons a tenant should not expect their security deposit to be returned.

1. Breaking or Terminating a Lease Early

If a tenant breaks their lease, the landlord can keep all or part of the security deposit necessary to cover the costs associated with this breach. Again it will depend on the wording of your lease and the particular landlord-tenant laws in your state. If you have included an early termination clause in the lease the tenant signed, they will have to abide by these terms.

An early termination clause could read something like this, for example:

“If the tenant terminates the lease prior to the one year lease agreement or does not give 30 days’ notice prior to move out once the lease has gone month-to-month, the tenant is responsible for rent owed for the remainder of the lease. The landlord will deduct the amount owed from the tenant’s security deposit. If the security deposit does not include sufficient funds to cover the amount owed, the tenant is responsible for paying the additional money owed to the landlord for the remainder of the lease.»

You may also be able to charge the tenant the court costs or attorney fees necessary if you have taken legal action against them.

2. Nonpayment of Rent

Most states will allow you to keep all or a portion of the security deposit when the tenant does not pay their rent.

Nonpayment of rent is considered a breach of lease.

When a tenant does not fulfill their contractual obligation to pay their monthly rent, you are usually allowed to keep the portion of this security deposit necessary to cover the lost rent.

3. Damage to the Property

Another reason you may be able to keep a tenant’s security deposit is because they have caused damage to your property. Damage is different than normal wear and tear on the property. Here are some examples of each:

  • A few small nail holes in the walls from hanging pictures
  • A few small stains on the carpet
  • A small amount of mildew forming in grout lines in the shower tiles
  • Dirty grout
  • Tarnish on bathroom fixtures
  • Loose handles or doors on kitchen or bathroom cabinets
  • Reasonable amounts of dirt, dust or grime on the floors, walls, or appliances
  • Multiple/large holes in the walls
  • Huge stains or holes in ​the carpet
  • Extensive water damage to hardwood floors
  • Missing outlet covers
  • Missing or damaged smoke or carbon monoxide detectors
  • Cracked kitchen or bathroom countertop
  • Broken bathroom vanity
  • Broken windows
  • Broken doors
  • Keys not returned at end of tenancy

4. Cleaning Costs

Under normal circumstances, you cannot make deductions from a tenant’s security deposit to cover normal cleaning costs.

If the cleaning necessary is excessive, and not the result of normal wear and tear, you may be able to keep a portion of the tenant’s deposit.

For example, if a tenant leaves one bag of garbage in the apartment, it is unreasonable to try and charge the tenant a portion of their security deposit to cover your labor. However, if the tenant has left trash all over the apartment, food in the refrigerator, and numerous personal belongings throughout the property, then yes, you may be able to keep a portion of the security deposit to cover your expenses, as the tenant has not left the property broom-swept clean.

Another example would be if a tenant had an animal that used the carpet as a toilet. You would be able to charge the tenant for the cost of cleaning or, if necessary, of replacing the carpet.

5. Unpaid Utilities

A tenant may not be entitled to the return of their deposit if they have not paid their utility bills. You may be able to keep a tenant’s security deposit to cover any utilities they have neglected to pay and were required to pay as part of their lease.

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When to Use a Cockroach Bomb

Cockroach bombs may help treat a roach infestation, but there are risks involved. Learn how roach bombs work and what you need to be aware of.

Cockroaches can find their way into a home or building in a variety of ways, but once inside, they multiply. Signs of a roach infestation include seeing roaches, which are nocturnal, in the daytime, seeing droppings or empty egg casings or smelling a strong, oily scent. There are several methods that can be used to treat a roach problem, one of which is the roach bomb.

How roach bombs work

Roach bombs, also called bug bombs or foggers, work by spraying a pesticide into the air in a confined space. It falls to the ground, coating surfaces and killing pests. The following excerpt, written by extension entomologist Michael F. Potter at the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, explains how they work — or don’t work, as the case may be.

«Most foggers are designed to be placed in the center of a room on a chair or table, and activated by depressing or removing a tab at the top of the can. The entire contents are released upwards, into the airspace, where the aerosol droplets remain suspended for a period of time and then gradually settle onto floors, countertops and other surfaces. When applied in this manner, very little insecticide actually penetrates into cracks, voids, and other hidden locations where cockroaches, ants, silverfish, and most other household pests congregate and spend most of their time.»

Possible problems with bug bombs

Because the pesticides don’t reach into many of the nooks and crannies that roaches love, bug bombs are really only effective against flying insects. The Washington State Department of Health recommends avoiding them altogether for most types of indoor pests. Cockroach bombs are also highly flammable because of the aerosol. Moreover, the pesticides used can be toxic and, after use, coat the surfaces in your home.

«Even though a bug bomb product says it controls certain insect pests — it may not be the best option. Bug bombs essentially throw the insecticide into the air, treating the exposed surface where it lands. If the insect pest is hiding under furniture or in cracks and crevices, it can avoid contact with the pesticide fog. … Bug bombs can be avoided for fleas, cockroaches and other insect pests when effective control alternatives are chosen.»

The Environmental Protection Agency, which regulates pesticides, including those used in roach bombs, has a list of safety precautions that should be taken if using a bug bomb in your home. Among them are leaving the premises during the fogging and airing it out thoroughly afterward.

«Breathing spray mist may be harmful. Safe use of these products requires that everyone, including pets, leave the treated space and close the doors after foggers have been released. Stay out until the time indicated on the label has passed, usually two to four hours. Prematurely entering the treated premises may lead to illness.»

Do store-bought foggers work?

Store-bought foggers are often more trouble than they are worth. Roach bombs only remove the bugs you can see, not their source. Using over-the-counter products such as these are a spot-treatment for an infestation, but not a solution.

To find and treat the source of an infestation, it is best to turn to a pest management specialist.

Terminix® pest management professionals know how to identify both the type of cockroach in your home and where they most likely have nests. If you have a cockroach problem, call in a specialist.

Cluster Flies In Your Home

If you’re like many homeowners, you’ve dealt with annoying flies ruining your summer barbecues and outdoor dinner parties. You may have even become accustomed to whipping out the flypaper and heavy-duty bug zappers the minute you hear the familiar buzz of a fly. These annoying pests are likely house flies, which can pose significant health risks to you and your family. But have you ever seen large, sluggish flies loitering inside your home in the autumn and winter? They may be cluster flies.

What are Sand Fleas?

Many people love going to the beach to spend time in the sun, sand, and water. But they might not love some of the nuisances that live at the beach or in the ocean, such as gnats or jellyfish. But, what about the sand flea, a small critter that can be found in moist areas such as under rocks or debris. Keep reading to learn exactly what sand fleas are and if you need to worry about them.

Keeping Control in the Fall: How to Help Get Rid of Boxelder Bugs

Just like many fall pests, the transition between summer and fall can bring a large number of boxelder bugs into homes. During the summer, these pests primarily infest maple trees and boxelder trees, hence their name. But once the weather cools down, heated homes and buildings draw these pests indoors.

Stay-at-home bug activities that parents and kids will love

What is a Mosquito Fogger?

A mosquito fogger is a special machine powered by electricity or propane that produces very tiny droplets that hang in the air — which produces a fog. The fog will remain in the air for a period of time before settling on the ground or anything directly below it. Ideally, the fog’s chemical ingredients will cover mosquito resting sites.

Finding the Best Bed Bug Mattress Cover for Your Home

When it comes to defending your home, nothing but the best will do. Take a look at the best mattress covers for bed bugs and keep those pesky pests at bay.

Everything to Know About Bed Bug Rashes

Bed bugs hide during the day and feed at night. Their diet? Your blood. Discover the signs of a bed bug rash and what to do if you’ve been bitten.

Related Articles

Do Earwigs Bite?

If you shudder a little when you think about earwigs, you’re probably not alone. They’ve developed quite a nasty reputation, thanks to urban legends (mostly false) that have been circulating for years. But are they harmful?

Cluster Flies In Your Home

If you’re like many homeowners, you’ve dealt with annoying flies ruining your summer barbecues and outdoor dinner parties. You may have even become accustomed to whipping out the flypaper and heavy-duty bug zappers the minute you hear the familiar buzz of a fly. These annoying pests are likely house flies, which can pose significant health risks to you and your family. But have you ever seen large, sluggish flies loitering inside your home in the autumn and winter? They may be cluster flies.

Tips to Get Rid of Stink Bugs in Your House

Now that it’s fall, it’s officially indoor stink bug season. Before it becomes winter, brown marmorated stink bugs are looking for comfortable overwintering sites to spend the cold months—and that can often mean that they may find a way to sneak into your house. While the odor that a stink bug releases is not dangerous, they are definitely a nuisance. Luckily, there are steps you can take to get rid of stink bugs in your house—without having to deal with the unpleasant smell.

What are Sand Fleas?

Many people love going to the beach to spend time in the sun, sand, and water. But they might not love some of the nuisances that live at the beach or in the ocean, such as gnats or jellyfish. But, what about the sand flea, a small critter that can be found in moist areas such as under rocks or debris. Keep reading to learn exactly what sand fleas are and if you need to worry about them.

The Lifespans of Insects With Short Lives

Many insects, such as butterflies, have a lifespan that occurs in four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Other insects, such as grasshoppers, do not have a pupal stage and instead go through three stages: egg, nymph, and adult. The length of each stage can vary based on many things, from the insect species to the temperature outside—but what some insects share in common is a very short adult stage. Keep reading to learn about five insects with some of the shortest adult stages in their lifespan.

The Return of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

The change of seasons from summer to fall means many things: leaves changing colors, dropping temperatures, and—depending on where you live—stink bugs sneaking into your home. Stink bugs were named for their distinct ability to emit an unpleasant odor when they are threatened or disturbed by predators like lizards or birds. This also means that if stink bugs enter your home and feel threatened, you’ll be faced with dealing with their strong smell in your house. As we head into fall, you might find yourself with more active stink bugs than usual, so it’s important to know the basics about these smelly insects.

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