Identifying Shoplifters and Their Methods

How to Identify Shoplifters

Shari Waters is a former writer for The Balance Small Business. She has more than 25 years of experience in the retail industry.

Shoplifting is a bane for retailers. Inventory shrinkage cost the U.S. retail industry almost $47 billion in 2017, which are the latest figures from the National Retail Federation as of February 2019, and much of that shrinkage was the result of shoplifting.

All retailers, big and small, are affected by shoplifters; it’s a frustrating reality of doing business. Store design and theft-prevention methods such as security cameras and alarms can help defray losses. But it’s a good idea to train store personnel on how to spot shoplifting before or while it’s happening.

Another method to prevent shoplifting is store management. Retailers should consider store layout, adopt adequate inventory controls, and follow common security practices to combat shoplifting.​

Shoplifters fall into one of two categories: professional and amateur. While both groups can be skilled in the art of thievery, professional shoplifters make a living by stealing and may use force or intimidation. The nonprofessional shoplifter may be easier to spot and apprehend.

Shoplifter Methods

Many professional thieves work in groups of two or more to distract sales staff while they steal. Shoplifters learn to take advantage of busy stores during peak hours, or they may strike at times when employees are likely to be busy, such as opening, closing, and during shift changes.

Hiding merchandise is the most common method of shoplifting. Items are concealed in the clothing of the shoplifter, in handbags, strollers, umbrellas, or inside purchased merchandise. Bold shoplifters may grab an item and run out of the store. Other methods include price label switching and attempting to short-change the cashier. Some shoplifters might even try to return stolen merchandise to a store for a bogus refund. Whatever their methods, it is difficult to determine who is or is not likely to be a shoplifter.

Train Staff

The last thing a retail establishment wants is for a staff member to wrongly accuse a customer of shoplifting. Make sure that all staff with customer contact are properly trained.

Most of the time, if a store employee approaches a would-be shoplifter and asks, «Can I help you?» this is enough to deter a potential theft. But employees should be instructed to ask this question in a calm, polite manner. Any employee who is concerned about safety should seek a manager’s assistance. Similarly, if an employee sees a shoplifter, they should seek out a manager. It is never wise for store personnel to try to apprehend a suspected shoplifter. This is time to bring in the police.

Spot the Shoplifter

Unfortunately, shoplifters have no typical profile. Thieves come in all ages and races and from various backgrounds. However, there are red flags for retailers. While the following characteristics do not necessarily imply guilt, retailers should keep a close eye on shoppers who behave suspiciously.

First, if a customer is spending a lot of time entering and exiting a store without making a purchase and seems more interested in watching a cashier or a sales clerk, that is suspicious activity.

Substantial shoplifting occurs in store dressing rooms. Retailers should monitor how many items an individual takes into a dressing room and how many items they have on exiting. Groups of three or more people who enter a dressing room together might be able to distract the dressing room attendant while one or more of the individuals walk off with stolen clothing or other items.

It Will Happen to You

Rising costs of living, less consumer spending, and increases in operating expenses erode profits and are difficult for retailers to control. However, the retailer can control loss prevention. Preventing shoplifting, stopping employee theft, and reducing shrinkage can help to boost the revenues of retail stores. However you handle it, the chances are that your store will fall victim to a shoplifter at some point. Well-trained staff and security measures can minimize your losses.

www.thebalancesmb.com

Alfalfa insects: What to look for and how to scout

Alfalfa crops are usually home to large numbers of insects and a great diversity of species. Most of these insects are harmless or beneficial; lady beetles are an example. Pest species generally are found in numbers too few to reduce alfalfa yield.

Unfortunately, in some fields and in some years, insect pest populations reach levels that could cause economic yield loss. Because of these occasional bad actors, scout alfalfa from green up through the last cutting.

Scouting Minnesota alfalfa insects

Alfalfa insect populations and the pest species present will vary with weather and season.

For example, the migrant potato leafhopper is Minnesota alfalfa’s most consistent insect pest, but rarely reaches damaging levels before the first cutting. The insects that most often cause first crop concerns in Minnesota include alfalfa weevil, pea aphid and plant bugs.

Table 1: Alfalfa insects and how they damage crops

Insect pest Overwinter stage in Minnesota Damaging stage Mouthparts Feeding site Crop damage and symptoms
Aphid (pea) Egg Adult/ nymph Piercing- sucking Phloem sap, leaves and stems Saliva toxins cause stunting, distortion, yellowing and sooty mold
Aphid (spotted alfalfa) Unknown Adult/ nymph Piercing- sucking Phloem sap, leaves and stems Saliva toxins cause stunting, yellowing and sooty mold
Aphid (cowpea Unknown Adult/ nymph Piercing- sucking Phloem sap, leaves and stems Saliva toxins cause stunting, yellowing and sooty mold
Alfalfa blotch leafminer Adult Larvae/ adult Hooks/ scraping, sucking Larval leaf mines Leaf drop, adult feeding “pinholes”
Alfalfa caterpillar Pupa Larvae Chewing Foliage General defoliation
Blister beetle (several species) Larvae on grasshopper eggs Adult body (toxin) Chewing Foliage Minimal injury to alfalfa, toxic to horses (live and dried), beetles contain cantharidin toxin
Cutworm (variegated) Migrant Larvae Chewing Foliage Defoliation, especially on regrowth
Grasshopper (several species) Egg Adult/ nymph Chewing Foliage General defoliation
Plant bug (alfalfa) Egg within plant stem Adult/ nymph Piercing- sucking Phloem sap of leaf veins Stunting, distorted leaflet tips
Plant bug (tarnished) Adult in leaf litter Adult/ nymph Piercing- sucking Phloem sap of leaf veins Stunting, distorted leaflet tips
Potato leafhopper Migrant Adult/ nymph Piercing- sucking Phloem sap of leaf veins Phloem damage, stunting, hopperburn
Meadow spittlebug Egg Nymph Piercing- sucking Sap feeding on stems Distinctive spittle
Alfalfa weevil Adult in leaf litter Adult/ larvae Chewing New growth defoliation Delayed second crop growth
Weevil (clover leaf) Larvae/ egg Adult/ larvae Chewing Lower canopy Defoliation

Table 2: Scouting calendar for Minnesota alfalfa insects

Insect pest Threshold sample method Damage to first crop Damage to second crop Damage to third crop Late-season damage
Aphid (pea) Number per stem X X X X
Aphid (spotted alfalfa) Number per stem X X
Aphid (Cowpea) Number per stem X X
Alfalfa blotch leafminer Percent of leaflets damaged X X
Alfalfa caterpillar Number per sweep X X
Blister beetle (several species) Detect with sweeps X X X
Cutworm (variegated) Number per square foot X X X
Grasshopper (several species) Number per square yard X X X
Plant bug (alfalfa) Number per sweep X X X X
Plant bug (tarnished) Number per sweep X X X X
Potato leafhopper Number per sweep X X X
Meadow spittlebug Number per square foot X
Alfalfa weevil Percent terminals. If warranted, count per stem X X
Weevil (clover leaf) Number per plant (crown) X

A 15-inch diameter, heavy-duty sweep net is a necessary tool for scouting insects in alfalfa.

Sweep nets quantify insect numbers when using economic thresholds for several key alfalfa insects and for initially detecting most alfalfa insects. The sweep net allows you to find insect pest populations early, before yield loss or obvious symptoms happen.

You can order sweep nets from several online suppliers. When purchasing a sweep net, consider the following:

Avoid the lightweight aerial nets designed to catch butterflies.

A long-handled net is better. Marking the handle with inch increments will allow you to measure crop height with the same tool.

Aluminum handles are durable and light, but metal can rub off on your hands.

Purchase a net that you can get purchase replacement parts for. If your net doesn’t wear out, you’re not using it right.

Other important tools for alfalfa scouting are:

A 10X to 15X hand lens

Containers for saving specimens for later identification

Insect management

Investments in scouting and basing any insecticide applications on economic thresholds pays.

Although insurance insecticide applications might seem like an easier approach, they don’t always save crop yield but often waste crop input dollars.

Insurance insecticides might actually make your alfalfa insect problems worse because:

  • Insecticides kill beneficial insects.
  • Lost biological control could cause other insect problems to flare up.
  • Overuse can lead to insecticide-resistant insect populations.

Always read and follow the insecticide label. Many insecticides are harmful to honey bees. Avoid applications to blooming alfalfa or when honey bees are active. If you must treat flowering alfalfa, notify beekeepers in the area.

Insect sweep nets and hand lenses

Online suppliers

Alfalfa insect scouting and insect sampling

The following alfalfa insect scouting guidelines thoroughly explain why and how to scout.

Goals of sampling

Correct identification and efficient sampling methods for beneficial and pest insects are two critical steps toward implementing an integrated pest management (IPM) program. IPM includes using all feasible control tactics (e.g., crop rotation, resistant hybrids and chemical control) to manage pests within a profitable, yet environmentally sound production system.

Efficient sampling methods are necessary for making accurate and timely evaluations of insect population (infestation) levels. You can then use estimates to compare with economic thresholds, and when considering appropriate management tactics.

Insect mortality can result from:

  • Starvation
  • Desiccation
  • Exposure (conditions that often occur when alfalfa is cut)
  • Predators
  • Parasites
  • Disease
  • Insecticide applications

Most insects are more vulnerable to these factors when they’re young.

The lowest labeled rates of insecticides can often provide effective control when treating young (immature) insects. This is why early detection is advantageous. Nevertheless, control action is still only appropriate when yield and quality savings justify control costs.

For high-yielding, high-quality alfalfa, check the crop weekly. In cooler weather, you can sample less frequently.

When the weather’s hot, increase sampling frequency. Insects develop, feed and reproduce faster under warmer conditions. You also need shorter sampling intervals when insect populations and/or damage approach economically damaging levels.

The scouting schedule on Tables 3 through 6 summarizes when to direct sampling toward particular insect pests.

Three sampling methods are recommended in Minnesota for scouting alfalfa insects:

  1. Sweep net sampling
  2. Stem sampling
  3. Ground area sampling (e.g., square foot, yard or meter)

You need samples from several different locations in a field. This ensures sampled insect populations are representative of insects in the field as a whole. Five locations are usually advised, but more may be necessary in fields with a wide range of soil types, crop maturities, slopes, etc.

Choose sampling locations in proportion to the relative area in the field of each condition. Figure 1 illustrates one way to get a representative sample.

Sweep net sampling

This currently is the most convenient method of estimating many of the pest and beneficial insect populations in alfalfa. Although it provides only a relative estimate of insect density, it’s sufficient and cost-effective for most aboveground insect pests of Minnesota alfalfa.

Sweep net sampling isn’t recommended for determining absolute estimates of alfalfa weevil, cutworm, armyworm, grasshopper or aphid populations. However, sweep nets often are useful for detecting initial low-density populations of alfalfa weevil larvae and pea aphids.

What you need

You need a 15-inch-diameter, heavy-duty sweep net if results are to be comparable with the provided thresholds. In Minnesota, threshold data is expressed in numbers per pendulum sweep.

How to sample

Swing the net from side to side on a more-or-less vertical axis sweeping down into the alfalfa, first in one direction and then the other (two sweeps). It’s important to have the net as low to the ground as practical (or the canopy’s top two-thirds in tall alfalfa) and to walk briskly when sampling.

Some workers use 180-degree sweeps, which are more horizontal and wider, but most thresholds used in the Midwest are based on pendulum sweeps.

After 10 or 20 pendulum sweeps, quickly shake the net contents to the bottom of the bag. Firmly grasp the net bag above the sample to prevent escape. Then, empty the sample into a plastic bag for later identification and counting, or count them in the field.

You can also count insects in the net. To do this, allow insects to escape very slowly, as you gradually open the base of the net. It’s useful to carry small vials to collect insects requiring further identification.

Stem sampling

Use stem sampling to monitor tip injury in alfalfa, and get more accurate estimates of alfalfa weevil and pea aphid abundance than sweep samples.

The only tool you need for this method is a carton or bucket to place stems in, or a tray to shake the aphids or larvae from the stems onto.

Ground area sampling

Estimate grasshoppers as the number per square yard, and cutworms, armyworms and post-harvest alfalfa weevils as the number per square foot.

A 1-square-foot sampling frame is useful for square-foot sampling of insects and measuring alfalfa stand density. It should be made of heavy wire, plastic or wood, and painted a bright color to reduce the likelihood of losing it.

Weather affects sampling efficiency

Don’t take sweep samples when the alfalfa is wet, or under extremely windy conditions; the results will be meaningless.

Sampling in still air is preferable to sampling in a light breeze, but often isn’t possible. Wind reduces the efficiency of sweep-sampling adult potato leafhoppers (PLH). Sampling in winds of more than 10 miles per hour isn’t advised.

Insects are more active and, in turn, more visible and catchable in warm weather. Cool conditions reduce the efficiency of sweep sampling adult PLH. Other insects are similarly affected; consider this when interpreting the number of insects caught.

Spring growth

  • Estimate the percentage of terminals injured by alfalfa weevil and check for live larvae.
  • Do a sweep net sample for pea aphid. If abundant, do a stem sample.
  • See if unusual numbers of spittlebug nymphs, plant bugs, grasshoppers, cutworms or other occasional pests are present.

Second and third growth

  • Check stubble to see if alfalfa weevil larvae are feeding on and retarding growth.
  • Do a sweep net sample for potato leafhopper.
  • Do a stem sample for pea aphid two weeks prior to harvest if large numbers are detected in sweep net samples.
  • See if there are unusual numbers of cutworms, plant bugs, grasshoppers or other occasional pests present.

Fourth growth (if applicable)

  • Do a sweep net sample for potato leafhopper.
  • Do a stem sample for pea aphid if large numbers are detected in sweep net samples and alfalfa is drought-stressed.
  • Observe if alfalfa weevil adults or larvae are present, or unusual numbers of cutworms, plant bugs, grasshoppers or other pests.

Newly seeded alfalfa

  • Intensify all surveys because seedling stands are more susceptible to injury than established stands.
  • Minnesota research indicates that in some years, you may need up to two insecticide treatments to prevent yield and quality losses to PLH on spring-seeded alfalfa during the establishment year.
  • Good PLH management during the first year may also be important for the stand’s long-term health and productivity.

Alfalfa insects

Potato leafhopper (PLH) migrates into the state each spring (May 1 to June 15). Consequently, only monitor the second and third cuttings or recently established stands.

You can conclude PLH monitoring seven to 10 days before harvest, as the PLH causes little injury to more mature growth. Closely check the first growth of spring-planted seedling alfalfa for PLH, as it’s much more sensitive to PLH injury.

Research from Cornell University indicates that, on average, three to five sets of 10 sweeps each will provide accurate estimates of PLH density. In very early regrowth, when it’s difficult to standardize sweeping efficiency, take at least four 10-sweep samples per field.

Tables 3 through 6 shows the sequential sampling plan for PLH. As indicated, you must take a minimum of three 10-sweep samples (Figure 1). The plan is very useful when PLH populations are low or high, with an average time savings of 50 percent compared to a traditional 100-sweep sample (ten 10-sweep samples).

Like our traditional thresholds for PLH (Table 7), the sequential plan accounts for differences in plant height.

When using the plan, if the total (cumulative) number of PLHs you catch falls in the “continue sampling” column, move to at least one more site to take an additional sample before making a treatment decision. Whenever the total number of PLHs falls in the “don’t treat” categories, you can stop sampling and advise the producer accordingly.

Table 3: Potato leafhopper sequential sampling plan for crops less than 3 inches

Site number Site number Don’t treat (more than or equal to) Continue sampling Treat (less than or equal to)
3rd site 2 PLHs 3-8 PLHs 9 PLHs
4th site 4 PLHs 5-10 PLHs 11 PLHs
5th site 5 PLHs 6-12 PLHs 13 PLHs
6th site 7 PLHs 8-14 PLHs 15 PLHs
7th site 9 PLHs 10-15 PLHs 16 PLHs
8th site 11 PLHs 12-17 PLHs 18 PLHs
9th site 13 PLHs 14-19 PLHs 20 PLHs
10th site 15 PLHs 16-21 PLHs 22 PLHs

Table 4: Potato leafhopper sequential sampling plan for crops 3 to 7 inches tall

Site number Don’t treat (more than or equal to) Continue sampling Treat (less than or equal to)
3rd site 9 PLHs 10-19 PLHs 20 PLHs
4th site 14 PLHs 15-24 PLHs 25 PLHs
5th site 18 PLHs 19-29 PLHs 30 PLHs
6th site 23 PLHs 24-34 PLHs 35 PLHs
7th site 28 PLHs 29-39 PLHs 40 PLHs
8th site 33 PLHs 34-44 PLHs 45 PLHs
9th site 38 PLHs 39-48 PLHs 49 PLHs
10th site 43 PLHs 44-53 PLHs 54 PLHs

Table 5: Potato leafhopper sequential sampling plan for crops 8 to 12 inches tall

Sample (site) number Don’t treat (more than or equal to) Continue sampling Treat (less than or equal to)
3rd site 19 PLHs 20-40 PLHs 41 PLHs
4th site 29 PLHs 30-49 PLHs 50 PLHs
5th site 39 PLHs 40-59 PLHs 60 PLHs
6th site 49 PLHs 50-69 PLHs 70 PLHs
7th site 59 PLHs 60-79 PLHs 80 PLHs
8th site 69 PLHs 70-89 PLHs 90 PLHs
9th site 79 PLHs 80-99 PLHs 100 PLHs
10th site 89 PLHs 90-109 PLHs 110 PLHs

Table 6: Potato leafhopper sequential sampling plan for crops more than 12 inches tall

Site number Don’t treat (more than or equal to) Continue sampling Treat (less than or equal to)
3rd site 44 PLHs 45-74 PLHs 75 PLHs
4th site 64 PLHs 65-94 PLHs 95 PLHs
5th site 84 PLHs 85-114 PLHs 115 PLHs
6th site 104 PLHs 105-134 PLHs 135 PLHs
7th site 124 PLHs 125-154 PLHs 155 PLHs
8th site 144 PLHs 145-174 PLHs 175 PLHs
9th site 164 PLHs 165-194 PLHs 195 PLHs
10th site 184 PLHs 185-214 PLHs More than 215 PLHs

Table 7: Potato leafhopper economic thresholds

Plant height PLHs per sweep
Less than 3 inches 0.3 PLHs
3-7 inches 0.5 PLHs
8-12 inches 1.0 PLHs
More than 12 inches 2.0 PLHs

Weather

Cool conditions reduce the efficiency of sampling adult PLH. At 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the catch is 56 percent of that at 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Table 8 shows wind’s effect on the efficiency of sweep-sampling adult PLH.

Also, 180-degree sweeps are much more severely affected by wind. Use pendulum sweeps, and don’t sweep-sample when winds are more than 10 miles per hour.

When sampling in a light wind, a small, hand-held anemometer will enable you to adjust catch figures upward according to wind speed.

Table 8: Effect of wind on efficiency of sweep net sampling potato leafhoppers

Wind speed Percent catch by pendulum sweeps Percent catch by 180-degree sweeps
0 miles per hour (mph) 100% 100%
5 mph 66% 41%
10 mph 43% 16%
15 mph 29% 7%; avoid sampling

What to count

Sweep sampling doesn’t sample potato leafhopper nymphs as effectively as adults, but there’s currently no other method convenient enough for commercial use.

When examining the sweep net contents, carefully open the bag, as many of the adult leafhoppers will readily escape. Total the numbers of both adults and nymphs to determine the average number of leafhoppers per sweep. Place more emphasis on samples taken during the 3- to 7- and 8- to 12-inch plant growth stages.

Check for weevils before harvesting the first crop and post-harvest, on the stubble after the first cutting. The earliest larvae tend to be found on south-facing slopes, as early as May 1 in years with an early spring.

Generally, larvae are rare or absent by the time of the second cut. Some larvae may hatch from fall-laid eggs, but these rarely reach economic levels.

Different parts of the United States use a variety of methods to determine whether economically damaging levels of alfalfa weevil are present.

Pre-harvest

The Illinois method, which measures and integrates crop growth stage, intensity of weevil infestation and progress of the infestation is the most accurate, but hasn’t yet been calibrated for Minnesota conditions. Meanwhile, monitoring tip injury is often recommended as a pre-harvest method.

This method is relatively simple and appears to be adequate for management purposes. It provides a good rule of thumb estimate for the alfalfa weevil’s pre-harvest damage potential.

Collect 50 to 100 alfalfa stems (10 to 20 randomly selected stems from five locations).

Examine whether they show obvious feeding damage – pinhole or more severe feeding – in the rapidly growing tip leaves and leaf buds.

Divide the number of stems with recent tip injury by the total stems collected to convert it to a percent.

Compare it with the below threshold.

Alfalfa weevil thresholds

Before first cutting: 35 percent (weak stand) plants with feeding damage. 40 percent (vigorous stand) plants with feeding damage and/or two live larvae/stem.

After first cutting: 8 or more larvae per square foot, (6 per square foot on sandy soil), or larvae are suppressing regrowth.

Don’t confuse percent of tips showing feeding damage with percent of stems defoliated.

Post-harvest

For post-harvest, monitor regrowth and potential stubble infestation. After the hay has been picked up, search the stubble and early regrowth in 20 samples (four randomly chosen, 1-square-foot samples from each of five locations).

Because harvesting often concentrates weevil larvae in the windrow areas of the field, it may be useful to sample first (or only) from windrows. When regrowth after harvest is sufficiently long to make square-foot counts too difficult, revert to monitoring tip injury.

The immature nymphs and subsequent adults arise from overwintered eggs (northern states). Early spring populations are often heavily parasitized by braconid wasps.

Generally, it’s not necessary to monitor or control pea aphids earlier than two to three weeks before alfalfa harvest. Aphids usually are maintained below economically damaging levels by natural enemies.

Locally higher densities are generally reduced by predators, parasites and disease. However, under dry, warm conditions, pea aphid infestations may rapidly increase. If aphids are extremely abundant on seedling alfalfa or early regrowth, control may be necessary.

Alfalfa can tolerate fairly high pea aphid populations. You don’t need to take stem counts until about a quarter cup of aphids are found per 20-sweep sample.

Threshold: Insecticide treatment for pea aphid is justified if populations 14 days prior to harvest exceed an average of 1.2 pea aphids per stem.

The simplest and most accurate method of taking actual counts of pea aphids is to estimate numbers per stem. This is somewhat similar to stem sampling for monitoring tip injury due to alfalfa weevil.

Shake six to 10 stems (randomly selected from each of five field locations) in a carton or over a tray, and the average number of aphids per stem calculated. Very carefully cut and handle the stems because pea aphids readily fall from the plant when disturbed.

Three species attack Minnesota alfalfa: Tarnished plant bug, alfalfa plant bug and rapid plant bug. Of the three, the tarnished and alfalfa plant bugs are the more consistent pests.

Both the immature nymphs and adults (wings) suck plant juices from the stems, leaves and flower buds. Subsequent damage may be characterized by crumpled leaves (feeding notches from either side of the leaves), stunted plants or aborted flower buds.

Plant bugs overwinter as adults. Significant nymphal populations usually aren’t present until late-May to early-June, as the spring crop approaches maturity. Populations are usually highest on the second and third regrowth cycles.

Although plant bugs are often considered significant pests in seed production fields, research from the University of Wisconsin suggests forage yields may also be reduced via the bugs’ direct feeding on vegetative growth.

Action thresholds resulting from this research range from three to five bugs per pendulum sweep (nymphs and adults of both species combined). If the alfalfa plant bug is the dominant species, lower the threshold to two to three per sweep.

Check for plant bugs when sampling potato leafhopper. For plant bugs, four to five sets of 10 sweeps each should provide a representative sample.

Bruce Potter, integrated pest management specialist, Southwest Research and Outreach Center and William Hutchison, Extension entomologist

extension.umn.edu

See also:  Control of the strawberry mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) in strawberry plantations by alternative acaricides
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