How to Control Moles in Your Yard — Consumer Reports

How to control moles in your yard

Moles, common in backyards throughout most of the United States, are a frequently cited problem in our Pest Patrol forum. The two most common mole varieties—star-nosed and eastern—measure about 7 inches long from nose to tail. They have broad, outward-facing pads on their front feet, small and narrow hind feet, and tiny pinholes for eyes; their ears are not visible.

Moles are voracious, high-metabolism feeders who use their large front paws to tunnel through the ground searching for ants, earthworms, and grubs; some species consume more than their weight in food daily. «They are pretty well adapted to life underground,» says Craig Riekena, a compliance manager for Bell Laboratories, which makes the mole poison Talpirid. «Their fur lies and flexes against their skin in a way that lets them tunnel as if they’re swimming.»

You’ll know you have a mole problem if you spot visible trenches and dug-up soil in your lawn and garden. Look for the raised ridges that characterize mole feeding burrows, along with molehills, which look like miniature volcanoes with plugged holes in the center. These are often located close to the deep permanent burrows where moles nest and reproduce.

Some molehills can be substantial enough to damage mower blades and housings. Flower beds are also at risk. «Since grubs gather around the roots of shrubs and flowers, moles scrape that dirt away and remove the plant’s foundation and depriving the flowers of nourishment,» says Stephanie VanSyckle, a spokeswoman for mole-trap manufacturer Victor.

Whether you take action against moles will depend on the extent of the damage they cause and your personal threshold for how it looks. Consumers Union Senior Scientist Michael Hansen notes that the ridges and molehills are mainly an aesthetic problem; you can tamp down the ridges and water them to repair damage. Hansen points out that moles’ preferred foods include several soil pests, especially grubs, so getting rid of moles could exacerbate other problems.

To prevent moles from burrowing under or climbing into specific sections of your garden, experts recommend burying metal mesh hardware cloth 2 feet vertically below ground with another 6 inches showing above ground. Moles tend to tunnel closer to the surface in spring when soil is moist and go deeper in the summer. «Since moles have trouble burrowing through dense soil, arranging stones or dense claylike soil around a garden to a depth of 2 feet can also help,» says Hansen.

Another natural defense—using a castor-oil mixture—has been touted by a poster in the Pest Patrol forum who says he hit on the idea after hearing that moles sometimes avoid fields where castor beans are planted. There’s more than a bean of truth to that idea—a series of studies by three Michigan State University researchers revealed that one castor-oil-based spray repellent did keep moles at bay for periods ranging from 30 to 60 days.

However, researchers from Ohio State University and the University of Arkansas disagree with the MSU findings, citing the short duration and effect of weather on the tests. Marne Titchenell, a professor of wildlife ecology at OSU, also warns that castor oil can harm insects, earthworms and other creatures that populate the soil.

Peter Sawchuk, a program leader in our Technical Department, reports good results using Spectracide’s Mole Stop and Bonide’s Mole & Gopher Repellent. «Both of these have worked well for me,» Sawchuk says, «but keep in mind that you’ll be driving the moles into the adjoining property, which might not endear you to your neighbor.» Other posters are recommending cats as another natural way to control moles.

More lethal alternatives include trapping and killing moles, which, experts say, is the only way to be sure you’re rid of them, and using poison. Consumer Reports has not tested the traps or poisons cited below, and there are safety, health, and/or environmental issues with all of these methods.

Harpoon-type traps like the one shown work best; handling them is risky and requires skill. Locate an active mole runway by pressing down on raised ridges of soil. The next day, note which ridges have been raised again. Then depress the ridge of soil and set the trap over it; the mole will trigger the trap as it moves through the tunnel. «If you’re going to use a trap, be very careful, as they are designed to impale or crush animals,» Hansen says.

Also check local regulations before you begin trapping. If mole trapping is banned in your state, as it is in Massachusetts and Washington, another alternative is a poison bait such as Talpirid. It comes in a form that resembles an earthworm—another preferred food source of moles—and contains the rodenticide bromethalin, a potent neurotoxin that was developed after rodents began building up resistance to earlier poisons.

The Environmental Protection Agency, concerned about the number of accidental poisonings of children and pets, recently restricted sales of many rodenticides to licensed pest applicators and stipulated that they could be deployed only in sealed bait stations. But since moles are technically insectivores, not rodents, products marketed to control moles are not considered rodenticides and are exempted from those restrictions.

In the wake of an accidental poisoning in New York City, the state of New York has restricted bromethalin’s sale and use to licensed pesticide applicators. «Talpirid is a registered pesticide in New York, so it is not banned, but because of the concentration of the specific active ingredient listed—bromethalin—its use is restricted,» says Maureen Wren, spokeswoman for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

«Bromethalin is World Health Organizaton Class Ia pesticide—it’s highly acutely toxic,» says Hansen. «If it’s eaten by children, or if the dead moles are dug up and eaten by pets, it can be harmful. It is also toxic to birds and fish.» To ensure that you safely and effectively use bromethalin, follow all product instructions and precautions.

But, Hansen says, «There are much better and safer ways to control moles. Controlling grubs is one way, as that’s one of their major food sources. You can also use a garden hose and flood out of their tunnels; this is especially effective in the spring when they’re breeding and especially effective against moles on the West Coast, who dig their breeding burrows closer to the molehill than other species.»

If all else fails, you can hope that raptors will take up residence near your lawn. «A group of hawks did a pretty good job keeping the lawns at our mower-testing facility in Fort Myers, Florida, free of moles,» says Sawchuk, who took the photo of the hawk at right.—Gian Trotta and Michael MacCaskey

Essential information: Our Complete Lawn & Yard Guide offers how-to instructions and ratings of a wide array of lawn and garden equipment. You’ll also find the expert advice for dealing with weeds, common insects, and lawn diseases—and an interactive guide to the major lawn problems.

Moles and Mole Control

Recommended Measures for Getting Rid of Moles

There are several methods to controlling your mole population

A. First: Detect the Presence Of Moles

The first and most important step is to properly detect the presence of mole and locate the main mole runways or tunnels.

  • Main runways and tunnels can be indicated by mounds of soil created as they construct them.
  • To locate mole tunnels in frequent use, clear away a mound of soil and probe for the opening usually a short passage that leads down a few inches to the main tunnel. Place Victor mole traps or Talparid Mole Bait in this tunnel.
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Further ways to identify main runways:

  • Follow more or less a straight course for some distance
  • Appear to connect two mounds or two runway systems.
  • Follow fence rows, concrete paths or other man-made borders or
  • Follow a woody perimeter of a field or yard.
  • Nest are commonly found along protected areas like fence rows or hedgerows.

B. Second: Follow up with your choice of mole control methods.

1. Baiting: Using Mole Bait

    • One worm contains a lethal dose of bromethalin, an active ingredient that capitalizes on the mole’s high energy demands.
    • Special enhancers ensure immediate attraction and excellent product acceptance.
    • Talpirid mole bait works quickly and can kill in 24 hours.

2. Using Mole Traps : Talpirid and Victor

As with all mole control treatment methods, (particularly with trapping), patience and persistence are the key words. Trapping moles with mole traps is usually easiest during the spring and fall with mole activity is at a peak. Trapping in the spring can also eliminate the pregnant females, reducing population.

    Talparid Mole Trap-

Lawn damage caused by moles plagues homeowners and lawn care specialists alike. Seldom seen as they tirelessly tunnel underground, moles leave their telltale marks aboveground as unsightly «mole hills», mounds of soil, or grassless brown streaks. Trapping is most successful during the spring and fall months after a rain. Moles are more difficult to locate in the summer and winter months, since their tunnels are deeper in the soil. When using a mole trap, locate the active runways first. Do this by stepping on a run or mound and mark the location. Wait for 24-48 hours to see if the opening is re-opened (indicating mole activity). Place mole traps in this location.

Talpirid Mole Trap is a heavy-duty, dual-spring trap designed for use by the professional pest control market. Talpirid Mole Trap offers professionals speed and safety in servicing mole accounts. This specially designed «hands-free» mole trap is fast and easy to place and set.

After identifying and properly preparing an active mole tunnel, simply place the trap jaws in the active mole tunnel and step on the trap’s yellow foot pedal which sets the trigger below the surface. Once set, the low-profile TALPIRID Mole Trap sits close to the ground — no bulky metal or equipment sticking out of the ground. The trap’s dual springs ensure maximum catching power. When a mole encounters the underground trigger, the yellow pedal springs up making notification of capture easy and safe.

Captured moles are released by removing the trap from the ground and compressing the pedal by hand. Using the safety release button, the trap can be easily and safely disengaged and relocated to other mole tunnels, depending on mole pressure. Talpirid Mole Trap can be used over and over again. Made of glass-filled nylon, Talpirid Mole Trap will not rust and can be used in all types of soil.

Victor Mole Trap-

Victor Out O Sight Mole Trap is a typical scissor-type trap. This trap is more economical than the Talpirid Mole Trap, but more difficult to set.

Establish intial activity:Use your finger, small wooden dowel or a narrow rod to puncture a hole in the top of subsurface runways. Be careful not to crush runways. Mark opened runways and revisit them 48 to 72 hours later. Runways that have had holes resealed within 72 hours should be baited.

To get complete instructions, please view the video below.

3. Using Gassers for Mole Control

Although the poisonous gases such as Revenge Rodent Smoke Bombs are generally less effective unless you can gas the major nests and/or repeated applications are made, some people have gotten good results with this type of product.

4. Using Mole Repellents

Granulated Repellents:

  • Mole Scam Professional-22 lbs -is a professional granulated mole repellent that drives moles from your yard by organic repellents (Castor Oil — 17.0%, Citronella Oil — .9997% , Garlic Oil — .0003%). Apply Mole Scram Professional during the mole seasons, usually in the spring and fall; lasts 30-45 days, covers up to 16, 500 square feet.
  • Mole Scram Granular Repellent--10 lbs(Castor Oil — 15.0%,Citronella Oil — .4997% , Garlic Oil — .0003% ;covers up to 7500 square feet
  • MoleMax is also a granululated product by Bonide, with a lesser percentage of Castor Oil (10.0%, no other ingredients).

Liquid Repellents:

5. Controlling with Insecticides To Kill Insects and Grubs

Treating the lawn surface with a granule such as Imidacloprid .5G or Merit Granules would eliminate their food sources (insects, grubs and worms). Eliminating their food source, however, has one drawback. The moles will tunnel more aggressively in search of food, causing more temporary surface damage. This increased tunneling and surface damage will last for 2-4 weeks.

Imidacloprid .5G or Merit Granules are best applied during the spring months and are long lasting. Most Imidacloprid liquid formulations do not work well as the granule formulations.

Biology/ Identification of Moles

Moles have bluish-black to gray fur. They have a slender snout, teeth like needles, flattened feet, claws and small ears. Moles can grow up to 12 » long; depends on the species. Moles have pointed noses that distinguish them from meadow voles, gophers, and shrews. Their noses extend well in front of their mouths. Their small eyes nad ears are concealed by fur. Their feet are spade like in shape and are wider than they are long.

Discharged mounded soil and heaved runways are indicators of the mole’s presence. The Eastern mole is the most common mole found in the eastern US, the most troublesome species on the coast of Oregon and Washington is the Townsend’s mole, the Broad-footed mole can be found in California. Eastern moles can be found from the Atlantic to the foothills of the Rockies and from Southern Canada to the panhandle of Florida. All moles can be damaging, but the Eastern mole is by far the most widespread. It is better described as the common or grey mole. This mole is the strongest of the group and is most often associated with tunnels and or mole mounds by residential homeowners. Moles are not rodents, but belong to a group of mammals called insectivores. Moles have a very high metabolic rate and, therefore, have to consume large amounts of food.

Moles mate during the months of February and March. They produce a single litter of three to five; gestation period is six weeks. Moles do not hibernate and store food or fat. Severe lawn damage can result until mole control is used or the lawn surfaces freezes in the winter. Newborn female moles will mate the following spring, and the cycle begins anew.

Mole activity occurs both during the day and night. They can be seen during damp days or the day after a rain during the spring and summer months as they push up the their tunnels or mounds. If the lawn freezes in the winter or there is a very dry summer, the moles use deep burrows.

Moles have large appetites and may eat up to 100 percent of their body weight in one day. White grubs, earthworms, beetles, and assorted larvae are their principal foods. Moles feed primarily on insects that feed below the ground. The tunnels that the mole excavates while searching for food may be used only once or may be traveled repeatedly. Moles may be active during any time of the day and seem to prefer cool, moist soil (the same as that preferred by grubs and earthworms). Moles do not eat the roots and bulbs of flowers and vegetables, a commonly held belief. Voles and shrews will attack the roots and bulbs. In fact, moles may benefit these plants by feeding on grubs and worms that can damage them. However, the tunneling activities of moles may disfigure lawns and gardens.

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Mole Habits — Mole Tunnels

Moles produce two types of runways (tunnels); sub-surface runways and deep runways. Moles build vast underground tunnels in search of worms, insects and nesting/living space. Mounds form a row of excavations unlike the random excavations of a gopher.

Certain mole tunnels of both the deeper runways and the sub surface runways are used as major lane of travel (main runways) and may be used by several moles in the areas. Sub-surface mole runways are feeding tunnels just below the soil surface and commonly seen as the raised ridges running through lawn areas. The mole is capable of extending these runways at the rate of 100 feet per day. Sub-surface mole runs may be used daily, may be revisited at irregular intervals, or may be used only once for feeding and then abandoned.

Moles connect with the deep runways, which are located between 3-12 inches below the surface. As a rule, few or no mole mounds are produced as a result of the production of sub-surface tunnels. The deep mole tunnels are usually main runways since they are used daily as the mole travels to and form the main subsurface runways or the nest. The soil excavated from the deep tunnels is deposited on the surface through short vertical tunnels in volcano-like mounds (Mole mounds should not be confused with pocket gopher mounds which are horse-shoe shaped.) The number of mole mounds or surface ridges present is no indication of how may moles may be present. On average, one acre of land will support about two or three moles at one time. But areas next to large tracts or forested areas may be subject to continual invasions by moles because such areas may support many moles.

TOP-13 Best Mole Killers: Poisons, traps and repellents review

Moles are lovely creatures at a first glance only. Those who are already acquainted with these creatures close enough certainly do not want to see them ever again. The users can find all kinds of control methods online from poisoning the moles with exhaust fumes to bring down mole tunnels… There are even some very resourceful gardeners that suggest eliminating moles by sustaining constant noise near their burrows. Half of these methods do not work when used alone, it is necessary to combine them. But some (like poisoning the moles with exhaust fumes) can irreversibly damage the entire garden ecosystem. In this article, we consider only proven methods and 13 best pest control products: the best mole traps, repellents, and poisons from

3 Best Mole Control Products

Victor Out O’Sight Mole Trap Repellex Mole Repellent (7lbs) VENSMILE Solar Sonic Repellent Spikes (2 Pieces)
#1 best selling mole killer, a scissor-jawed type of the trap operating like a press. Comes in granules. Cost-efficient. Protects up to 7,000 sq ft. Solar-powered. Emits sonic pulses every 25 seconds that chase out moles.
Effectiveness: 10 Effectiveness: 7 Effectiveness: 8

6 Steps on How to Eliminate Moles

STEP#1. Initially, you never know to what extent the moles in your area are resistant to one or another measure, therefore you should alway start with the safest and simplest ones. These are natural repellents, namely castor oil which is recommended by scientists. Castor oil will not cause damage to eatable crops. To reinforce the effect, use chemical repellents like moth ball being distributed along the animal’s runway.

STEP#2. However, these solutions provide a short-term effect, therefore, you might need something more convincing. Like electronic devices scaring moles out of the area. Since moles are sensitive to sounds, choose sonic repellers such as spikes which emit sounds underground.

STEP#3. In case the mole damage can be inflicted to small sites, erect physical barriers to protect valuable plants or crops. They should be made of metal and dug deeply into the soil.

STEP#4. But moles are adaptive and can get used to disturbing noises. So, in case all sorts of repellents do not work, opt for more radical but, at the same time, more effective methods. The most recommended one is trapping which is relatively humane and does not pose hazards to the trappers when the device is handled properly. Set the traps near the moles’ burrows.

STEP#5. If trapping has not significantly reduced the mole population in the area, use poisons which should be placed underground only, into the mole’s active burrows.

STEP#6. Since it is hard to find an attractive bait for mole, poisoning may not be the best bet for you. So, try gas bombs which are more effective against these animals than poisons. There is no doubt that if you have gone through all the above-mentioned stages, you do not have a single mole left in the area.

Table of Contents:

Entomologists’ Opinion on Trapping, Repelling & Poisoning

The Internet is full of traditional mole elimination tips and you can find thousands of products labeled “mole control”. How to choose really effective methods and products? We have explored this challenging issue and found out what American scientists think in this regard.

For instance, they agree that the most effective way to get rid of moles is to use mole traps. University of Nebraska scientists explained this as follows: “Trapping is the most successful and practical method of getting rid of moles.” Their Californian colleagues are of the same opinion, and consider trapping “The most universally applicable and dependable method of mole control”. Scientists from PennStateExtension point out that specialized mole traps are humane mole killers although they look quite brutal. Also, such devices do not pose hazards to the trapper when handled properly. Specialized mole traps can be divided into 3 types. The first one is the harpoon trap which sharp spikes pierce the mole. The second type is the scissor-jaw trap with jaws closing firmly across the runway, while the third one is the choker loop trap with a loop tightening around the body of the captured animal. These traps have two crucial strong points. They exploit natural habits of moles that spring the device by following their instinct to break through the blocked passageways. One more strong point is that such traps are installed without drawing attention of the mole since they are not placed into the burrow.

As for the mole repellents, the opinions of scientists vary. Nebraska experts make very unflattering comments about this method loved by many users: “No chemical products are registered or effective for repelling moles. Borders of marigolds may repel moles from gardens, although this method has not been scientifically tested.” Californian scientists, on the other hand, are not so categorical. They argue that such a control method as flooding the tunnels with water is not effective at all since moles are excellent swimmers and, more importantly, by irrigating a landscape you will only increase their food supply. But castor oils can be highly useful when getting rid of the pests: “Commercially available mole repellents, usually castor oil solutions, are also available. Research on the effectiveness of these castor oil commercial repellents has shown some efficacy for eastern moles.” Researchers from the University of Missouri-Columbia share this opinion on castor oil repellents which are said to be capable of preventing the mole damage to lawns. Apart from that, the scientists highly recommend applying thiram which is a registered repellent for moles. Mothballs are also considered to be effective when distributed in the mole’s runways, however, their effect is not sustainable.

Electronic mole repellers may come in handy because moles have sensitive hearing and can be scared out of the area by means of sound, according to Rebecca McPeake, a professor at the University of Arkansas. Such devices are typically powered by batteries and automatically emit disturbing sounds. However, the major drawback of these repellers lies in their short-term effect. Moles quickly get used to disturbing noises and the repellers’ effect reduces.

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Jim Parkhurst, a specialist with Virginia Cooperative Extension, suggests erecting barriers as effective mole repellents protecting small gardens or seedbeds. The barrier should be installed along the perimeter and should be constructed of sheet metal or hardware cloth. The structure should be placed 10 inches deep into the trench and then the material should be L-shaped. However, as researchers from the University of Arkansas note, erecting physical barriers against moles is typically impractical because they are able to dig deeply.

And what about the mole poisons? The Oregon State University scientists conclude that “Because moles are insectivores, eating mainly earthworms and insects, toxic baits are not readily eaten”. Therefore, the poisons producers have only one way out: to place mole poison bait in a shell that mimics these insects and worms. They also suggest that you should use poison gas (gas bombs), as they are an effective mole control method. However, there is a “but”: if the moles have already dug up an extensive tunnel system, the method will be useless since the moles can easily “depressurize” the gassed part of the tunnel, and the gas will simply be released through the hole, and rodents will spread further. Also, moles detect gases easily and can successfully escape their impact. Another difficulty related to using poisons is that they work only when placed in active burrows, while it is easy to mistaken an empty burrow for the occupied one. Also, since mole poisons, such as zinc phosphide, are very toxic, they should be placed underground only. And, finally, poisons cannot be applied in the crop areas or near water source as they can be washed into these areas by rain, scientists from PennState Extension claim.

Comparison Table of Effectiveness of Mole Control Methods

Method Advantage Disadvantage Effectiveness (1-10)
Trapping Considered by scientists to be the most effective method. Takes advantage of the moles’ natural habits. Humane mole killers. Don’t arouse suspicion when installed. When handled improperly, the device can hurt the trapper. 10
Repellents Castor oil repellents can prevent the mole damage to lawns. Thiram is a registered repellent for moles and is highly recommend by scientists. Mothballs work when distributed in the mole’s runways but for a short period of time. Not considered by scientists to be effective. A short-term solution. 6
Electronic mole repellents Effective because moles have sensitive hearing. Have a short-time effect since moles are adaptive. 7
Installing physical barriers Suggested for the protection of small gardens or seedbeds. Considered to be impractical since moles are able to dig deeply. Labor-consuming because you will have to dig a trench and mount the barrier properly. 7
Mole poisons There are registered mole killers. It is hard to find an attractive bait because moles don’t consume grains and nuts. Poisons are very toxic and, therefore, must be placed underground only. Cannot be applied in crop areas. 6
Gas bombs Considered by scientists to be an effective mole killer If the tunnel is extensive, the gas may be released through the hole. Moles detect gases easily. 9

We trust the scientists’ expertise as they identified the best pest control methods, and now let’s get down to business. We’ll show you how to choose the most suitable mole control products. Here you’ll find a variety of traps of three types: scissor-jawed, harpoon and chocker loop traps. They kill moles in different ways, either with loops compressing the animal’s body or by means of a small hammer breaking the spine or with blades piercing the trapped animal. If you don’t want to kill the moles, opt for natural repellent based on castor oil. We have compared three items of various weight and coverage area and determined the cost-efficient ones. Electronic devices also known as mole spikes exploit moles’ sensitivity to sound and are designed to operate underground. Ultrasonic pest repellent stands distinctive as it operates above the ground and its effect is doubted by some scientists. We have examined two types of poisons: zinc phosphide baited with peanuts and bromethalin baited with worm simulation. The latter is based on moles’ food preferences. You may also poison the moles with gas cartridges placed into the burrows.

Best Mole Killers: Mole Poison & Gas Bomb

One of the popular mole control methods is the use of poison baits and gas. Many people prefer them to other methods because of their simplicity. After having tinkered with the installation of traps and not having caught any pests, many go ahead and buy poison which becomes a salvation, they say. Many scientists do not consider toxic baits a serious mole control product due to the fact that the moles are not so easily attracted by food. But poison manufacturers have begun to produce bait imitating natural mole food, which works. Also, the poisonous gas is effective against moles only if there are few excavated tunnels.

Mole Poison Bait – Tomcat Mole Killer – Worm Bait (10 Worms)

The poison harvested in a special envelope simulating larvae or worms is a favorite treat of these pests. The active ingredient of Tomcat Mole Killer is bromethalin, which is widely known as a powerful component of poisons acting on the nervous system.

Since moles are rather voracious, it’s enough to fill the soil several times with this fragrant mole poison by Tomcat for Check current price in the key tranches, and the result won’t take long. The only drawback noted by the large area owners is the following: “There are only 10 worms in the box and I would recommend cutting the worms into thirds (1/3). I have a pretty big yard and this seems to work perfectly!”. If the situation has gone out of control, the persecution of the unwelcome pests might take quite some time.

NB! The poison is not stated to be able to damage soil or pets not because it’s not toxic but because the bait is placed deep in the soil where pets can’t reach. But if your dog likes to dig the lawn, keep it away from the treated area; otherwise you’ll have to drive to the vet if the pet eats the bait…

Excerpts from buyers’ reviews

«Neglect those mechanical traps, these fake worms do the job. I reduce each in fifty percent to make 20 units. It was pleasing to really feel the point of a stick experience the grass and also right into the hollow chamber. I used every one of the fake worms … I understand it was excessive (pun intended) but often more is better than much less. I marked each location with a small rock and prevented cutting the turf till the experiment mored than. One point I did that I have actually not seen reviewed anywhere is I sprinkled the lawn the same evening I set the project in motion. My idea was given that the moles are pursuing worms, and worms always turn up in moist dirt, this would certainly make a perfect tornado of kill problems. Then, I waited 3 full days prior to going to the location. Certainly, there is no very easy method to inform if you have actually been successful … however it showed up that no brand-new passages were added. So, I flattened all the existing tunnels as well as waited over night to see if they were expanded again. NONE! trouble resolved».

Tomcat rates 3.9 out of 5 stars in reviews. “Forget those mechanical traps, these fake worms do the job,” a customer wrote. Users are particularly satisfied with the fact that the poison is harmless to plants. Be it tomatoes or strawberry, plants are not damaged after the poison is poured into the soil.

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