How to Care for Septic Tanks, Hunker

How to Care for Septic Tanks

Caring for your septic tank can save you headaches and hassles in the future. Although you can’t control every problem that may occur, you can cut your chances down by some preventative techniques. Some ways to care for your septic tank are to pump and inspect regularly, practice water conservation and avoid dumping harsh chemicals and grease down your drain or toilet.

Pump and Inspect Septic Tank

On average, a household septic tank system should be inspected every year to every three years. Depending on which professional you ask, they may recommend different times. You should get your septic tank pumped at least every three to five years.

Septics that are considered alternative systems with mechanical components, pumps or electrical float switches should be inspected every year. A schedule for inspecting and pumping a septic tank will vary from home to home. For example, four prime factors indicate how often you should pump your septic, including household size, septic size, the volume of solids in wastewater and total wastewater generated.

Be Mindful About Water Conservation

Watching how much water you use is not only ideal for your water bill if you have one, but it’s also beneficial to your septic system. Conserving your water helps the function and longevity of your septic system, saving you money so you can keep your septic longer.

Septic tanks are vital for separating incoming waste into three different layers. Heavy solids will sink to the bottom, forming a sludge layer. Lighter solids, such as toilet paper, oils, fats and grease, will float to the top and become trapped in the tank by an outlet tree to form a scum later. The last layer is a clearer liquid in the center of the tank that goes to the secondary tank.

The point of the tank is to trap as many solids as possible so they don’t damage your secondary treatment. To ensure your tank is meeting these expectations, it needs retention time. The retention time means how long the liquid remains in the tank. It’s distinguished by taking the volume of the tank while dividing it by the flow of water. When the retention time takes longer, it takes more time for incoming solids to separate. When you reduce the water you use, the retention time of your septic tank will perform better.

Avoid Chemicals and Grease

After cooking a meal, you may be tempted to dump the grease down your kitchen sink. Whether you run water down with it or not, you are risking a potential clog or severe damage in your septic system. As grease, fats and oils solidify, it creates a problem called septic backup. When this issue arises, wastewater from your home can’t travel to your septic tank, meaning it will back up into your toilets, tubs and sinks.

Grease isn’t the only issue. You may have heard of people using harmful chemicals in their septic as they think it will deodorize and keep it clean. By using a chemical-based additive, you are adding to the potential harm. Most chemical-based additives have corrosive ingredients, such as sulfuric acid. This additive can eat the interior of your septic tank, causing damage.

www.hunker.com

«Unspeakable Period»: Female Medical Staff In Coronavirus-Hit China Protest

Reports that some medical staff were given birth control pills in order to delay their periods have also prompted outrage.

The portrayal of female staff has prompted a rare wave of criticism in China. (Representational)

China’s fight against the coronavirus epidemic has triggered anger over the neglect of frontline female workers who have struggled to access menstrual products, battled with ill-fitting equipment and had their heads shaved.

Reports that some medical staff were given birth control pills in order to delay their periods have also prompted outrage.

As the world marks International Women’s Day, women in China have rallied against measures they deem discriminatory as the government races to contain the crisis, which has disrupted the lives of tens of millions of people under lockdown in central Hubei province, the virus epicentre.

Shanghai resident Jiang Jinjing became concerned about how female medical workers were dealing with their periods, after workers spoke out about avoiding using the toilet to conserve their protective suits.

The 24-year-old asked about the issue on China’s Twitter-like Weibo platform, and received thousands of comments, including urgent anonymous appeals from women in Hubei.

«Many female medical workers sent messages, saying their periods were really causing a lot of trouble,» said Jiang, who launched a donation drive of sanitary products.

«Can’t even eat or drink all day while wearing the isolation suit, let alone change sanitary napkins,» one told her.

Her efforts galvanized individuals and companies to send more than 600,000 sanitary pads and period-proof underwear, which can be worn for longer, to frontline workers.

Not essential

China ordered fast-track routes for emergency supplies entering Hubei province — but sanitary products weren’t initially considered necessities.

Some hospital officials have turned the donations away, Jiang said, because they didn’t have «sufficient awareness of this issue».

«The leaders are all male comrades,» one nurse in Hubei’s Shiyan city told AFP, who asked to remain anonymous.

While the provincial leaders are overwhelmingly male, women account for the majority of nurses and doctors on the frontline, according to the official All-China Women’s Federation.

Jiang also had to face trolling from online critics.

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«Even human lives can’t be protected, why care about that issue in the crotch of your pants?» one wrote in response to her campaign.

But Jiang and her volunteers remain unfazed.

«We’re very happy that we can do a little work for women’s rights,» she told AFP.

‘Unspeakable’ periods

The portrayal of women fighting the virus has prompted a rare wave of criticism in a country where online discussion is usually tightly restricted.

A Shanghai university hospital, which praised the «woman warriors» that made up 79 percent of its reinforcement team to Hubei, said it was donating 200 bottles of pills to «postpone female team members’ ‘unspeakable’ special periods.»

The hospital later defended itself, saying the women took the medication voluntarily, but the hospital was slammed by Weibo users who accused officials of depriving women of control over their bodies.

«In order to avoid providing sanitary pads, you have created this kind of volunteering!» said one.

«Of course they would rather take progesterone than stain their protective suits with blood.»

Propaganda videos of female medical workers having their heads shaved — supposedly to improve hygiene — have also backfired, with many doubting that the women, some of whom were weeping, had participated willingly.

«Stop using women’s bodies as tools for propaganda,» read one widely-shared essay responding to the videos on a WeChat-based blog.

The essay was later removed from the platform for «illegal» content.

A social media post from state broadcaster CCTV which described unnamed workers posing in oversized hazmat suits as «cute» drew similar ire.

Weibo users pointed out that they were likely to be female workers given the ill-fitting suits.

«Fat lot of good being cute does when it comes to safety!!» wrote one user, whose comments were reposted more than 27,000 times.

The strength of online debate shows that public awareness of gender equality has grown, said activist Feng Yuan, who co-founded a Beijing-based non-profit focusing on women.

But stereotypes and propaganda «erase» women by portraying them as «recipients of help, or as long-suffering caregivers, or eulogized victims or self-sacrificers,» she said.

«Instead of living people, this kind of propaganda conversely strengthens gender stereotypes.»

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

www.ndtv.com

The gender gap in employment: What’s holding women back?

Around the world, finding a job is much tougher for women than it is for men. When women are employed, they tend to work in low-quality jobs in vulnerable conditions, and there is little improvement forecast in the near future.

Explore this InfoStory to get the data behind the trends and learn more about the different barriers holding women back from decent work.

A global gap

When someone is employed or actively looking for employment, they are said to be participating in the labour force.

The current global labour force participation rate for women is close to 49%. For men, it’s 75%. That’s a difference of 26 percentage points, with some regions facing a gap of more than 50 percentage points.

Unemployed or vulnerable

Women who want to work have a harder time finding a job than men. This problem is particularly marked in Northern Africa and the Arab States, where unemployment rates for women exceed 16%.

While vulnerable employment is widespread for both women and men, women tend to be overrepresented in certain types of vulnerable jobs: men are more likely to be working in own-account employment while women are more likely to be helping out in their households or in their relatives’ businesses.

Why does the gender gap matter?

The freedom to work – by choice, in conditions of dignity, safety and fairness – is integral to human welfare. Guaranteeing that women have access to this right is an important end in itself.

From an economic perspective, reducing gender gaps in labour force participation could substantially boost global GDP. The regions with the largest gender gaps would see huge growth benefits. Many developed countries would also see their average annual GDP growth increase, which is significant during times of near-zero economic growth.

What women want

ILO and Gallup teamed up to ask women across the globe if they preferred to work in paid jobs, care for their families, or do both. The data show that a staggering 70% of women – regardless of their employment status – prefer to work in paid jobs.

The power of women’s preference

In countries at all levels of economic development, a woman’s personal preference is the key factor in determining whether she will seek out and engage in paid work. However, this preference is heavily influenced by socio-economic constraints and pressure to conform to traditional gender roles.

Persistent challenges

Gender roles

Gender roles and the pressures to conform to these roles for women vary across regions, religions and households. One way the pressure to conform manifests itself is through marital status. For instance, in developed and emerging economies, women who have a spouse or a partner are less likely to be employed in a paid job or be actively looking for one.

This can often arise from the economic stability of a partner’s income that can reinforce the “male breadwinner” bias in some marital arrangements.

In developing countries the reverse is true: the economic necessity in the region gives all women little choice but to work despite their marital status.

Work-family balance

Across the board, both women and men report that the biggest barrier for women in paid work is the struggle to balance it with family responsibilities.

Work such as childcare, cleaning and cooking is necessary for a household’s welfare – and therefore for the well-being of societies as a whole – but women still shoulder the brunt of this often invisible and undervalued workload.

Lack of transport

In developing and emerging countries, the lack of safe and accessible transportation is the most challenging factor for the small percentage of women who report being affected by this.

All too often, women risk facing harassment and even sexual assault on their daily commute.

Lack of affordable care

Globally, the lack of affordable care for children or family members is an obstacle for women, both for those looking for a job and those in paid work.

In fact, it decreases a woman’s participation chances by almost 5 percentage points in developing countries, and 4 percentage points in developed countries.

www.ilo.org

Dependency Ratio and How It Affects You

What the US Dependency Ratio Says About Social Security

Photo by SolStock/Getty Images

The dependency ratio is the number of dependents in a population divided by the number of working-age people. Dependents are defined as those aged zero to 14 and those aged 65 and older. Working-age is from 15 to 64.  

The ratio describes how much pressure an economy faces in supporting its non-productive population. The higher the ratio, the greater the burden carried by working-age people. The ratio is most often used when discussing the viability of Social Security because it’s paid for with payroll taxes.

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The United Nations releases a dependency ratio for every country in the world. It gives a ratio for every five years from 1950 to 2015.   It provides the age data for each year during that period.

The World Bank releases an old-age dependency ratio. It only reports on the proportion of senior dependents per 100 working-age population.   Its formula is the number of seniors aged 65 or older divided by the working-age population aged 15 to 64. It doesn’t count children.

Key Takeaways

  • The dependency ratio is the percentage of people either too young or old to be working-age divided by those 15-64 years of age.
  • Dependency ratios reveal the population breakdown of a country and how well dependants can be taken care of.
  • Senior citizens are becoming a larger percentage of the dependency ratio, while the percentage of children is falling.
  • This disparity has negative consequences for Social Security because there will be fewer younger people available to take care of seniors.

How the Ratio Is Calculated

The dependency ratio formula is:

DR = (Y + S) / (W x 100)

  • DR = Dependency ratio
  • Y = Youth aged 0-14
  • S = Seniors aged 65+
  • W = Workers aged 15-64

The World Bank’s old-age dependency ratio formula is:

  • DR = Dependency ratio
  • S = Seniors aged 65+
  • W = Workers aged 15 — 64

Current U.S. Dependency Ratio

The U.S. dependency ratio is 52.7 or 52.7 dependents for every 100 working-age individuals. It’s 112.9 million dependents divided by 214.2 million working-age people. That’s lower than in 1960, when it was 66.1. There were 71.9 million dependents divided by 108.8 million workers.

The U.S. age dependency ratio tells a different story. In 2015, the ratio was 22.1. There were 47 million seniors divided by 212.1 million workers. Greater than the 1960 ratio of 15.1. At that time, there were 16.5 million seniors supported by 108.8 million workers.

The age dependency ratio has increased because so many baby boomers have reached retirement age.

It hasn’t affected the overall dependency ratio because the number of children per worker is decreasing. In 2015, the child dependency ratio was 29.1. That’s 61.7 million children divided by 212.1 million workers. In 1960, the ratio was 51. There were 55.4 million children divided by 1082 million workers.

Longevity

The ratio doesn’t take into account increasing longevity. Seniors over age 80 have more health problems than younger seniors. For example, 64% of women aged 65 to 74 have hypertension.   Almost 80% of women 75 and over have the disease. That will make the cost burden on workers higher.

To plan for that, another age dependency ratio should be created for those in their 80s. The U.N.’s data revealed that there were 1.8 million seniors 80 or older in 1950. This very senior dependency ratio was 2. By 2015, the ratio had tripled to six. There were 11.9 million seniors in the 80s or older supported by 211.6 million workers.

Economic Dependency Ratio

These estimates assume that all those in the dependent age groups don’t work and all those aged 15 to 64 do work. In real life, that’s not true. Not all of those aged 65 and older have stopped working. Many of those aged 15 to 64 are not working for various reasons.

To be more accurate, dependency estimates should also include the labor force participation rate for each age group. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates this for each five-year increment from 16 and older.   It reveals that the LFPR is dropping overall because those aged 16 to 24 are going to school instead of entering the labor force. That means the other age groups are taking up the slack.

By 2028, the percentage of those who are working after age 65 will increase to 9.4. That’s up from 2018 when 6.2% were in the labor force.  

The BLS uses this to estimate the economic dependency ratio.   It’s the number of non-working civilians per 100 in the labor force. In 2018, there were 100 dependents for every hundred workers. That includes 40 under 16 and 26 over 64. In 2028, the ratio will drop to 39 for the youth and increase to 31 for the seniors. Even though a larger percentage of seniors will be working, it won’t be enough to make up for the lower percentage of those 16 to 24. The burden on working-age people will increase.

How It Affects the Economy and You

The U.S. child dependency ratio is falling while the senior ratio is rising. The late senior ratio is rising the fastest. As a result, workers will have to pay more for seniors, but less for children.

So does it even out? No, because there are more social services for seniors than for children. In fiscal year 2021, Social Security will cost the federal government $1.092 trillion and Medicare will cost $694 billion. Medicaid will cost $447 billion. This program is only for low-income people, but 23% of its budget goes toward seniors and 19% to children.  

This sounds an alarm bell for the current working-age population. They will have even fewer children to support them when they become seniors. What will be the impact?

For years, the Board of Trustees for the Social Security Trust Fund has warned that these demographic changes are leading to the Fund’s demise. The Fund is paid for by payroll taxes. In 2010, Congress enacted the Obama payroll tax holiday and extended the Bush tax cuts to fight the Great Recession.

As a result, it was the first year that Social Security payroll tax income didn’t cover benefits. It received $635 billion from payroll taxes but paid out $703 billion in benefits.   Fortunately, it had income from investments and income taxes on the benefits to cover its costs.

In 2011, the situation worsened. The Fund required $102.1 billion from the General Fund, making it the first year Social Security costs increased the budget deficit.

In 2013, the fiscal cliff deal ended the 2% payroll tax holiday. Obamacare taxes on high-income households also began in 2013. That increased revenue to the Social Security Fund and improved its cash flow shortfall.

It won’t help with the long-term demographic changes. The Fund’s $2.9 trillion in reserve assets could be depleted by 2035. At that time, the payroll tax income will only cover 75% annual benefits.

Fixing the U.S. Dependency Ratio

The only way to fix the U.S. dependency ratio is to increase the number of working people. One way to that is to encourage immigration. It would raise the number of younger workers. That would improve the elderly dependency ratio today. The young immigrant families would have more children than older families. That would improve the elderly dependency ratio in the future as the children become workers themselves.

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Another is to increase the number of children by raising fertility rates. One way to make it easier for women to have children is to subsidize child care.

A third is to help seniors become healthier so they don’t burden Medicare and Medicaid with higher doctor bills. Along those lines, create incentives for them to work longer and delay receiving Social Security benefits.  

www.thebalance.com

How to Calculate Septic Tank Size

Be generous with your estimations and opt for a slightly larger septic tank if you find yourself on the borderline between two sizes. When it comes to a septic tank, a little extra room is better than not enough.

If an undersized septic tank exceeds its holding capacity, sewage can back up into your home, so when you’re putting in a septic tank, it’s essential that you take the time to calculate the correct size. Most municipalities require even the smallest septic tanks to hold approximately 1,000 gallons. The required capacity increases from there based on the number of bedrooms, occupants, bathrooms and fixtures the septic system will service.

Step 1

Calculate the number of occupants who will be regularly using your septic system. If you have a two-bedroom house, for example, most municipalities assume the house will have four regular occupants. A three-bedroom house assumes six occupants.

Step 2

Count the number of bathrooms that the septic tank will service. If you only have one bathroom but anticipate you may put in another one down the road, include the second bathroom in your count to prevent having to replace your tank later.

Step 3

Count the number of plumbing fixtures in your house. This figure includes all taps, toilets, showers, dishwasher, clothes washer and any other fixture that will drain into your septic tank.

Step 4

Take your calculations to your local permit office to check them against your local regulations in order to determine appropriate septic tank sizing. Sizing rules vary slightly from location to location. In Arizona, for example, a three-bedroom house with two bathrooms and roughly 20 fixtures requires a tank of at 1,250 gallons. A building with 14 occupants and three to five baths requires a 2,000-gallon tank.

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Andrew Tennyson

Andrew Tennyson has been writing about culture, technology, health and a variety of other subjects since 2003. He has been published in The Gazette, DTR and ZCom. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in history and a Master of Fine Arts in writing.

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15 Countries Around The World That Have Legalized Prostitution

The oldest job in the world has, for quite a long time now, been regarded as a hateful and fallen choice of work. Prostitution exists and will continue to exist despite bans and their legal status, due to reasons like poverty or unforeseen situations. Some countries choose to outright ban the practise, while other countries have tried regulating prostitution, providing sex workers with health and social benefits.

Here are some of the countries where prostitution is legal.

1. New Zealand

Prostitution has been legal for Kiwis since 2003. There are even licensed brothels operating under public health and employment laws, which means the workers get social benefits just like other emplyees. Definitely a progressive move.

Source: Source — scoop

2. Australia

The legal status of prostitution in Oz differs from state to state. It is decriminalised in some areas, and illegal in other parts. Same goes for for brothel ownership. The Aussies love their fun I suppose.

Source: Source — webchacha

3. Austria

Prostitution is completely legal in Austria. Prostitutes are required to register, undergo periodic health examinations, be 19 years old or older, and pay taxes. Despite this, there is a lot of smuggling and forced prostitution here.

Source: Source — toktali

4. Bangladesh

Male prostitution is illegal, but everything else is legal. Bangladesh has a severe minor trafficking problem, which is perpetuated by corruption. Pimping and owning a brothel is also legal.

Source: Source — photoshelter

5. Belgium

They have been trying to remove the stigma, violence and fear associated with prostitution by not just legalising it but also running proper state of the art brothels with fingerprint technology and keycards!

Source: Source — businessinsider

6. Brazil

Prostitution in itself is legal here, though you’ll totally get busted if you’re channeling your inner Snoop Dogg and pimping away to glory.

Source: Source — abcnews

7. Canada

Prostituting yourself is legal, but buying sex became illegal during the end of 2014. This deeply flawed system puts sex workers in a very dangerous and position.

Source: Source — rantlifestyle

8. Colombia

It is legal to work in the sex industry in Colombia, though pimping isn’t. Prostitution is especially widespread in cities such as Cartagena and Barranquilla.

Source: Source — nyt

9. Denmark

Prostitution is legal here. The government even helps those with disabilities get laid by incurring the extra costs some of them have to pay.

Source: Source — dailymail

10. Ecuador

Everything related to sex work is legal here. You can sell your body, run a brothel or be a pimp with no legal ramifications. Forced prostitution is a bit of a problem here though.

Source: Source — spiritofbaraka

11. France

Prostitution is legal in France, though soliciting in public is still outlawed. Pimping is illegal and brothels were outlawed in France in 1946, right after the War.

Source: Source — huffpost

12. Germany

Prostitution was legalised here in 1927 and there are proper state run brothels. The workers are provided with health insurance, have to pay taxes and they even receive social benefits like pension.

Source: Source — nationalpostcom

13. Greece

Greece has also followed the German method of including prostitution as an actual job in society. The sex workers get equal rights and have to go for health checkups pretty often.

Source: Source — ibtimes

14. Indonesia

Considering prostitution itself is not even present in their law in any clear form, it’s plain to say that the sex trade is legal. This also means that it is very dangerous for forced workers and minors.

Source: Source — foxnews

15. Netherlands

One of the places most famous for it’s red-window sex workers, prostitution is, obviously, legal here, just like a lot of other things. They’ve always had a slightly more open way of dealing with things deemed taboo elsewhere.

Source: Source — amsterdamshortstay

Where does India stand?

Prostitution itself is not illegal in our country, but soliciting and public prostitution are illegal. Owning a brothel is also against the law, but, as places like GB Road and Kamathipura prove, these laws are rarely enforced.

Source: Source: India TV news

www.scoopwhoop.com

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