Head lice… Symptoms and causes! Prevention and treatment! جمعية القلوب الرحيمة الدولية IPHS

Head lice… Symptoms and causes?! Prevention and treatment?!

Head lice… Symptoms and causes?! Prevention and treatment?!

Head lice:

Head louse is a parasitic insect with no wings. Head lice live on human blood absorbed from the skin of the head. The size of the louse amounting to the size of a sesame seed. Its eggs are called nits and they are much smaller than adult lice, however, they look like the dandruff. Usually it is easy to find the lice and nits in the hair line on the neck of the infected person, as well as behind his ears. Head lice are very contagious. Using the personal things of an infected person, like hats and hair combs, is a common cause of injury. Often, children between the three and eleven years of age are most vulnerable to injury, with their families as well. Personal hygiene has nothing to do with how lice are spread. The symptoms of head lice are:

  • Feeling tickling in the scalp.
  • Feeling itchy, repeatedly often.
  • Sores result from itching.

The most important step in the treatment of head lice is to address the injured person, along with the rest of his/her family, to medicines that kill lice.


Head lice are small parasitic insects with no wings, live on the human head skin, and feed on blood. Head lice are very contagious and they can be easily transmitted through intercourse with an infected person’s personal things like hats, pillows, or hair combs. This educational essay shall help to understand things about head lice and discusses the symptoms.

What are head lice?

Head lice are small insect with no wings, live on the human head skin, and feed on blood. They belong to parasites in their type. The length of the louse, could reach up to about 2.3 millimeters, and that would be the length of a sesame seed. Lice eggs are called nits and they are much smaller than adult head lice, as they look like the dandruff. Usually it is easy to find the lice and nits in the hair line on the neck of the infected person, as well as behind his ears. Female lice lay about hundred eggs at a time. These eggs hatch over a period ranging from five to ten days, it takes about seven to ten days for a newly hatched louse to grow into an adult and start to lay eggs. They live about three weeks or more. Head lice are very contagious. Even though the louse cannot fly or jump, they can transmit easily when using the personal things of an infected person, like hats and hair combs, is a common cause of injury. Cats, dogs, and other pets do not play any role in the spread of lice that infect humans. Lice do not transmit diseases among people. They are not considered dangerous. Frequent incidence of head lice are common among children in the age of three up to eleven, and it is possible that lice would be transmitted in their families as well.


Some of the symptoms of head lice are listed down as follows:

– To feel tickled as something is moving in the head hair.

– To feel itchy in the scalp.

– The infected person with head lice may feel so annoyed, and probably he would experience sleeping difficulties. Yes, head lice infections can be accompanied with sores in the skin of the head, yet, it is important to know that the violent itching of the scalp is what leads to these sores, not the head lice themselves.


Head lice spread mostly through direct contact with the hair of the infected person. People get head lice when they have head-to-head contact with someone who has head lice. The spread of head lice goes mostly through direct contact with the infected person’s hair. Children during playing at school, home or other public places often are exposed to head-to-head contact, which would actually help head lice spreading. Head lice can live up to two days without access to food; if the louse stayed on the pillow or bed, it would easily transmit to another person once he use the object. Head lice can spread in many ways including:

When wearing the clothing of the infected person like the hats, scarves, coats, sports clothes, or hair bands.

When using the infected person hair combs, or towels.

When laying on an infected person’s bed or using his pillow or personal staff been used recently.


Best diagnosis of infection with head lice is, of course, to find live lice on the scalp of a person or his hair. Unfortunately, Head lice are hard to find because of its small size and fast moves, in addition to its tendency to avoid the light. Using the head lice comb is probably so useful in finding head lice. These combs can be found in most pharmacies. You can see the lice and nits with the naked eye. Yet, the use of a magnifying glass may be necessary to find the eggs or the head lice crawling on the scalp. Here it is important to remind that it is easy to confuse the eggs of lice with the other small objects that can be found in the hair. Meaning the dandruff, the remnants of lotions used for hair, or maybe the grains of dust or dirt. It is a strong evidence of lice infection, but not a conclusive evidence, when you find the head lice eggs attached tightly to the roots of the hair, as the hair lice eggs conjoined on more than a half of centimeter from the roots of the hair are often dead eggs or simply the remnants of eggs hatched earlier. When you do not find any lice, despite the presence of eggs attached to the hair at an altitude of more than half of a centimeter, it is likely that the infection is a past and the lice are no longer active. There is no need to apply treatment in this case.


Those diagnosed with head lice are recommended to start treating it. Also it is recommended to examine the families of the infected persons and those with whom they contact closely, to apply treatment on all infected persons. Usually special lice treatment shampoo or creams are used in lice infection treatment. You can buy many of these products from any pharmacy whenever you need and without a doctor prescription. Attention must be paid well while reading the instructions on the packaging or on the box, as they would show the time needed for the shampoo application on the hair before washing it well. Instructions also describe how to wash your hair after the shampoo application anyhow. Instructions for use may vary from one drug to another depending on the drug substance. It is necessary to comply with the instructions that are written on the packaging or on the instructions on the paper contained within the enclosure. If it did not work successfully with the purchased drug, doctors, in that case, can prescribe for the patient more powerful hair shampoo. However, there are special hair combs also available in pharmacies to get rid of head lice. With the small spaces between the teeth of this kind of combs, they can clear the head of lice and their eggs. These special combs are considered as an effective way to get rid of lice and their eggs, without resorting to chemical treatment through the use of special lice shampoos.

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Head lice prevention:

You can do the following to help preventing head lice and control its spread:

  1. Avoid direct contact with the head or hair of another person while playing, or doing any other activities in your home, school, or any other places.
  2. Avoid using of others belongings such as: the clothing, hats, scarves, coats, sports clothes, and hair bands or hair clips.
  3. Avoid using of others combs or hair brushes and towels. Combs and brushes infested with lice, after being used by an infected person, should be cleared by soaking in hot water with temperature not less than sixty Celsius degrees for a period of time ranging from five to ten minutes.
  4. Avoid lying down on a bed or a sofa used recently by a person infected with lice, also avoid using his pillows or staff.
  5. Wash all staff used by the infected person using water of high temperatures.
  6. Clean the place used by the infected person using a vacuum cleaner.

Do not use insecticides to treat lice. There is no need to use these substances that can be toxic to humans and animals at home as well.

It is so difficult to prevent the spread of lice among children as they contact closely while playing. So, if you got your child infected with head lice, it does not mean there are no healthy habits at home.

Head lice must be treated by using lice treatment shampoo, and children must learn not to use others hats, hair combs, scarves, or any other hair accessories.


Loss of balance: Everything you need to know

A loss of balance often occurs due to a problem with the signals the ear sends to the brain. These usually control our sense of balance and spatial awareness.

However, if a person has a condition that affects the brain or inner ear, they may experience a loss of balance, spinning sensations, unsteadiness, lightheadedness, or dizziness.

Loss of balance can occur for a range of reasons, including ear infections, head injuries, medication, and neurological disorders.

Learn more about the causes of a loss of balance, as well as how doctors diagnose and treat them, here.

Possible causes of a loss of balance include:


Share on Pinterest Labyrinthitis may cause dizziness, nausea, and a loss of balance.

Labyrinthitis is an infection of the inner ear, or the labyrinth.

The labyrinth, or the vestibular system, is the structure of the inner ear that helps people stay balanced.

If the labyrinth becomes infected or inflamed, it can cause a loss of balance and affect hearing. People may also feel dizzy and nauseated.

People may develop labyrinthitis after having an upper respiratory infection, such as the flu.

Ménière’s disease

Ménière’s disease affects the inner ear. Fluid builds up in the inner ear, making it difficult for signals to reach the brain.

This disruption affects a person’s ability to balance and hear. If people have Ménière’s disease, they may feel dizzy and have a ringing in their ears.

The cause of Ménière’s disease remains unclear, but experts think it may have to do with:

  • genetics
  • viral infections
  • autoimmune conditions
  • constricted blood vessels


Vertigo is a symptom of various conditions, and it often accompanies a loss of balance. There are two main types of vertigo:

  • Peripheral vertigo: This often results from a condition affecting the inner ear, such as an inner ear infection or Ménière’s disease.
  • Central vertigo: Central vertigo is less common and can be a result of a neurological disorder, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis.

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

People with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), or positional vertigo, tend to feel a spinning sensation when they turn their head in a certain way.

BPPV occurs when calcium carbonate crystals in the ear come loose and move into the semicircular canals of the inner ear.

The semicircular canals use fluid to sense head movement. The loose crystals get in the way of the fluid movement, and the inner ear starts sending incorrect signals to the brain about the position of the head, which causes dizziness.

BPPV can affect older adults and people who have had a head injury.


Share on Pinterest A person with lightheadedness may feel that they are about to faint.

A feeling of lightheadedness is also called presyncope. People may feel as though they are about to faint but do not lose consciousness.

Presyncope can occur for many reasons, from experiencing a stressful event to having low blood pressure.

If people have lightheadedness regularly without a known cause, they may wish to speak with a doctor about diagnosing the underlying issue.


Some drugs may cause a loss of balance as a side effect by affecting the inner ear or vision, causing people to feel lightheaded, or creating drowsiness.

Drugs that may cause balance issues include:

Vestibular neuronitis

Vestibular neuronitis is an infection of the inner ear that can cause dizziness and a loss of balance. It can happen when the vestibular nerve in the inner ear is infected or inflamed due to a virus, such as the flu.

Perilymph fistula

Perilymph fistula is a condition wherein a small hole between the inner ear and middle ear allows fluid to leak through to the middle ear.

A fistula can occur due to a head injury, chronic ear infections, or extreme changes in air pressure.

People may feel unsteady, dizzy, or nauseated, especially with movement.

Mal de Debarquement syndrome

If a person has been on a boat or running on a treadmill for a long period of time, they may develop Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS).

In MdDS, people experience the sensation of moving or swaying even when they are not on a moving surface. They may also feel drowsy and find it hard to concentrate.

MdDS usually goes away shortly after the person returns to still ground, but the symptoms can sometimes last longer.

Acoustic neuroma

Acoustic neuroma, or vestibular schwannoma, is a noncancerous tumor that presses on the inner ear nerves, affecting balance and hearing.

Acoustic neuroma can make people feel unsteady or dizzy and lead to hearing loss or ringing in the ear.


If a person experiences a loss of balance and coordination along with the following symptoms, it may be a sign of stoke.

Anyone who thinks that they or someone near them is having a stroke should call 911 and seek emergency medical attention. Symptoms include:

  • numbness in one side of the body
  • sudden onset of vision problems
  • a severe headache
  • weakness in the face, arms, or legs
  • nausea or vomiting
  • confusion
  • trouble speaking or understanding others

People who experience a loss of balance may feel as though they are moving when they are standing still. They may feel unsteady on their feet or feel as though the space around them is spinning.

They may feel confused or disorientated. This can make people lose their sense of where they are.

A loss of balance may feel like or occur with any of the following symptoms:

  • feeling as though the room is spinning
  • dizziness
  • lightheadedness
  • feeling faint
  • a “floating” feeling
  • staggering or having difficulty walking
  • nausea
  • vomiting and diarrhea
  • blurred vision
  • a change in heart rate
  • a change in blood pressure
  • anxiety or panic
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A person should see a doctor if they experience a loss of balance with any of the above symptoms.

A doctor may refer a person to an audiologist or otolaryngologist, who specialize in hearing and conditions affecting the ears, nose, and throat, respectively.

People may need to undergo many different types of test during the diagnosis, including:

  • blood tests
  • hearing tests
  • tests that measure eye muscle movement
  • tests that measure brain activity
  • posture and balance assessments when standing on a moving surface
  • sitting in a rotating chair and measuring eye movements
  • blowing warm and cool air into the ear canal to monitor the response
  • attaching electrodes to the neck to observe how the muscles respond

If a certain type of medication causes a loss of balance, a doctor may be able to reduce the dosage or prescribe alternative options.

People can use the Epely maneuver to treat BPPV. The Epely maneuver is a set of movements that aim to dislodge the crystals from the semicircular canal and return them to their correct position. A doctor will teach a person how to do these movements.

If a person has an ear infection that causes a loss of balance, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics or antiviral medications.

To treat Ménière’s disease, a doctor may prescribe medication to treat nausea and dizziness. Injections or applying ear pressure pulses may also help.

People with Ménière’s disease can also make lifestyle changes to reduce their symptoms, such as stopping smoking and limiting salt, alcohol, and caffeine intake. If these treatment methods do not work, surgery may be an option.

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, if people feel lightheaded due to a triggering event, such as the sight of blood, they may be able to avoid fainting by:

  • clenching their fingers into their fists
  • tensing their arms
  • crossing their legs or clenching their thighs together tightly
  • sitting with their head lower than their heart
  • lying down to prevent any injuries from falling


Tension Headaches

Articles On Tension Headaches

Tension Headaches

Tension Headaches — Tension Headaches

Tension headaches are dull pain, tightness, or pressure around your forehead or the back of your head and neck. Some people say it feels like a clamp squeezing the skull. Often called stress headaches, they’re the most common type for adults.

Video Transcript

Michael Smith, MD
Chief Medical Editor at WebMD

There are two types:

  • EpisodicВtension headaches happen less than 15 days per month.
  • Chronictension headaches happen more than 15 days a month.

TheseВ headachesВ can last from 30 minutes to a few days. The episodic kind usually starts gradually, often in the middle of the day.

Chronic ones come and go over a longer period of time. The pain may get stronger or ease up throughout the day, but it’s almost always there.

Although your head hurts,В tension headachesВ usually don’t keep you from your daily activities, and they don’t affect yourВ vision, balance, or strength.

Who Gets Them?

Up to 80% of adults in the U.S. get them from time to time. About 3% have chronic daily tension headaches. Women are twice as likely to get them as men.

Most people with episodic tension headaches have them no more than once or twice a month, but they can happen more often.

Many people with the chronic type have usually had them for more than 60-90 days.

What Are the Symptoms?

A few common ones include:

  • Mild to moderate pain or pressure in the front, top, or sides of the head
  • HeadacheВ that starts later in the day
  • Trouble sleeping
  • FeelingВ very tired
  • Irritability
  • Trouble focusing
  • Mild sensitivity to light or noise
  • Muscle aches

Unlike migraine headaches, you won’t have other nerve symptoms, such as muscle weakness or blurred vision. And they don’t usually cause severe sensitivity to light or noise, stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting.

Where Does It Hurt?

This type of headache can:

  • Start at the back of your head and spread forward
  • Become a band of dull pressure or squeezing pain around your entire head
  • Affect both sides of your head equally
  • Make the muscles in your neck, shoulders, and jaw feel tight and sore


What Causes Tension Headaches?

There’s no single cause for them. Most of the time, they’re triggered by stress, whether from work, school, family, friends, or otherВ relationships.

Episodic ones are usually set off by a single stressful situation or a buildup of stress. Daily stress can lead to the chronic kind.

This type of headache doesn’t run in families. Some people get them because of tightened muscles in the back of the neck and scalp. This muscle tension can come from:

  • Not enough rest
  • Bad posture
  • Emotional or mental stress, includingВ depression
  • Anxiety
  • Fatigue
  • Hunger
  • Low iron levels
  • Alcohol use
  • Caffeine
  • Jaw or dental problems

For others, tightened muscles aren’t part of tension headaches, and there’s no clear cause.

How Are They Treated?

It’s best to treat tensionВ headachesВ when they first begin and the symptoms are still mild. The goal is to prevent more of them from happening and to relieve any pain you’re already in. For prevention, you can:

  • Take medications
  • Avoid the causes or triggers
  • Manage your stress or learn relaxation techniques
  • Practice biofeedback
  • Try home remedies, like a hot bath, ice packs, or better posture

Over-the-counter (OTC) painkillersВ are often the first treatments doctors recommend for tension headaches. People with the chronic kind can use some of these drugs to prevent headaches.

IfВ OTC pain relieversВ don’t help, your doctor may recommend a prescription-strength med or a muscle relaxant.

Some drugs can keep you from getting a tension headache, like antidepressants, blood pressure meds, and anti-seizure drugs. You take them every day even if you aren’t in pain, so that you end up using less medication over time.

Keep in mind thatВ medicationsВ don’t cure headaches and that, over time, pain relievers and other medicines might not help as much as they did at first. Plus, all medicines have side effects. If you take one regularly, including products you buy over-the-counter, talk about the pros and cons with your doctor. You’ll still need to find out and deal with the things that are causing your headaches, too.


How Do You Prevent Them?

Try these treatment options to lessen the severity and frequency of your headaches.

Find ways to help you relax and manage stress like:

  • Biofeedback
  • Relaxation techniques
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Acupuncture
  • Massage therapy
  • Physical therapy

Lifestyle changes may also help. Consider these:

  • Try to identify and avoid situations that cause tension or stress.
  • Take breaks from intense tasks.
  • Get regular exercise.
  • Get enough sleep.
  • Try not to push yourself too hard.
  • Eat regular meals.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • If you drink alcohol, drink in moderation.
  • Keep your sense of humor — it reduces tension.

Your doctor may give you medications to prevent tension headaches. These include:

  • Antidepressants
  • Anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants

Tension Headaches vs. Migraines

How do you tell them apart?

  • What do they feel like? Steady, mild to moderate pain that doesn’t throb. It can ease or get worse over the course of the headache.
  • Where do they hurt? It can hurt all over your head, but you’ll most likely feel a band of pain around your forehead or the back of your head or around your neck. The headache does not get worse with activity. Your jaw, shoulders, neck, and head may also be tender.
  • Are there any other symptoms? This type of headache doesn’t come with the nausea, vomiting, light sensitivity, or aura that people with migraines have.
  • Do you notice symptoms before the headache starts? You might feel stress or tension.
  • Who gets them? Mostly adults.
  • How often do you get them? It varies.
  • How long do they last? Thirty minutes to 7 days.
  • What do they feel like? They come on slowly. The pain becomes intense. It can be moderate or severe. It might throb or pulse, and it will get worse with physical activity.
  • Where do they hurt? Often it’s only one side of your head. It might affect your eye, temple, or the back of your head.
  • Are there other symptoms? Some people get a visual disturbance called an aura before the headache starts. During the headache you might be extra-sensitive to light and sound. You might get nauseated and throw up. Some people have trouble moving or speaking.
  • Who gets them? Anyone. Boys get them more than girls before puberty, but afterward women get them more than men.
  • How often do you get them? It varies.
  • How long do they last? between 4 and 72 hours.
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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: «Headache: Hope Through Research.»

National Headache Foundation: «Tension-Type Headache.»

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: «Tension headache.»

American Headache Society: «Types of Headaches.»

University Health Services, University of California, Berkeley: «Tension Headache Fact Sheet.»

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: “Headaches: In Depth.”

Mayo Clinic: “Tension headache,” “Tension-type headaches: Self-care measures for relief.”

Pain research and treatment: “Is There a Relation between Tension-Type Headache, Temporomandibular Disorders and Sleep?”

PennState Hershey: “Tension headache.”

Wayne State University Physician Group: “Tension Headache.”

Harvard Health Publishing: “What type of headache do you have?”

UpToDate: “Evaluation of headache in adults,” “Patient education: Headache causes and diagnosis in adults (Beyond the Basics).”


Hernia: Symptoms, Causes, Prevention and Treatment

Hernia Symptoms & Signs: A hernia takes place when an organ pushes throughout a hole in the muscle or tissue that supports it in position. As an illustration, the intestines could possibly break through a weakened part in the abdominal wall. Hernias are most familiar in the abdominal area, however they can also be found in the top part of the thigh, belly button, and groin areas. The majority of hernias are not instantly deadly to the health, however they don’t disappear by themselves that will necessitate surgical treatment to protect against potentially dangerous complications.

A hernia appears when an organ or even cellulite accumulation squeezes through a poor spot in a nearby muscle or connective tissue called fascia.

Types of Hernia are:

  • Inguinal (inner groin)
  • Incisional (resulting from an incision)
  • Femoral (outer groin)
  • Umbilical (belly button)
  • Hiatal (upper stomach)
  • Congenital diaphragmatic (a birth defect)

In an inguinal hernia, the intestine or the bladder protrudes through the stomach wall structure or into the inguinal canal in the groin. Around 96% of all groin hernias are inguinal, and the majority of occurring in men mainly because of a natural weakness in this area. A femoral hernia occurs whenever the intestine enters the canal holding the femoral artery into the upper thigh. Femoral hernias are most common in women of all ages, most likely those who are expecting a baby or overweight.

A hernia basically arises between your hips and upper body such as the chest. In most of the conditions, it creates no or a couple of signs or symptoms, even though you find out a puffiness or lump in your tummy (stomach) or groin. The lump is frequently forced back in or diminishes when you lie down. Coughing or pressurizing could make the lump appear. Hernias are very common. They can affect men, women, and children. A combination of muscle weakness and straining, such as with heavy lifting, might contribute you to hernia. Some people are born with weak abdominal muscles and may be more likely to get a hernia. Treatment is not other than surgery to repair the opening in the muscle wall. Untreated hernias can cause pain and health problems. They may become a danger in the future, so it’s better to cure them at an early stage.

Signs and Symptoms of Hernia

The most common symptom and signs of a hernia is a bulge otherwise lump in the affected region. When it comes to an inguinal hernia, you could possibly begin to observe a lump on either side of your pubic bone the place where your groin and thigh meet. You’re able to feel your hernia through touch when you’re standing up. If your infant has developed a hernia, you may only be able to feel the bulge when he or she is crying. A bulge is typically the only symptom of an umbilical hernia.

Hernia Symptoms and Signs include:

  • Pain while lifting: Due to heavy lifting, you may suffer from pain in the affected area.
  • Bulge or swelling in the groin or scrotum: One of the most common systems is swelling in the scrotum. If you notice that your groin in bulgy then it is a hernia.
  • A mild aching sensation: You will feel little pain in the affected area, some people also feel itchy.
  • Increase in the bulge size: If you come to the notice of increase in the size of the bulge then it is the sign of a hernia.
  • Bowel obstruction: If you get a sense of feeling or full signs of bowel obstruction then, it is a sign of a hernia.

In the case of Hiatal hernias, there are no bulges on the outer side of the body. Instead of that symptoms may include:

  • Heartburn: In some cases, people often feel heartburn as Hiatal hernias are near the upper stomach.
  • Indigestion: Feeling of indigestion can also lead to severe constipation or frequent diarrhea.
  • Frequent regurgitation
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty in swallowing

Other Symptoms of a hernia include:

  • Nausea
  • Severe pain in the affected area
  • Frequent vomiting

If you have any of the above symptoms, you should see a doctor straight away. Surgery is needed to remove the hernia and reduce your risk of gangrene.

Reason and Causes of Hernia

Hernias are usually caused by a combination of muscle strain and weakness. Depending upon how it is caused, a hernia may develop quickly or over a long period of time. Anything that causes an increase in pressure in the abdomen can cause a hernia. Such as:

  • Age
  • Chronic Coughing
  • Damage from Injury or Surgery
  • Suddenly Gaining Weight
  • Fluid in the abdomen
  • Being Constipated
  • Heavy Lifting
  • Being pregnant, which puts pressure on your abdomen
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Poor Nutrition
  • Smoking
  • Frequent Urination
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Physical Exertion
  • Undescended Testicles

Undoubtedly, almost all hernias are caused by a combination of pressure and an opening or weakness of muscle or fascia; the pressure pushes an organ or tissue through the beginning or vulnerable spot. Often times the muscle tissue weakness can be found at birth; more often, it will occur later in the future.

How Hernia can be Diagnosed? Read Treatment Below

A doctor’s bodily diagnosis is generally enough to detect a hernia. Generally hernia swelling is noticed when you stand straight; sometimes, the hernia can be assumed if you place your hand directly over it and put force on it. Inguinal or incision hernias are likewise detected by a bodily analysis. Your medical professional may perhaps think for a bulge in your stomach or groin that grows up whenever you stand up, cough. For those who have a hiatal hernia, a medical expert may detect it with a barium X-ray or endoscopy. These checks enable your doctor to see the inner spot of your tummy.

1) A barium X-ray is a range of X-ray photos of your intestinal. The photos are noted after you’ve completed having a liquid choice including barium, which appears well on the X-ray pictures.

2) An endoscopy involves threading a small camera attached with a tube down into your throat and into your food pipe (esophagus) and stomach.

If your baby has an umbilical hernia, your medical professional may conduct an ultrasound. An ultrasound uses high-frequency waves to generate graphical views of the structures inside the body.


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