Head Lice, Doctor, Patient
- 1 Head Lice
- 2 Trending Articles
- 3 Life cycle of head lice [1, 2]
- 4 Epidemiology 
- 5 Presentation 
- 6 Differential diagnosis 
- 7 Management 
- 8 Confirming treatment success 
- 9 Management of treatment failure 
- 10 Complications 
- 11 Prognosis
- 12 Prevention
- 13 How to quickly get rid of lice with minimal effort
- 14 Features of the cocoon
- 15 Ways to combat nits
- 16 The choice of effective means
- 17 Prevent re-infection
- 18 Useful videos
- 19 How to get rid of lice and nits
- 20 How to get rid of lice: home methods
- 21 How to detect lice in adults and children?
- 22 Nits: features
- 23 How to get rid of nits for 1 day: medication
- 24 How to get rid of nits for 1 day: folk remedies
- 25 How to get rid of nits for 1 day and do not harm the hair
- 26 Principles of treatment for children and adults
- 27 Cardinal method: shaving
- 28 Brushing out uninvited “guests” and special combs
- 29 Can lice be taken out at home?
- 30 How to cure pediculosis?
- 31 Pharmacy Pediculicides
- 32 Folk methods
- 33 How long does it take to get rid of insects?
- 34 Causes of nits
- 35 Who are these insects
- 36 Processing of personal items
- 37 What do the nits look like?
Dr Mary Harding, Reviewed by Dr Laurence Knott | Last edited 24 Aug 2016 | Certified by The Information Standard
Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find the Head Lice and Nits article more useful, or one of our other health articles.
In this article
See separate Pubic and Body Lice article.
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Head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is caused by the parasitic insect Pediculus humanus capitis, which lives on and among the hair of the scalp and neck of humans. The adult louse feeds on blood.
Life cycle of head lice [1, 2]
Image via Wikimedia Commons
- Louse eggs (ova or nits) are small, oval and yellowish white and are attached to the hair shafts. They usually take 7-10 days to hatch.
- Immature lice (nymphs) take 7-10 days to mature into adults.
- Adult lice are up to 3 mm in length, said to be approximately the size of a sesame seed. They have six legs (which have hook-like claws to hold on to the hair) and are grey-white to black in colour. They do not have wings and cannot jump or fly. The female louse lays up to eight eggs per day.
- Adult lice survive by taking a feed of blood from their host several times a day. They can live for about 30 days.
- Transmission of head lice usually requires head-to-head contact. Head lice can only live on humans and the lifespan is very short (several days) once detached from a human head.
- Head lice infestation is extremely common worldwide, affecting millions of children. Prevalence varies between countries.
- Head lice are endemic in the UK. They are most common in children aged 4-11 with a peak age of 7-8 years. Information on current prevalence in the UK is limited, but past studies have shown prevalence rates of 4.1-22%.
- There is no evidence that head lice have a preference for either clean or dirty hair.
Risk factors include:
- Age less than 12 years.
- Female gender.
- Families with four or more children.
- Lower socio-economic status.
- Long hair.
- Many infestations are totally asymptomatic. Presentation is usually when adult lice or nits have been seen. Others present with itching.
- Itching of the scalp is not sufficient to diagnose active infestation. Itching may not develop for several weeks or months after becoming infested and may persist for days to weeks after successful eradication of head lice.
- Nits alone are not sufficient to diagnose active head lice infestation because it is difficult to distinguish between dead and live eggs with the naked eye.
A diagnosis of active head lice infestation can only be made if a live head louse is found. Detection combing (systematic combing of wet or dry hair with a detection comb) should be used to confirm the presence of lice:
- A fine-toothed (teeth 0.2-0.3 mm apart) detection comb should be used. This is different to a nit removal comb, which has narrower gaps. Some nit combs can be prescribed on an FP10; the Bug Buster® comb is the only one of these which has been assessed through clinical trials.
- Wet combing takes 10-15 minutes per head; lice are immobilised by hair conditioner, so are easy to see on the comb.
- Dry combing takes at least 3-5 minutes per head. Using a comb on dry hair may produce static electricity; when a louse is spotted on the comb, placing a thumb on it before drawing the comb out of the hair prevents the louse being flicked off the comb by the static electricity in the hair.
Differential diagnosis 
- Itching may also be due to:
- Psychogenic itch on hearing that there are head lice within the school.
- Other itchy scalp conditions, such as eczema.
- Successfully treated head lice infestation but with persisting itch, which may last for weeks.
- Nits can be confused with:
- Seborrhoeic scales.
- Hair muffs (secretions from the hair follicle that are wrapped round the hair shaft).
Nits can usually be differentiated, as they stick firmly to the hair even after vigorous brushing.
- Treat the person only if a live head louse is found. Treat all affected household members simultaneously.
- Following treatment, success or otherwise should be confirmed (see section ‘Confirming treatment success’, below).
- There is no need to wash clothing or bedding that has been in contact with lice.
- Children who are being treated for head lice can still attend school. 
Treatment options are:
- Use of mechanical methods, ie wet combing.
- Use of physical insecticides, which act by coating the lice and blocking their oxygen supply. Available products include dimeticone 4% lotion (Hedrin®), dimeticone 92% spray (NYDA®), and isopropyl myristate and cyclomethicone solution (Full Marks Solution®).
- Use of chemical or traditional insecticides, which act by exerting a neurotoxic action and poisoning the lice. In the UK, the only current one which is recommended is malathion 0.5% aqueous liquid (Derbac-M®). Resistance has developed to previously used insecticides (such as permethrin), which are now no longer recommended. Ivermectin, a chemical treatment, has been used in oral form as an antihelmintic but is being evaluated as a 0.5% solution for the topical treatment of head lice resistant to other treatment [6, 7] .
Choice of treatment depends largely on individual preference. Wet combing or dimeticone 4% lotion are first-line choices for pregnant or breast-feeding women, children aged 6 months to 2 years, and people with asthma or eczema. All insecticides should be applied twice, at least seven days apart, in order to treat any lice hatching from eggs before they lay more eggs themselves.
Dimeticone 4% lotion (Hedrin®)
- This should be applied twice, with seven days between applications.
- Dimeticone is applied to dry hair, then left on the hair and scalp for eight hours, or overnight before being washed out using shampoo.
- One 50 ml bottle is enough for short or shoulder-length hair but the larger bottle (150 ml) is needed for longer hair.
- Other formulations are available to buy over the counter.
- It is odourless and well tolerated but is not very effective against the eggs.
- Studies report cure rates of 70% in the UK. Some studies have reported success after just one application  .
Dimeticone 92% spray (NYDA® spray)
- This should be applied twice, with seven days between applications.
- It should be applied to dry hair and left for 30 minutes, after which the hair should be combed through with the comb provided to remove the lice. It is then left on for eight hours, before being washed off
- One 50 ml bottle is enough for short or shoulder-length hair but for longer hair the larger pack is needed, containing two 50 ml bottles.
- It is thought to be more effective than dimeticone 4%, with 97% cure rates reported, and has better ovicidal activity.
- It cannot be used in pregnancy, in women who are breast-feeding, or in children under the age of 2.
Isopropyl myristate and cyclomethicone (Full Marks Solution®)
- This should be applied twice, with seven days between applications.
- It is left in place for 10 minutes and the hair is then systematically combed with a fine-toothed comb to remove lice and then washed using a non-conditioning shampoo to remove the solution.
- Cure rates of 52-82% have been reported in studies.
- This is not suitable for children younger than 2 years of age, for pregnant or breast-feeding women, or for people with skin conditions. It may be used by people with asthma.
Malathion 0.5% aqueous liquid
- This is a traditional chemical treatment.
- It should be applied twice, with seven days between applications.
- It should be applied to dry hair from the roots to the tips, left on the hair and scalp for 12 hours or overnight and then washed out using shampoo.
- It has an unpleasant smell and may cause skin irritation in some people.
- The 50 ml bottle is sufficient for short or shoulder-length hair but for longer hair the 200 ml bottle will be needed.
- It may be used in pregnant women if wet combing and dimeticone 4% have been ineffective. It may be used at all ages and in those with asthma or skin conditions.
- Malathion remains a recommended treatment but is there is evidence that (unlike other countries) it is beginning to lose its effectiveness in the UK  .
- Advise using the Bug Buster® comb and method, as this has been evaluated in clinical trials. Further information can be obtained from Community Hygeine Concern Bug Busting  .
- It involves methodically combing wet hair with the fine-toothed Bug Buster® comb to remove lice. This is undertaken for four sessions over two weeks, on Day 1, 5, 9 and 13.
- The hair should be washed in the normal way using an ordinary shampoo. After rising, a large amount of conditioner should be applied.
- A normal comb should be used to remove tangles followed by use of a detection comb.
- After the whole head has been combed, it should be rinsed again.
- Wet combing should be continued until no full-grown lice have been seen for three consecutive sessions.
- 50-60% cure rates have been reported. Generally wet combing is thought to be less effective than insecticides.
- There are no contra-indications or safety precautions but it is time-consuming.
- Other mechanical devices such as electronic combs are not recommended, as there is no evidence of their efficacy and there may be safety concerns.
Confirming treatment success 
- Insecticide treatment:
- Advise people to check whether treatment was successful by detection combing on Day 2 or Day 3 after completing a course of treatment and again after an interval of seven days. Treatment has been successful if no lice are found at both sessions.
- Finding nits does not constitute treatment failure; only the finding of live lice does this.
- If treatment has been repeated because the first treatment course was unsuccessful: advise people to use detection combing five days after the first application of treatment, two days after the second application of treatment, and again after a further seven days.
- Wet combing using the Bug Buster® comb and method:
- This method has been successful if no lice are found on Day 17. If lice are found on Day 17, continue use of the Bug Buster® comb until no full-grown lice have been found on three consecutive sessions.
Management of treatment failure 
- Household members, close family and close friends (both adults and children) should be assessed using detection combing to identify possible sources of re-infestation.
- Check whether the treatment was used correctly and that if it was an insecticide it was repeated after seven days..
- Repeat the same treatment or switch to a different treatment: the choice will depend on the preference of the person or child’s parent and whether resistance to a traditional insecticide is suspected.
- Ensure that all affected household contacts are again treated simultaneously.
- Advice should be sought from local laboratories if resistance appears to be a problem. The policy of rotating treatments over a complete district is no longer used.
- Pruritic rash on the back of the neck and behind the ears, caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to louse faeces.
- Excoriation, skin infection and impetigo may occasionally occur.
- Loss of sleep caused by continuous itching is occasionally a problem.
- Anxiety and distress for children and parents.
If left untreated, infestation with head lice may persist for long periods, often for more than one year.
- It is very difficult to control the spread of head lice in children, due to the close contact that children normally have with each other.
- There is no evidence for any benefit of head lice repellents, or using head lice treatments prophylactically.
- There is no evidence that measures beyond normal personal hygiene, housekeeping and laundry can prevent re-infestation.
- If a head lice infestation is noted in a school, vigilance amongst the parents and treatment of affected children will help to prevent a cycle of re-infestation. The school nurse can play an effective role in teaching families the correct method of detection combing. Alert letters from schools are not recommended, however, as there will probably always be a child with nits in the school and it may cause alarm and unnecessary treatments.
- Tying back long hair and regular (every 3-4 days) methodical combing with a fine-toothed comb may help to prevent infestation.
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Further reading and references
Burgess IF ; Head lice. BMJ Clin Evid. 2011 May 162011. pii: 1703.
Head lice ; NICE CKS, February 2015 (UK access only)
Pariser DM, Meinking TL, Bell M, et al ; Topical 0.5% ivermectin lotion for treatment of head lice. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov367(18):1687-93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200107.
Smith CH, Goldman RD ; An incurable itch: head lice. Can Fam Physician. 2012 Aug58(8):839-41.
Burgess IF, Brunton ER, Burgess NA ; Single application of 4% dimeticone liquid gel versus two applications of 1% permethrin creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatol. 2013 Apr 113:5. doi: 10.1186/1471-5945-13-5.
Durand R, Bouvresse S, Berdjane Z, et al ; Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Apr18(4):338-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03806.x.
Bug Busting ; Community Hygiene Concern, 2013
How to quickly get rid of lice with minimal effort
The progress of modern society does not reduce the risk of infection with certain diseases. Among them, pediculosis. Like a few hundred years ago, lice continue to exist. “Pick up” them all just as easy. And to get rid of will have to try. Especially when it comes to nits. Nature took care of the little ones: endowed them with a secluded «house», which ensures safety and development. To get rid of parasites, it is not enough to kill adults. It is necessary to exterminate all forms of insect life. We will understand how to get rid of nits to give a confident rebuff to the pediculosis.
Features of the cocoon
The female, laying an egg, envelops it with sticky mucus. This substance is designed to secure the consolidation of the developing offspring on human hair. The fluid released from the genitals along with the egg quickly hardens in air. As a result, a cocoon is formed, which is almost impossible to damage, remove.
Education is resistant not only to mechanical damage, but also to adverse conditions around. The developing larva inside the cocoon does not die when the temperature rises and falls, the values of which are destructive for an adult insect. At what temperature lice and nits die, you can find out on our website.
By itself, the nit will not disappear anywhere. The insect goes through the necessary stages of development, gnaws a cocoon, leaves it. Even after this, the dry shell of the “storage” kids remains in place.
Nit is resistant to many insecticides. Various drugs can not affect it. Death occurs in rare cases with high toxicity of the active substance. Such drugs often have a lot of contraindications for people.
The best way to get rid of nits is to completely trim the hair. This technique is the most effective, used in particularly advanced cases. For the majority of well-off people, this tactic of getting rid of parasites is unacceptable.
Council The most acceptable way to get rid of eggs — mechanical combing. To do this, pre-liquefy the cocoon shell. Then the hair is carefully treated with a comb. This procedure is carried out both independently and in addition to other treatment options.
Ways to combat nits
Since units are ready to part with the hair, other methods are needed to combat the reproduction of annoying parasites. Depending on the specific situation, one of the possible ways is selected: use of industrial preparations (ointments, shampoos, sprays), folk remedies, mechanical processing. Preference can affect:
- drug price
- the duration of the procedure
- the presence of contraindications.
There is no universally accepted panacea. Everyone chooses the most suitable option for themselves, combines or goes through many means, before finding the perfect solution.
Most pharmaceuticals have efficacy in the fight against adult insects, but it is useless when there is a need to cope with nits. Many substances are not able to get inside the dense shell of the cocoon. Some components, even reaching the body of a developing larva, do not have the desired effect. Because many systems and organs of the young insect are not yet formed.
Preparations based solely on permethrin (Veda, Nittfor) are not used to control parasitic eggs. The active substance does not penetrate into the cocoon, does not have the desired effect.Preparations based on natural ingredients (essential, mineral oils) are ideal for allergy sufferers, but they deal exclusively with adult representatives of parasites.
Note! Using Paranit, LIceGuard will have to be complemented with other methods of struggle.
The ideal method of killing nits is the use of organophosphorous bases. These are the most powerful insecticides acting on a wide range of parasites. The most famous is dichlorvos. He kills insects at all stages of development. The main drawback of the drug is high toxicity. It affects not only the parasites, but also the human body. Spraying on the skin is fraught with extensive irritations, allergies, poisoning.
To use dichlorvos it makes sense only for processing the room, things. Buy a cylinder of 150-200 ml will be 60–160 rubles.
Another cheap and effective way is ointment. Mercury, sulfuric, boric base is designed to corrode the chitinous shell of adult representatives, the protective shell of the egg. The method is characterized by high toxicity for the human body.
It will take from 2-4 days to the same number of weeks to make the treatment. The death of adult insects occurs quickly, getting rid of nits is more difficult. The product is smeared on the hair after washing, drying, after 20-30 minutes, the hair is thoroughly washed with shampoo.
Depending on the type of ointment, you may need a prescription. Buy a tube of 10-20 g will be 4-30 rubles. Depending on the volume of hair for a single procedure may require several pieces.
The most acceptable method of dealing with nits is the spray “Pair Plus”. It consists of several insecticides. Among them are permethrin, karbofos (malathion). The first copes with adult insects. The rest — hit the cocoons. Permethrin disrupts respiration, motor activity. Karbofos dissolves the internal organs of «babies». The drug is convenient to use: just spray the entire length of the hair spray, after 10 minutes, rinse with warm water and shampoo. For a balloon 116 g will have to pay about 500 rubles.
A good remedy for nits is considered Pedilin shampoo. The drug is based on karbofos. The substance copes well with the shell of the cocoon, acting on the undeveloped larva. The shape of the product is convenient to use: it is enough to wash the hair like a regular shampoo, holding the foam for a few minutes on the head. At one time often get rid of parasites. In some cases, it is required to repeat the treatment after a week. Over 100 ml of funds on average give 60-100 rubles.
Sometimes, Hygia shampoo is used to get rid of parasite eggs. The basic active ingredient — permethrin — is supplemented with acetic acid. The component helps to dissolve the attachment of the eggs. The cocoons become mobile, they are easier to remove, wash, comb. Shampoo applied to the hair, treat the scalp. After 20 minutes of exposure means rinse. The preparation is supplemented with a ridge for mechanical processing, since without it the effectiveness against the larvae in the developmental stage is weak. For 120 ml of shampoo give 250-350 rubles.
Most of the funds for non-special purposes have a less noticeable therapeutic effect or increased risk of use. It has long been used to combat parasites of various herbs.
Later, all sorts of chemicals were added as folk remedies. All drugs for treatment at home have a low cost.
The most simple, safe, but ineffective is cranberry juice. It does not affect the viability of lice at any stage of development. A useful property of the juice is the weakening of the cocoon shell. Natural acids corrode the attachment of the egg, making it more mobile, vulnerable.
An important point! To fully remove the parasites, after using cranberry juice will require careful combing.
Other berries act like berry acids. preparations of natural origin — mint with pomegranate juice, black cumin, geranium oil, burdock, onion. According to the popular recipe, the drug is prepared, rinse, compress or rub. After this, the insects are thoroughly combed out.
A similar effect has Table vinegar in aqueous solution. He completely «removes» nits from the hair. It remains only to comb them out of the hair. Salt and alcohol are sometimes added to the aqueous solution. These tools help soften hair, refresh the scalp. The main thing in the preparation is not to confuse the vinegar with the essence. The latter can cause significant skin and hair burns.
Often for getting rid of parasites use hellebore water. You can buy it at the pharmacy. The tool is considered poisonous to nits, but safe for people (for outdoor use). It should strictly observe the instructions. Otherwise, the drug can lead to serious poisoning.
To combat parasites effectively dust, tar soap. Tar is considered safe for health. Its use favorably affects the skin inflamed from bites. Dustov soap is characterized by high efficiency, but officially proved its harm to human health. To avoid doubt, it is better to abandon its use.
Attention as a remedy for nits deserves kerosene. It is effective, safe for health with proper use. The toxic effect will spread not only to the parasites, if the exposure time on the hair increase (more than 20-30 minutes). Kerosene is flammable, irritates the skin with prolonged exposure. The most acceptable is the option of combining a substance with shampoo.
The greatest efficiency in the fight against parasite eggs has a mechanical method of processing. This option is used to eliminate live and dead insects. Not a simple combing with a standard tool is suitable, but using a special technique.
Proceed as follows:
- Make a thorough cleansing of hair and skin. It is recommended to use insecticidal shampoo or add a suitable folk remedy to an ordinary detergent.
- For better separation of nits from the hair shafts, it is recommended to process the hair with vinegar solution (cranberry or pomegranate juice).
- Begin treatment with thin strands — separate a strip of hair, combed repeatedly with a fine comb from the very roots to the tips.
- The eggs accumulated on the instrument are removed, the comb is rinsed. At the end of the procedure, the device must be thoroughly cleaned.
Attention! Treatment should be done daily at the beginning of treatment. If necessary, up to several times a day. As the insect population decreases, the frequency of treatment is reduced.
For combing living and dead individuals You can use the usual metal version of the comb or choose a modern electronic counterpart. The latter is more effective. In addition to the usual combing is achieved by killing a weak electric current adults. Notches on the teeth of the product allow better hooking nits.
The choice of effective means
Fight against nits specific process. Most drugs have little effectiveness against representatives of this stage of insect development. The choice of the most effective means is simple: it is necessary to combine different types of struggle to kill the lice.
The mechanical method of removing eggs is always taken as the basis. Regular meticulous processing is the key to getting an effective result. Additionally, use drugs that reduce the stability of fastening nits. Without them, even the mechanical method will become ineffective. As the third component, choose 1 of suitable insecticides.
Any treatment from parasites should be carried out carefully. During the procedure, observe precautions. It is important to protect others from infection. Chance of recurrence of pediculosis. The single nits left in a head of hair, are capable to develop, continue reproduction.
Parasites risk remaining on clothing, bedding, furniture. To prevent reinfection, it is necessary to carefully treat the surrounding space. This applies to all household items.
To minimize the likelihood of a new infection outside the home will require:
- limit close contact with strangers
- be more careful of behaving in public places
- refuse to use other people’s things
- conduct a thorough inspection, preventive rehabilitation in cases of suspicion.
Any situation that favors infection should be alerted. Timely measures will help protect the occurrence of the problem or its aggravation. You will learn more about preventive measures for pediculosis on our website.
Dealing with lice is not that difficult. Remove the nits already a difficult task. To get the result you need a competent, well-planned approach. First you need to know how to effectively deal with parasites.
Learn more about pediculosis thanks to the following articles:
How to remove the lice and nits on the hair.
How to get rid of nits: treatment of the head, combing, products, shampoos.
Pubic louses (ploshits) live and lay nits on the hair of the pubis, scrotum, armpits, face. How to get lice such a plan? Shaving off, from eyebrows and eyelashes they are removed by nails, the skin affected by stings is treated with mercury ointment or boric acid (alcohol).
Body lice, sources of typhus, live and lay nits in the seams and folds of clothing, bedding. Things in which they were found were washed, boiled or steamed, if possible, dried under the hot rays of the direct sun, treated with special insecticidal powders and sprays, packed in airtight plastic bags, and then carefully ironed.
Head lice live for about a month, live in a person’s hair on the back of the head, crown, crawl behind the ears, at the temples, bite, drink blood, cause itching, insomnia, provoke allergic reactions in the form of red spots, rashes, skin diseases like dermatitis and furunculosis, they infect with infectious diseases, in the same place eggs (nits) are laid on the head, which stick to the hair and do not manifest themselves before they hatch.
Do everything not to catch the lice! Independent excretion of lice is a very time consuming and routine process. Usually it takes several approaches for 2-3 hours in two weeks.
Most often children suffer from pediculosis, as their behavior in the collective at school, kindergarten is uncontrolled — in this case, quarantine is introduced.
Treatment methods that are used to remove lice and kill them 1 time usually do not help to get rid of nits, with the exception of professional medical methods, when specialists remove parasites in any form (adult, nymph, larva) from the hair manually in 1 day, rather, a few hours. Such services are provided by the company “Lays Evey”, you can register for them by calling 8 (499) 703 45 13.
The treatment of nits is a mechanical and chemical effect on them with the help of special tools in order to damage their skin and tear them off the hair. Mechanical impact is combing, a very long time occupation, it is performed several times within a month (38-40 days).
Getting rid of lice and nits combing (mechanical method)
The safest thing is to remove lice and nits by combing them with a comb with frequent teeth (0.2-0.3 mm) under a wood lamp — parasites are brushed off on a newspaper or a sheet — a comb with occasional teeth does not fit.
The shampoo will help remove some of the larvae and adults, and by moisturizing the hair will ease the procedure of combing, but in front of it it is better to resort to chemical treatment.
If pharmaceutical preparations with chemical composition are used instead of oil, they are applied to dry or dried hair, washed with ordinary shampoo or a weak solution of vinegar 2% — depending on what is said in the instructions.
When self-breeding must be removed absolutely all, even the dead, nits. Carefully check each strand, while not allowing even the slightest contact of an unchecked strand with a checked one. One unnoticed nit in a few days guarantees a return to where you started.
Even with the best tool and the most careful combing of the hair, they may go unnoticed a number of nits. In this case, in order to get rid of lice, the final preparations are applied again 1-2 times (no more than 3 times in total due to toxicity) at the end of the week and the brushing procedure is done once again.
Vegetable oils, fish oil, and petroleum jelly can be applied as often as desired. If relapses of pediculosis do not stop, you may not follow the instructions of the drug used, or it has already ceased to act on the parasites, as they are used to it.
How to get rid of lice and nits
Despite all the achievements of civilization, pediculosis was and remains a pressing issue, especially for parents with children 5-12 years old. If you still find lice on the head of a child, the main thing is not to panic! After all, getting rid of pediculosis today is as easy as washing your head!
Using modern pediculicides, you can get rid of lice the first time. In this case, hair treatment means you take a few minutes.
How do pediculicides help kill lice?
Today, you can buy a remedy for pediculosis at any pharmacy. But are all pharmacological agents equally effective?
The means of the previous generation, allowing to quickly get rid of lice, on the basis of permethrin has long been outdated. The widespread use of these tools has led to the emergence of resistance in parasites and a significant reduction in their effectiveness. Modern means have a physical effect on the parasites.
Getting rid of lice and nits occurs by dehydrating them and disturbing gas exchange, to put it simply — asphyxiation. This means that you can reuse the funds without the risk of causing insect resistance to its components.
How to apply modern pediculicides?
In order to achieve the maximum effect of treatment with products with a physical principle of influence, the basic principle is not to save money. It is very important to distribute the drug over the entire surface of the head and hair until fully moisturized.
Get rid of nits and lice, which died after treatment, will help a special comb.
Carefully comb their hair strand by strand, scrubbing the comb before each combing. All means with a physical principle of action can be applied as often as necessary.
Feel free to report on head lice to your teacher or kindergarten teacher. All children attending the same group with your child must also be examined and processed if necessary.
How to get rid of lice: home methods
The rapid development of technologies in the field of medicine helped mankind to forget about the whole “bouquet” of various diseases, but, unfortunately, they did not help get rid of lice. Moreover, almost every year we hear that epidemics of pediculosis are again observed in cities.
These are tiny vampires that suck human blood, irritate the scalp and are a source of permanent discomfort. To live in peace with these insects is impossible.
Head, clothes, pubic: which fear more?
In fact, all of the above.Only here the statistics show that fear, first of all, you need head lice (they are more common), then wardrobe, and only then pubic.
The parasites attack the hairy part most often, because it is in this zone that nature creates the most convenient conditions for settling. The blood vessels are not deep, the hair hides the lice from the «encroachment» from the outside, so their roots become a wonderful place to lay offspring — nits.
However, it should be remembered that if you find insects in your hair or the hair of your children, this does not mean that you lead an antisocial lifestyle or do not follow the rules of hygiene. Quite the contrary, head lice love clean heads and hair. Infectious head lice is the same as catching a cold.
Simply, you were near an infected person and an insect crawled over to you, just like a virus gets on you from a person with a cold. It is important to understand that there is nothing in it that is worth being ashamed of and hiding in contrast to pediculosis of a wardrobe. But it is a completely different disease and more on that below.
Louses (linen), which live in bed linen and clothes, are less common than their head brothers, although they do not cease to periodically deliver a lot of inconvenience to the population. They prefer to settle in hard-to-reach places, for example, the seams, sewn pockets, etc., leaving the body from time to time to quench their hunger.
To get rid of them, it is not necessary to soak things in highly concentrated insecticides, it is enough to wash all clothes and bedding in hot water (45 ° C and above) or boil it, and then iron it or steam it.
It is worth noting that it is wardrobe head lice that is the first call of trouble, in contrast to the head lice, which can be infected and very clean people. Very often body lice live in the folds of old clothes or unwashed bed linen and never live in hair!
Pubic lice (ploshchitsy) today are more rare than regularity. Why this type of parasite is rare, certainly difficult to say.
Doctors are inclined to think that these lice simply crossed with others and, in fact, for the most part, emigrated from the pubic vegetation and genitals to the head (eyebrows, mustaches, beard) or clothes.
All types of lice can be picked up only by contact — they cross over to a healthy person from infected hair or clothing at the moment of contact, unlike fleas, which jump from animal to animal.
Homemade ways to get rid of lice
Consider ways to effectively get rid of lice at home. There are two options: either to fight insects on your own, or to run to the first receiver, controlled by a sanitary epidemiological station. It would seem that the second decision is more balanced and correct.
But here it is worth considering — what contingent usually “rotates” in such receivers? True, these are homeless people who are carriers of dangerous diseases and dysfunctional members of the population who are not friends with soap in principle. Therefore, pediculosis in children and adults is better to treat still at home.
It is enough to put them on the hair and scalp in accordance with the recommendations set out in the instructions, then using a comb with frequent teeth to remove adult lice and nits — and you are free. Modern tools do not involve lengthy procedures. The main thing — do not forget to repeat the treatment of the affected area in 5-7 days to fix the result.
Drugstores need to be applied to the hair and scalp in accordance with the recommendations set out in the instructions, and then using a comb with frequent teeth or manually remove adults and nits. After combing do not forget to check the hair.
If at least one missed insect or a nit remains in them, the treatment can be considered ineffective — the life cycle of the insect will not be interrupted. And most importantly — do not forget to repeat the treatment of the affected area (here you can replace it with “hair”) in 5-7 days to consolidate the result.
Regardless of what you choose for the procedures recommended by the certified remedy for lice and nits or grandmother’s decoction of tansy, you need to apply it correctly: do not confuse the concentration of ingredients, do not overdo the solution on the head. It is fraught with burns or even chronic dermatitis of the scalp.
If you are using folk decoctions and ointments, it is advisable to wear a kerchief or a plastic shower cap on your hair: this is how you will create a kind of “dome” that will enhance the effect of the drug and eliminate the “escape” of unlucky lice.
If you use a pharmacy, you can not wash your head with a conventional conditioner before applying it — in this case you will create a coating on the hair and skin, which will reduce the effectiveness of the active substances.
By the way, about the escape: it makes no sense to test insect repellent on yourself or your child (for example, vinegar or pure alcohol). Lice have no particular choice — they have nowhere to run. Therefore, they will sit to the last. In addition, it is extremely dangerous methods of dealing with head lice.
It makes no sense to use the selected tool several times, if you strictly follow the medical instructions or popular recipe — it means it does not affect this kind of lice.
The whole complex of methods that should help get rid of lice and nits can be divided into three groups: physical, chemical and folk methods. Consider each of them.
There are few of them: only two. The first is shaving. The second is combing. You don’t always want to shave yourself baldly, especially in the cold season, so there is no point in considering this rather radical way. But combing can give a good result, but only in combination with pharmacy or folk remedies.
The electronic comb of the RobiComb also acts on the lice with electric current discharges, so that even unnoticed insects will die, and the procedure will not have to be repeated again. The electronic comb RobiComb acts on the lice with discharges of electric current, but it does not remove the nits and after processing it is necessary to check that all insects have died.
Using combs is very simple, you can use it right at home: you need to treat your head with a tool that will kill the parasites, and then carefully drive it with the “tool” on each individual strand of hair, starting from the roots. Nits and lice will get stuck on the ridge, they need to be immediately removed, wiping on a towel.
You should brush your hair this way several times and observe the effect for a month. You can do without any means, just wash your head before combing with rinse, balm or smear with vegetable oil (anise, olive) — then it will be easier to separate the lice from the hair.
If necessary, they inspect the entire family and others who have come into contact with its members, people, issue an official certificate of the absence of pediculosis. The company offers services in its center, as well as right at home, all work is carried out with a guarantee (the repeated procedure is free).
Recently, anonymous home expert service has become popular among parents. Value for money is superior to any other methods of treatment for lice in children and adults. The advantage of such a service is to completely get rid of lice and nits and provide a guarantee for treatment that does not give any pharmacy drug.
The benefits of combing. It is an absolutely safe method for the health of babies; it is suitable for pregnant and lactating women, adults and children, for whom the use of herbal and chemical agents is contraindicated for health reasons.Moreover, the mechanical method is useful: daily massage has a positive effect on the quality of hair.
When unprofessional combing at least one louse or nit, let it remain. In addition, combing helps only as long as a new batch of insects settles on the head. And this is not excluded if the child has become infected with pediculosis in a kindergarten, school, country holiday home, sanatorium, summer camp.
It is not enough just to get rid of lice, it is also important to take measures so that they do not reappear. There are rules, adhering to which you can prevent the appearance and rapid reproduction of parasites:
- Follow the basic rules of hygiene, take care of yourself: wash and change clothes, bed linen. By itself, clean skin does not guarantee protection against lice, but in the shower or while bathing the parasites can be washed away with water,
- Wash clothes and bedding in hot water, boil if possible, iron seams and pockets with an iron — the heat instantly kills the lice,
- Exclude contact with an infected person. If you are the carrier, organize yourself a quarantine,
- Be careful when having casual sex — red spots and traces of scratches in the crotch area should alert you,
- Inspect your child’s hair under the light of the lamp every few days (so-called. Detecting scratching) — prompt detection will allow you to quickly eliminate lice, not giving them a chance to multiply,
- Do not allow a child at a younger age to wear long hair (including braids and tails), since this is a factor of infection — for lice it is like a bridge to a new dwelling. When infecting your hair, you will still need to shorten it as much as possible due to the difficulties of removing numerous nits — this will reduce the scope of work. Optimum hairstyle for girls — care,
- After removing the lice be sure to disinfect the apartment and things
- Instruct the child not to use other people’s combs, towels, bows, hairpins, change dolls or soft toys, change hats, wear other people’s clothes even while playing,
- Apply a few drops of essential oils of lavender, tea tree, anise behind the ears, on the temples, neck at the back of the head — fragrant smell will scare the lice or make them run. You can also apply oil on clothing or objects in the apartment.
How to detect lice in adults and children?
According to the World Health Organization, pediculosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases. In particular, in Russia from 180 to 200 cases of lice infection per 100 thousand people are recorded annually. It is characteristic that children most often suffer from pediculosis — especially in the age group from 3 to 6 years.
Lice are small insects that parasitize a person’s body by feeding on its blood. In the hair of the head, the louse of the species Pediculus humanus capitis (head) lives, in the pubic hair — Phthirus pubis (ploshchitsa), on bedclothes and clothing — Pediculus humanus corporis (wolf louse).
Pediculosis is an infection of head lice.
Pediculosis can be diagnosed by the following set of symptoms:
Nits are parasite eggs. Lice attach directly to the skin and suck blood. Nits are found on the hair, tightly attaching to them with the help of a specially allocated secret.
Nits are not so easy to notice. A person with poor eyesight is simply not visible. Nits are attached directly to the hair at a distance of 1-3 cm from the root. They are pretty tenacious.
Lice eggs are distinguished by an oval shape, yellow color. For the emergence of the larvae requires certain conditions, namely: a humid environment, high temperature. Ideal conditions for laying eggs — the folds of the human body.
During primary processing with the help of medicines or folk remedies, lice die almost immediately. Nits are often immune to the action of a method.Therefore, get rid of them in most cases mechanically. That is, manually. And even easier — they are combed out. But in order for the process to go quickly and efficiently, one of the proven methods presented in this article should be used first.
How to get rid of nits for 1 day: medication
Treatment of pediculosis is quite time-consuming, but quite a feasible process. In any pharmacy without a prescription, you can buy a modern remedy against lice and nits. Such drugs are widely spread:
1. Permethrin Ointment. Destroys lice and their larvae. Not recommended for babies under 3 years old, as well as pregnant and lactating.
2. «Nittifor» cream — protivopedikuleznoe means. Effectively with a 10-minute contact with lice and nits. Intended for use with the purpose of destruction from lice and their larvae. Recommended for children from 5 years of age.
3. Medifox — antiparasitic agent. Causes insect paralysis. Low toxicity. It is prescribed for pediculosis (headache, pubic), scabies.
4. «Knicks» — cream for external use. Designed to destroy parasites. It can not be used regularly, but only when living individuals and their larvae are found.
5. Hygia — shampoo protivopedikuleznogo action. Effectively fights lice and nits.
6. Pedex — antiparasitic agent, detrimental effect on ectoparasites.
7. «Couple Plus» — combined antiparasitic drug, which is a poison for insects. Effective against lice and nits.
All of the above drugs are toxic, so before use you should carefully study the instructions and follow the recommended dosages.
How to get rid of nits for 1 day: folk remedies
1. To bring out not only lice, but also to get rid of nits forever with the help of a proven folk remedy that every hostess has in the kitchen — vinegar. Suitable ordinary table, wine, apple or alcohol.
It is simple to prepare a therapeutic compound: if you use table vinegar 9%, it must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2. How to get rid of nits for 1 day? It is necessary:
• Combine the prepared vinegar with 40 g of salt and 5 g of alcohol. All mix and moisten in a solution of cheesecloth. Apply the compress to your hair during the day as often as possible. After each procedure, the strands should be combed with a fine comb.
• Another way. Prepared vinegar is applied to the hair, wrapped with oilcloth and wrapped with a towel. The bandage should be quite tight. Keep a compress for half an hour or an hour, after which the hair can be combed.
Attention!The point of quickly getting rid of nits — in their mandatory combing. If this is not done from the surviving larvae, new individuals are formed.
There are some rules for combing hair:
First, the procedure must be done immediately after a certain time.
Secondly, when combing, the comb should be washed with hot water, and the procedure itself should be carried out to control a white sheet of paper.
Thirdly, you need to comb each strand, and preferably with a special comb with notches.
In order that vinegar does not harm the hair, you should use special masks for brittle hair.
2. Kerosene — time-tested method to solve the problem: how to get rid of nits in 1 day. What is the therapeutic effect of this method? First, kerosene acts on lice and nits poisoning. Secondly, it weakens the «dead grip» of nits. Thirdly, its smell repels lice.
Modern drugs act on insects paralytic. Kerosene also leads to their suffocation. This method is not “barbaric”. If carried out properly, there will be no negative effects in the form of burns, etc.
So, in order to quickly get rid of nits and lice, you must combine kerosene with vegetable oil. Kerosene poured most of the oil a little less.During the procedure, open the window. Using a brush, the mixture is applied to the hair, wrapped with cellophane and a towel, kept for an hour.
After that, the head is washed, the hair is sprayed with vinegar and start combing the nits with a fine comb. If you carry out the treatment of pediculosis in this way 2 times a week, then you can forget forever what lice are.
Honey will help reduce the aggressive effects of kerosene on the scalp. On a teaspoon of kerosene you need to add 3 large spoons of honey, 4 spoons of water, a small spoonful of shampoo. All mix and put on the hair under the oilcloth and cap for an hour.
Children are recommended to keep for 1 hour the composition of 50 g of olive oil and 1 small spoon of kerosene. After 3 days, re-treatment with the composition, which is also added honey.
The main danger in handling kerosene is the possibility of getting burned. Parents should be extremely careful. If an offense is observed in the offspring during trial application of kerosene to the inside of the elbow, then this method is not for your baby.
When using kerosene, avoid contact with the nose, mouth, eyes. You also can not use it near open fire and indoors.
3. How to get rid of nits in 1 day? Use garlic and onion. Prepare a healing mush from one onion and one garlic clove. Spread the composition over the entire length of the hair and rub into the skin. Put on cellophane and cap on top. Keep the compress for 2 hours. Then rinse everything off with shampoo and apply any oil on your hair. Finally, ask your loved ones to comb the strands, thereby freeing them from nits.
4. The acidic environment is detrimental to lice and nits. Get rid of the larvae will help lemon. Wash 3 fruits, peel them, place in a saucepan and cover with water (1 l). Bring the mixture to a boil, cool, strain. Rinse your hair with healing composition. After that, comb them out.
5. An interesting, fairly effective way to get rid of nits — use a device for curling hair — curling. With it, heat the strands over the entire length. From the touch of hot metal nits simply die. This way you can get rid of annoying larvae.
How to get rid of nits for 1 day and do not harm the hair
Undoubtedly, the best way to get rid of lice and nits — shave bald. However, such a radical method is not suitable for women. You can always find an alternative treatment for pediculosis.
Applying this or that means, it is necessary to take care of the health of the skin of the head and of the hair itself. And for this you need to have useful information:
1. Vinegar with prolonged use makes the hair brittle, weakened. In addition, the tool can change hair color.
2. Kerosene with too much concentration or exceeding the time of holding the compress can lead to burns, irritation, allergic reaction.
3. Any medical preparation for lice and nits is toxic. Such funds are not recommended for children, pregnant and lactating.
4. The iron, the hair dryer or the curling iron dry up hair strongly, do them a fragile and splitting.
5. Garlic and onions can irritate the scalp.
In order to minimize the negative effects of the use of any of the presented methods of pediculosis treatment, it is necessary to use after hair treatment masks:
• Mask with castor oil. Mix a spoonful of butter and a spoonful of rum (brandy). Apply a mask to your hair and hold for an hour. After that, wash your hair.
• Combine cognac (1 part), onion gruel (4 parts), decoction of burdock (6 parts). Rub into the scalp and rinse after 2 hours.
• Mix 30 g of olive oil with two yolks. Apply the mixture to your hair for 30 minutes, then wash your hair.
• Kefir mask fights against brittle hair. Combine the juice of 1 onion with a glass of kefir.Apply the mixture to your hair and hold for an hour, top with a warm head cap. Wash off with warm water.
Using time-tested methods of treating pediculosis and adhering to general recommendations, you can forget about the problem in a short time. How to get rid of nits for 1 day? I hope the presented methods will help you and your loved ones to keep hair and scalp from «unwanted guests.»
Principles of treatment for children and adults
Human lice infestation is a dermatological parasitic pathology called pediculosis (translated from Latin Pediculus — “louse”). Disease therapy can be based on the following principles and actions:
- shaving the head — depriving the parasites of the usual conditions of existence,
- combing — mechanical removal of insects from hair,
- use of ironing and hair dryer — heat treatment followed by combing is detrimental to lice and nits,
- the purchase of drugs and the use of folk remedies — the use of special compounds that kill or weaken pests, followed by combing.
To get rid of parasites should, given the five rules.
- Earlier initiation of therapy. The sooner the fight against head lice begins, the easier it will be to get rid of parasites. Feeling a weak itch, you need to inspect the hair for the presence of pests. It is advisable to ask for help from another person.
- Allergotest. Before using any means of lice, you must check the reaction of the skin. Apply a small amount of the product to the elbow bend for ten minutes. If after a day of undesirable manifestations (irritation, burning, rash, redness) is not detected, you can use the tool.
- Combing out After the use of any antiparasitic means you need to do combing. This procedure will help remove dead insects and nits from the hair.
- Re-treatment after a week. The ripening of the nits occurs within five to eight days. Therefore, a re-treatment is required to remove the newly emerged parasites.
- Prevention of relapse. After removing the pests, it is necessary to take certain measures to prevent re-infection.
Cardinal method: shaving
The essence of the procedure: curls shave from the head with nits, because lice without hair can not live. The method has several advantages:
- does not damage the skin
- does not cause allergic reactions
- has no contraindications
- for 1 day relieves lice and nits.
Brushing out uninvited “guests” and special combs
Combing is a mandatory step in the treatment of pediculosis when using any method of treatment, except for shaving bald. The method helps to get rid of insects that are resistant to the effects of most antiparasitic drugs. The procedure allows:
- remove dead parasites
- remove nits from hair,
- regularly examine the curls for the presence of pests.
The procedure is a thorough combing of the hair with a special comb with frequent teeth. Judging by the reviews, the most high-quality are the combs LiceGuard, AntiV, NitFree. The effectiveness of the device is provided by:
- strength — the comb is made of steel, which allows the teeth not to deform during combing,
- frequent location of teeth — only hair can pass between them, but not nits and louses.
- serrations on the teeth — allow you to better hook on the parasites.
Description of the procedure
To perform an action you need the help of another person, since it is impossible to comb out parasites for oneself. The procedure is carried out in three stages.
- Place preparation. Located in a well-lit area. Spread a white towel, paper or oilcloth on which the insects will fall on a small table.
- Combing hair. Seat the patient in such a way that he can comfortably rest his head on the table. Comb your hair with a regular comb with sparse teeth.
- Combing nits. Pick up a thin strand, comb through the curls in the direction from the roots.Snagged on the comb insects and nits brush on a towel. So work out all the hair.
5 rules for the use of comb
To make the procedure as efficient and safe as possible, you need to follow five rules.
- Take precautions. The person performing the procedure should wear a plastic cap so as not to “pick up” the lice.
- Moisturize hair. If the curls are dry, the comb will not slide well.
- Use special compounds to facilitate the removal of nits. It is desirable to treat the hair with a means that corrodes the secret, by means of which the nit is attached to the curl. This can be a solution of vinegar: a tablespoon in a glass of water.
- Disinfect comb after use. To do this, the instrument can be placed for half an hour in an alcohol solution or boiled for five minutes.
- Repeat the procedure at regular intervals. Repeat every other day with a weak infection, in severe cases — every day. Combing should not be stopped when the head lice symptoms disappear. Scouring is recommended to be done every few days for one to two months.
As active components that ensure the action of drugs, are used:
- substances that envelop lice and nits with silicone film — cyclomethicone, dimethicone, blocking oxygen for parasites,
- toxic components — permethrin, phenotrin, malathion, destroy the nervous system of insects.
The use of the latter is preferable, since they are safer for humans. As an alternative to drugs with dimeticone, folk healers suggest using hairspray. It is recommended to treat the head with a whole bottle of product, put on plastic wrap or a cap, leave overnight, then rinse the hair with regular shampoo, comb out dead insects and nits.
Can lice be taken out at home?
There are two ways to remove lice:
- appeal to the reception point at the sanitary-epidemiological station,
- hair treatment with pediculicides at home.
It is better to engage in breeding lice and nits at home. A full course of insect extermination takes about 2–3 weeks. Adults are easy to remove: they die when exposed to high or low temperatures, and do not tolerate insecticides and essential oils.
Much harder to get rid of nits. They are reliably protected from the harmful effects of a dense transparent sheath and are attached to the hair with the help of an adhesive substance.
Poison nits and wash them from the hair will not succeed. Therefore, the only way to get rid of lice eggs is to regularly comb the hair or re-apply pediculicidal shampoo in 5-7 days (when the larvae emerge from the eggs).
How to cure pediculosis?
To destroy insects by simple washing of the hair or combing is impossible. However, there are many reliable methods of getting rid of parasites:
- pharmacy pediculicidal preparations, which include toxic substances or essential oils,
- household folk remedies or herbal decoctions,
- mechanical removal of insects with a comb with frequent teeth or a hair straightener;
- shaving the head.
The latter method is considered the most effective and safe. Hair removal can destroy parasites in 1 day. However, this method is only suitable for men: a rare woman will agree to treat her hair in this way.
Pharmacy drugs — a reliable and fast way to permanently get rid of parasites. The stores offer a wide range of products: lotions, creams, shampoos, gels and aerosols. Their advantages: relative safety, efficiency and effectiveness (to completely destroy insects, it is enough to apply the drug twice with a break of 5-7 days).
There are three types of drugs:
- poisonous (lice die from poisoning with plant or chemical insecticides),
- paralyzing (insects lose the ability to move and stay on the hair, so they are easy to remove),
- suffocating (parasites die from suffocation, because their breathing holes are blocked with essential oils or liquid silicone).
The most safe are drugs with a choking effect.
Despite the high efficiency of pharmaceuticals, it is desirable to combine such treatment with combing. Only in this case you will get a really fast and reliable result.
Pharmacies sell many pediculicidal compositions. The following remedies have proven themselves well:
- «Nit free». The drug is based on vegetable oils, not containing insecticides. It has no contraindications, it is absolutely safe for humans.
- «Nittifor». A remedy with neurotoxic components that paralyzes insects and kills them. May be hazardous to health.
- «Pair plus». Spray based on plant insecticides and malathion, which not only kills adult individuals, but also damages the shell of nits. After using the spray nits and adult insects can be easily combed out. Due to its high toxicity, it is not recommended for the treatment of children and people with respiratory diseases.
- Pediculen Ultra. Spray based on alcohol and essential oil of anise causes suffocation in parasites and leads to their rapid death. Alcohol destroys the sticky nits and makes them easy to comb. They can effectively eradicate insects
- «Nuda». Composition based on liquid silicone clogs the respiratory organs of insects and destroys them. It is also effective against nits, as it covers them with a hermetic film and prevents them from developing.
It is necessary to use preparations exactly according to the instruction. If after the first use of the parasites remained, you need to poison again in a week. The third time to apply funds is undesirable.
How to apply?
Treatment of pediculosis is as follows:
- The selected product is applied to the hair (cream or shampoo — on wet, spray and aerosol — on dry).
- The head is covered with a plastic bag. From above it is possible to tie a scarf to enhance the effect.
- The medicine is aged on the head for that time, which is indicated in the instructions (from 15 minutes to 1 hour).
- The product is washed off with water, shampoo, tar soap or vinegar solution (no more than 2%).
- The hair is combed with a frequent comb: this is how the dead insects and peeled nits are removed.
- If necessary, re-treatment in 5-7 days.
The procedure is carried out in a well-ventilated area with rubber gloves on hands.
Malicious insect species
Head louse — prefers to dwell and breed in the strands of the host’s hair.
The clothes louse — unlike the brethren, lives and attaches the larvae in places where the tissue is compacted on everyday things (folds, stitches, grooves, etc.). On the skin of a person spends a maximum of 5-15 minutes throughout the day.
Diseases caused by lice
As mentioned above, the insect lives and multiplies thanks to a parasitic way of life. After all, the main method of feeding is piercing the skin of the head with jaws that have the form of thin and long stylets.
Considering the rather small size of insects and the low degree of damage, it is safe to say that lice do not lead to a noticeable reduction in the amount of blood in the capillaries, and also do not change the initial composition. But above all, they contribute to the development of permanent discomfort in the area of the scalp.
However, these are the most minimal effects that parasitic insects can cause. After all, they can cause much more serious diseases: typhus and relapsing fever, Volyn fever and other infectious diseases. The main pathogens are most often body lice, so the question: how to quickly get rid of lice and nits is very relevant and important.
Many believe that lice are carriers of terrible viral infections: AIDS and hepatitis. At first glance, we can agree with this opinion, since lice are blood-sucking insects.
Scientists have worked on this issue for several years, concluding that insects are not pathogens or carriers of either AIDS or hepatitis. As you know, these two diseases are caused by a virus that infects the cells of the internal systems of human organs.
The AIDS virus is introduced into the cells of the immune system, and hepatitis — into the cells of the liver. Even when a parasitic individual «regales» with the blood of an infected person, the cells of the virus in a few minutes are broken down by digestive enzymes.
On the mouth organ of the virus molecule very quickly disappear, due to constantly releasing saliva. Consequently, the chance for a healthy person to become infected after being bitten by a parasite of an infectious person decreases to zero. For subsequent bites, the individual will be completely «clean.»
Currently, there is no officially registered single event in medical practice confirming the possibility of infection with the AIDS virus or hepatitis through an insect bite. This misconception is not supported by anything and is conjecture.
Ways to cause pediculosis
The main source of infection is the team. Everyone can become an owner of unexpected pests, for example, during a trip in public transport or using someone else’s bedding, clothes, towels, combs, etc. Pubic lice is transmitted only sexually.
Lice is a widespread disease, predominantly found in countries with low levels of sanitary culture. The incubation period for lice is at least two weeks, the severity of symptoms corresponds to the severity of the disease.
How to recognize?
Head lice. The main signs of damage to the hair areas are itching and periodic burning on individual segments of the skin. Due to recurrent discomfort and new bites from lice, foci with yellow “honey” crusts appear on the skin, as well as pronounced signs of folliculitis.
Externally, they have a white or yellowish color. To test life-giving nits or not, they need to be crushed between the nails, if the eggs click, it means that new individuals would appear from them. Empty eggs are predominantly gray.
Wardrobe lice. Lice affect areas of the skin under clothing, around the shoulder blades, wrists, abdomen, underarms, lower back, back, etc. Insect wounds resemble mosquito bites with a dark dot in the center. Because of the constant itching and burning, the person combs them, forming bloody wounds, to which purulent accumulations further join.
Prolonged flow of head lice can cause thickening of the skin and melasma. The place of insect bites begins with flaking, which further develops into pronounced scars. Most often scars remain on the body, throughout life.
When identifying the symptoms described above, it is recommended to consult a dermatologist for further treatment.
- bacterial infections
- A sick person can trigger an epidemic in kindergarten, school and other public institutions,
- Under unfavorable social conditions, epidemics of typhus and other infectious diseases can occur.
A single wash of hair strands and washing things in a washing machine does not get off here. Parasites quite firmly «stick» to the hair and leave their host without much enthusiasm.
The easiest way to say goodbye to pubic lice. You can completely cut off or shave the entire hairline, it will not be a terrible victim, for both men and women. After that, it is recommended to treat the areas of the lesion (bites) of insects with 10% white mercury ointment.
If the nits are seen in the area of the eyelashes or eyebrows, they can be easily removed with their own (nails).
In case you have found clothing longevity, then know that one washing expensive powder you will not get rid of parasites. If you do not want to part with your clothes, then you will need to boil thoroughly or steam laundry, then hang it outside in the street under the scorching sun, preferably for a week.
Or treat the items with an acquired insecticidal substance, leave it for several hours to dry completely, then wash it thoroughly (preferably with your hands) and hang it on the street, again for a week. Do not forget to iron all formed folds and seams with an iron in combination with the “steam” function.
The fight against head lice is the most difficult, it must be approached comprehensively. The very first thing to start with is to decide on the option of getting rid of ill-fated parasites. There is for the method, with the help of folk and cosmetic (medical) products.
There are a large number of specialized salons on the world market of services that facilitate the shortest recovery from harmful lice on your body, and you will receive a one-hundred percent guarantee of complete cure for lice in one or two procedures.
Specialized pharmacies sell a wide variety of special shampoos, aerosols, ointments, etc. price range versatile, starting with cheap for 100 rubles. and finishing with funds from global manufacturers.
The most effective and popular are: «Nittifor» (cream and solution) — used to treat all types of parasites: fleas, lice, nits and scabies mites, Para-plus aerosol, NIT FREE and others. In addition to cosmetics for people, you can use off-shampoo for pets.
If you are the owner of long and thick strands, it is best to cut them, at least to the shoulders, this measure will help you quickly and efficiently get rid of extinct individuals, as well as their eggs.
For owners of thin and unruly hair, it is best to use balm, olive, burdock oil or fish oil, these measures will help alleviate the unpleasant combing procedure, preventing tangling of strands. It is important, before proceeding with the use of the acquired funds, it is necessary to carefully read the instruction leaflet.
If you have a problem with how to rid the child of lice, then it is best to consult a pediatrician that he would write a prescription, since the skin of the child is more sensitive to specialized means.
How to get rid of folk remedies
The combination of salt and wine vinegar. We will need to mix 45 grams of salt with a glass of wine vinegar and 7 grams of pure alcohol. Strands of hair will need to be pre-rinsed and dried. After that, take the gauze and soak it well with the prepared solution, apply it to the affected skin.
Kerosene and vegetable oil. You will need to mix 1:10 kerosene with vegetable oil. The mixture must be carefully processed hair, then covered with wax paper, wrap with a towel or a volume scarf. The resulting compress will need to keep overnight.
When you wake up in the morning, rinse your head well with hot water and regular soap. Remove the lice, as well as their larvae will help a special comb, previously moistened in vinegar.
Cranberry juice. You will need 1-2 juice of cranberries, depending on the length and thickness of the hair. From the fruit will need to squeeze the juice, mixing it with a teaspoon of honey. The resulting mixture should be rubbed into the head for at least 2-3 hours.
Onions and egg. You will need to finely chop the onion, then mix it with the egg yolk. The resulting mixture will need to rub into the head, evenly distributed throughout the length of the hair.Hold the composition for at least 2 hours, then rinse hair with lemon juice. If the smell of onions is strongly felt, additionally wash your hair with any shampoo.
If you have any doubts that someone from your family has lice, we recommend that you take preventive measures:
- Try to check the head of all family members at least twice a week
- Replace all bedding. It’s best to boil it
- Iron all things as hot as possible with a steam iron,
- Every 1-2 weeks, rinse all combs in the house with boiling water.
First of all, you should carefully examine the scalp, wash it with a special shampoo-rinse and carefully comb it with a special comb. These lice comb combs are sold in pharmacies and have a very small (only 0.2 mm) distance between the teeth: this frequent comb allows you to reliably relieve head lice and nits from the head.
It should be understood that the rinse shampoo itself does not work on lice, it simply facilitates combing them out. Even combing itself, without the use of anti-pedicular agents, may not be very effective: there is always the risk of missing any one insect, and the lice larvae are too small to be combed reliably.
After combing, the hair should be treated with a special anti-pediculent agent purchased at a pharmacy. To use folk remedies, like a decoction of tansy or sunflower oil, should not be: they are not very effective, to put it mildly, and the hair after them will never be the same.
Especially adverse effect on the hair and scalp kerosene: after washing the child’s head with kerosene, and even more so after wrapping it with polyethylene, you run the risk of getting chronic contact dermatitis of the scalp, which is almost impossible to treat, and forever deprive your child of a beautiful and silky hair.
These remedies have contraindications: pregnancy and allergies. Treatment of pediculosis with chemicals in infants is carried out only after consultation with the doctor.
Folk remedies for lice and nits are cheaper than pharmacies, but do not always give the desired effect and often adversely affect the patient’s health. For example, popular products — kerosene and vinegar — can do much more harm to health than insects.
Popular folk ways to destroy parasites:
- hair dye dye containing hydrogen peroxide,
- decoction of pomegranate juice with mint (1 cup of juice + 2 tbsp. of pounded mint leaves),
- wild rosemary tincture with pork fat (8 tablespoons lard of pork fat + 1 tablespoon liters of wild rosemary),
- kerosene (1 part kerosene + 10 parts vegetable oil),
- a solution of 9% vinegar (1 part vinegar + 2 parts water).
Traditional medicine also offers other, much more original methods of dealing with parasites: dichlorvos, Charm hair spray, benzyl benzoate and others. However, it is better to use drugs.
How long does it take to get rid of insects?
The life of lice is 1 month. Every day they lay dozens of eggs, of which after 5–7 days, small larvae hatch. After another 20 days, they become adults and are ready to re-produce their own kind.
That is why the treatment for pediculosis takes at least a week. If for the first time you are lucky enough to destroy all adult insects, then in a week you will have to fight with newly hatched parasites.
Causes of nits
Head lice infestation is called pediculosis. Nits ˜– these are eggs of adult individuals. Consequently, the main reason for their appearance is hit of sexually mature parasites on the human head. Females are able to lay up to 5 eggs per day, of which in a short time larvae appear.
Lice are blood-sucking insects.Their only carriers are people. The main transmission path is contact.
Who are these insects
Lice are blood-sucking insects that infect an animal or person and feed on the host’s blood. Distributed throughout the continents of the world, may be carriers of typhoid.
Nits are lice eggs attached by a glue-like substance to the base of the hair. Quite resistant to various adverse conditions, as well as chemical and synthetic agents.
Despite their small size, these insects are capable of delivering severe discomfort to the host: a burning sensation and itching, the appearance of soaked crusts behind the ears.
Lice are divided into three groups by habitat:
- Pediculosis of the head. Bloodsuckers settle in the hair, feeding on human blood.
- Pediculosis clothes. Individuals live on the surface of clothing and feed on blood while wearing things. The eggs of such lice are derived due to the comfortable temperature that the human body gives when it comes into contact with tissue.
- Polythyroidism or pubic lice. They are set up in the hair of the pubic zone.
All these species are similar to each other and differ only in size and timing of the transformation of adults from nits.
Where do they come from
More recently, pediculosis was considered a disease of the poor: non-observance of hygiene rules and rare washing of the head contributed to lice infestation. But today parasites are increasingly choosing healthy and well-groomed hair, especially for children of the younger age group. Often there are infections of entire classes or groups of kindergarten: moreover, hygiene is completely irrelevant here.
Although the lice themselves have no wings and cannot fly from one person to another, the infection happens very quickly and unnoticed. You can pick up parasites when:
- Close contact: bloodsuckers crawl on the victim for hair or clothing. The rapid spread of insects occurs in the family or kindergarten: when children sleep or play next to each other,
- Using other people’s hygiene items: combs, barrettes,
- Infection is possible after trying on infected caps, scarves in stores,
- Wearing things of infected people: hats, clothes,
- Visiting contaminated sites. For example, spending the night at a party, relaxing in a hotel: lice will easily get into the hair of a new owner from bedding.
Sometimes the infection occurs through hairdressing accessories when cutting hair, if the master did not process the tools after the previous visitor. Lovers of wigs and overhead strands can also be attacked by lice.
How to detect blood suckers
Independently to detect insects in the head is quite difficult. Some signs that cannot be overlooked can indicate the appearance of lice. Typically, parasites cause:
- Severe itching in all areas of the head,
- The appearance of wet crusts behind the ears,
- Skin rashes at the hairline due to an allergic reaction,
- Small bluish spots and crusted crusts near lice bite sites.
Usually, at the initial stage of infection, only a periodic itch of the head is present: later, if untreated, other symptoms may join.
In order to detect insects, you should carefully examine the entire surface of the head, starting from the lower occipital part. Particular attention should be paid to the back of the head, the area of the temples, the area behind the ears.
Even if not a single adult was found, this does not mean that lice are definitely absent. Most often on the hair are nits, which are difficult to see because of their size and color.
To find the nits, you should carefully examine the root zone of the hair: just above the base of the egg are attached with glue-like substance. They have a whitish-milky shade and are firmly attached to the rod: just blow away or brush away such masonry will not work. To soften the substance and remove the eggs, you should use special agents against lice and nits.
Get rid of parasites quickly
The most famous and radical way of getting rid of nits in 1 day is a haircut bald. Of course, such a method is suitable only for boys or will be relevant in tuberculosis: shaving the intimate area is much easier than treating the hair with special means.
For this procedure, you should spread the polyethylene on the floor and drop the cut there. At the end, everything collapses into a tight knot and is disposed of. It is recommended to boil clothes and used towels and treat the machine with alcohol or vinegar.
Pediculicidal shampoos for children
The most popular means can be considered shampoos against pediculosis. How to get rid of nits with the help of such compositions is written in the instructions. The most common brands are:
- Nok Based on permethrin. The recommended exposure time is 30 minutes. Suitable for kids from two years.
- Pedilin on the basis of malathion. Apply to hair for 10 minutes. Contraindicated in children under two years.
- Hygia based on permethrin. Apply to wet strands for 20 minutes. Approved for use from 5 years of age.
- Paranit. Does not contain potent synthetic substances, developed on the basis of oils. Processing takes 10 minutes. Allowed with three years.
- Veda-2. Inexpensive remedy with a softening effect. Apply for 10 minutes. Acceptable use from 5 years.
- Tar shampoo. Natural shampoo with a base of birch tar. Dries the skin, fights dandruff. Not bad copes with the destruction of lice, but ineffective against nits.
- Nyx Packaging includes anti-lice cream and a comb for the subsequent brushing of dead nits from the hair. Approved for use from six months of age.
- Nit free Natural oil-based shampoo. Use in children older than one year and pregnant women is acceptable.
- Sumitrin. Highly effective on the basis of potent phenotrin. Application time 10 minutes. Allowed from two years.
All these tools have almost the same instruction. Usually, the shampoo is applied for a certain time to wet hair, then a plastic bag or shower cap is put on the head. After a sustained period, the product is thoroughly washed with warm water, and the hair is washed with ordinary shampoo. To completely get rid of parasites, it is not enough just this procedure: it is necessary to thoroughly comb the nits. If this is not done, then in the next 6-7 days new mature individuals will appear from the eggs. In order to prevent possible repeated use of pediculicidal agents.
Kerosene to help
Kerosene has long been considered an effective method of combating not only lice, nor nits. Its action is based on the ability to poison the parasites, penetrating through the quinine shell and blocking the flow of oxygen. And although nits are more resistant to various chemicals, in sufficient concentrations, kerosene can destroy them.
The danger of this substance is its high toxicity. Kerosene is a product of oil refining, it can cause severe skin burns and also penetrate deep into tissues. Its impact on the health of children is especially detrimental.
To get rid of lice and nits use different concentrations of the substance and methods of application. First, it is recommended to destroy adult individuals, and only then proceed to fight the eggs of parasites.
Scheme against lice:
- Mix one tablespoon of kerosene with two tablespoons of sunflower or olive oil, and then pour the mixture into 30 ml of shampoo,
- Apply the resulting composition to the hair at the base (special attention is paid to the back of the head and temporal areas) and wrap the head with polyethylene and a warm towel for a bath effect,
- Leave on for 30-40 minutes. It is necessary to strictly withstand time: a longer exposure can cause burns and poisoning,
- Then rinse the hair in two stages.First, a solution of water with 9% vinegar (two teaspoons per liter of water), and then warm running water.
After that, apply the composition for the destruction of nits. This will require frequent combing and a small piece of cotton wool.
Scheme against nits:
- Mix two tablespoons of oil with a teaspoon of kerosene,
- Saturate a small piece of cotton or bandage with the mixture,
- Attach the fleece to the base of the frequent comb. If there is no cotton or bandage at home, you can simply periodically moisten the comb,
- Apply the mixture onto the hair with a brushing motion.
- Leave for 20 minutes
- Rinse your hair with a solution of water and lemon (squeeze one medium lemon per liter of water). This procedure helps to soften the adhesive substance, which keeps the nits,
- Comb out all hair with a frequent comb to get rid of dead nits.
In order to prevent recurrence, it is recommended to carry out a prophylactic procedure after 3 days.
- Combine a dessert spoon of kerosene with a mixture of water and honey, taken in equal proportions (three tablespoons),
- Apply to dry hair and leave for half an hour,
- Rinse thoroughly under running water.
If there is a risk of re-infection, it is recommended to apply a special mask. To do this, mix three small spoons of kerosene with three tablespoons of badger fat and 200 ml of milk. The mixture is left for 15 minutes, and then washed off with water. The mask can be prepared in advance and stored in the refrigerator.
We fix the result
In order to get rid of parasites, it is necessary not only to treat hair with special means, but also to comb the remaining nits.
Nits have extraordinary vitality due to the thick walls of the cocoon, which is firmly attached to the hairline. Not all pharmaceuticals can kill eggs: many drugs only temporarily paralyze their development.
It is recommended to clean the hair with special combs for 10 days in order to prevent re-breeding of blood suckers: the development of eggs takes about 6 days. Such an interval will not allow the hatched larvae to reach adulthood for further reproduction.
Brushing should be done carefully, especially in a child or women with long hair. To do this, under the headache infected underlay newspapers or sheets, and shoulders covered with a cloth. Cleaning is carried out in small strands, leading the comb from the roots to the end of the hairs. You can visually see the whole process on video. Remaining on the teeth of nits gently removed with a towel or cloth and dumped on the spreading newspapers. After the procedure, all tools are processed with alcohol or vodka, and the towel and sheet are washed and boiled. Removed eggs and dead lice are folded into newspapers and disposed of.
To protect against the reproduction of bloodsuckers, it is recommended to perform this procedure twice a day. Particular attention should be paid to the back of the head and temples: it is there that most often lice lay eggs. It should be remembered that all folk remedies and pharmaceutical shampoos are aimed at stopping the reproduction of parasites: the main treatment is the thorough removal of the remaining nits.
Processing of personal items
Usually head lice do not live on bedding or on clothing. However, individual insects or nits can remain on personal items, which, once in the hair, will again breed. For sure to get rid of parasites, you need to soak the clothes of the patient in a strong insecticide, and wash the bedding at a temperature above 70ºС.
Personal items — combs, hairpins, rubber bands — can be boiled in hot water. Furniture and pillows should be heated with hot steam or exposed to frost. At low temperatures, insects quickly die.
In addition, you need to strengthen personal hygiene: take a shower every day and wash your hair with shampoo.
Table «factors lice»
Violation of the sterility of the tools in the barber shop is another way of infection with both nits and lice
At the beginning of the infection, the number of parasites is small, they do not greatly disturb the carrier. Symptoms become noticeable at the stage of the emergence of eggs and the release of larvae from them.
To parasites out, you only need to drink on an empty stomach.
Recognize pediculosis can be on the following grounds:
- the appearance of constant itching with washed hair and clean head,
- identifying white spots on the hair, which, unlike dandruff, are not brushed off from them,
- the appearance of strong flaking behind the ears, in the temporal and occipital parts of the head,
- swollen lymph nodes
- poor sleep, nervousness, irritability.
When nits begin to itch your head
If there are at least a few suspicious hairs should be examined. The earlier harmful insects are identified, the easier it will be to cope with the problem.
Depending on the location of the parasite’s localization, there are several types of egg:
- head lice nits are the most common form of blood-sucking parasites (eggs are attached to the hair on the head),
- pubic bloodsuckers — are located exclusively on the hair of the genitals, in the groin and in the armpits,
- wardrobe — eggs of lice, like the insects of this species, live exclusively in the folds of clothing (under collars, in pockets, cuffs, on a lining, cuffs).
Ware parasites live only in the folds of clothes
What do the nits look like?
Nits are small louse eggs that are protected by a high-strength adhesive coat. Usually they are transparent white, attached to each hair in one piece. The distance from the skin is 2–3 cm. In large quantities they look like dandruff, but if you try to shake them off, then nothing happens — the nits sit firmly on the hair, which distinguishes them from ordinary skin scales.
The sizes of nits are quite small. Head and ward parasites barely reach 0.6–0.7 mm in length and almost 0.3 mm in diameter. Eggs of pubic lice are even smaller — their length does not reach 0.6 mm.
The photo shows a nit under a microscope. This is a small round capsule. The lower part has a belt that tightly wraps around the hair. At the top of the egg you can see a small bulge (cap), which the larva eject when hatching.
Nits have tiny sizes
In normal inspection, it is impossible to understand whether the shell is full or empty. Dry nits do not change their original appearance and after the release of the larvae continue to attach to the hair. If pediculosis is not treated for a long time, there are more empty membranes, which makes the hair look very painful and frightening.
It is possible to get rid of lice and nits in a short time using pharmaceutical preparations and cosmetic preparations:
- Spray «Pair plus». The affected areas are treated with neurotoxic substance for 10 minutes, then washed off with water, and lice and nits combed with a special comb with frequent teeth. The tool helps to get rid of parasites in 1 day.
- Solution «Chemerichnaya water.» An antibacterial and anti-inflammatory substance that has a detrimental effect on the digestion of blood-sucking parasites.
- Preparations with hydrogen peroxide (peroxides). Usually contained in hair dye. Helps to remove the parasite for 1 time. They are the best means in the fight against nits. After treatment, hair combing is required.
Chemerichnaya water — effective antibacterial agent
Any parasites can be expelled at home. Just do not forget to drink once a day.
The main objective of such drugs is to neutralize mature individuals. Chemicals practically do not act on nits, but can neutralize glue with which help they fasten on hair. This makes it easier to manually remove the eggs.
Vinegar and Vodka
Mix 50 ml of vinegar, previously diluted with water (1: 1), with 50 ml of vodka. Using a cotton or gauze disc, rub the prepared solution into the hair.Wrap your head in plastic and wait 40-50 minutes. Rinse hair, comb, carefully looking through each strand. This method depresses the respiratory system of lice, and also weakens the attachment of nits, which allows you to get rid of them without much effort.
Vinegar with vodka detrimental effect on lice
Dilute 1 glass of toxic substance in 0.5 l of water. Liquid wipe hair, wrap film. After 1–1.5 hours to wash the head and remove the dead parasites and eggs with a comb.
Kerosene quickly kills nits and lice
Treat your hair with freshly pressed nectar and put on a plastic cap. Means within 30–50 minutes corrodes the shell of nits and neutralizes the action of the adhesive substance.
Cranberry juice helps to get rid of parasites in the hair
Sunflower, olive, corn, almond oil is suitable for processing the head. It is used not only to slip the lice through the hair, which makes combing them more efficient, but also clogs the airways of the parasites. Hair should be treated with oil and kept under the film for at least 2 hours.
Vegetable oil affects the respiratory system of parasites
Esters of useful plants
The lice and nits vital activity of the extracts of cloves, lavender, geranium, sage, plantain, calendula well depresses. Ether must be rubbed not only into the hair, but also into the scalp. Then put a bag or film for 1.5-2 hours, after which everything is washed off with shampoo.
Essential oils effectively destroy nits
An integral part of the treatment of pediculosis is a special comb. With it you can comb out not only paralyzed or dead lice, but also remove the nits.
The device has specific notches, comfortable shape and long teeth. This allows hair to pass unhindered through the teeth, while the parasites remain on the comb.
How to use the comb:
- hair treated with special products to comb,
- tilt your head over a white towel or bath and comb the curls with a comb to one side,
- to separate one strand and 2-3 times to pass it with a comb, clearing it for each manipulation.
The appearance of nits on the scalp suggests lice infestation. Pediculosis affects not only children, but also adults. The disease responds well to treatment if it is detected in time. It is important to be attentive to yourself and your children, observe hygiene and begin therapy at the first symptoms of infection.
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