Getting Rid of Fleas in an Apartment, ThriftyFun
Getting Rid of Fleas in an Apartment
- 1 Getting Rid of Fleas in an Apartment
- 1.1 Questions
- 1.2 Question: Getting Rid of Fleas in an Apartment
- 1.3 Answers
- 1.4 Question: Getting Rid of Fleas
- 1.5 Answers
- 1.6 Question: Fleas in New Apartment
- 1.7 Answers
- 1.8 Question: Fleas In An Apartment
- 1.9 Answers
- 1.10 Question: Getting Rid of Fleas in a Flat
- 1.11 Answers
- 1.12 Archives
- 1.13 Archive: Fleas In An Apartment
- 2 Answers:
- 3 Answers:
- 4 Homemade Lemon Spray for Flea Control
- 5 The Dirt on Fleas
- 6 Checking for Fleas
- 7 «>Cultural Controls
- 8 Making Lemon Spray
- 9 «>Treating Your Pet
- 10 «>Treating Your Home
- 11 «>Keeping Fleas Away
Ask a Question Here are the questions asked by community members. Read on to see the answers provided by the ThriftyFun community or ask a new question.
Question: Getting Rid of Fleas in an Apartment
I live in an 2 bedroom, 1 bath apartment. I foster animals with a rescue and have never had any issues until my most recent lot of kittens. I currently have 7 foster kittens, 1 foster puppy, and my personal dog.
I have removed all of the animals and taped off my private unit and used 3 foggers, one in each bedroom and one in the living room. I have washed all of the bedding in my apartment along with buying a spray for my carpet, couch, beds, everything. I vacuum and flea comb all of the animals every morning and night. But when I comb the kittens I still get some fleas off of them.
I am giving them all meds today to kill anything on them, but I don’t want to waste it if they are going to just jump right back on them. I have never dealt with this before and apparently I am not doing too great. What else can I do? I need them gone; I’m losing my mind. Do I contact the apartment office about it? Will they fix it? What else can I do? I don’t want to keep wasting my money, but I want them gone!
Sprinkle salt or borax on carpets and vacuum. Empty bag outside. Vacuum vigilantly. Put anything that can be put in the dryer for 20 minutes to kill the fleas.
Is the medicine from the vet? If so, I would try that and see if it works.
Also ask the vet to be sure you are using the best home products.
If you think someone else in your building is also infested and that is why you can’t seem to get ahead of the issue, then, yes, tell the landlord. They may need to do a building wide deep cleaning/treatment.
Post back with an update on this. Prayers!
You can contact the Human Society to see if there is any help for your issue sense you are fostering animals.
I would definitely contact the landlord first and see if they would be able to assist you. If you do end up having to cover the cost yourself, then I would say rather than spending any money on any other online home remedies or suggestions, just spend the money right off the bat to have a professional come out. Trust me on this, you will end up spending less money in the long run and it will be a lot less stress on you and your pets as well. The thing is, you can get rid of the fleas on your pets but how do you know that the fleas are gone from your home? And, maybe you think they are all gone but there can be eggs. I know this from experience, and unfortunately I also found out from my experience that I am allergic to flea bites so it was not very fun for weeks and months on end. I scoured forums online talked to many people and tried everything from borax to flea bombs to treatments on our pets, but it wasn’t until months later when we had tried every single thing under the sun that we realized we had to hire a professional.
It is a lot of repetition with fleas. Cleaning, vacuuming, washing, re-applying flea spray, and so forth.
For me, I made traps with dish detergent and water but I don’t own any pets. The fleas hatched from previous owners. Eventually they went away on its own. You’ll be free of fleas hopefully within 3 months, but that was given I had no pets for fleas to lay more eggs.
First; Check your lease before you go to your landlord!
Does your landlord know that you are fostering these animals?
Does your lease allow for animals or do you pay a fee for each animal (many people do).
Please check this out or you may have to move or give up the animals.
I hope the flea meds work for you and these babies.
You seem like a very caring person so stay calm and think about the best method to try next.
I always recommend giving baths with blue Dawn as this is safe for all animals but maybe a couple of days in a row and then only twice a week. They also might flourish from a few drops of olive oil in their food to keep their skin healthy.
I use diatomaceous earth (DE) (FOOD GRADE ONLY) for any kind of bug problem because it is safe for animals and humans. This can be usually be purchased at Home Depot, Lowe’s, Garden Center stores, Farm Supply stores and online. Google where to buy food grade diatomaceous earth with your zip code).
Please read about it so you will know how to use it — much easier to use than salt or Borax (but both are good and safe to use if handled properly) — just be slow in dispensing and try not to breath very much of the dust. Wearing a mask is recommended. 2-4 pounds will last a very long time.
Read about DE so you’ll understand how it works;
Information about Borax;
Question: Getting Rid of Fleas
I live in an apartment and on a fixed income. My dog is severly allergic to fleas. What is the cheapest way to get rid of fleas in my home and on my 60 pound dog?
This link is one that has all the best solutions in one place. Do not do the yeast one though. that can cause major problems.
I use dawn as a bath, and sometimes if the fleas are really bad, I will use a mixture of baby shampoo and peroxide on wet fur and then let sit and then rinse off. I only let it sit a couple of minutes.
Find a food at a feed supply store, or at the grocery, which has no corn, soy, or wheat in it. I like diamond lamb and rice. Or Lamb Meal and Rice. This helps the animal not to be so attractive to fleas.
Sometimes what looks like fleas is really a yeast infection. Improving the food the dog eats is an important first step. Unhealthy dogs attract parasites of all kinds.
It has great ideas, just don’t give your dog yeast tablets.
I use Blue Dawn. It works great. Is gentle on my girls, two poodles, kills fleas on contact and is affordable. It has to be Blue Dawn. Be sure to start with your dogs neck to keep a barrier so the fleas don’t run and hide in the ears and nose. Once there is a barrier around the neck the fleas are history.
Question: Fleas in New Apartment
I just moved to my apartment. I have a cat that has never been outside and the apartment has fleas now. My neighbors say that previous tenants did not have pets. A stray cat stuck her nose into our home briefly for food and not long enough to be the one carrying a host. I have alerted the management and they are contacting the company they use however I will have to pay 75 dollars.
First question is should I be responsible? Secondly, my brother and his wife are stopping by to get me for dinner and want to come in and see my place. Should I postpone until this place is treated or since they will not be here but 10 min or less is it OK?
Please help. Thank you so very much.
This is complicated. So first, cancel your visit. I would not invite anyone in until the situation has been resolved. Safety first!
Second, even if the previous owners did not have a pet, is it possible they could inflitrated into your place from another apartment (if there are shared vents and others have pets that could be carriers).
Technically fleas can live for several months without a host, so it is possible they came in through a vent and came out when you and your cat moved in.
Who should pay? That could become a he said/she said if you have a cat with them saying your cat brought them in and you saying your cat never had fleas.
if you have vet bills showing your cat was healthy and never had fleas before, you could try to make a case that they were there when you moved in and your cat caught them there. Then you could ask them to pay the full amount since you should not have moved into a place that had an infestation.
If you can’t show your cat was previously flea less (not everyone keeps all their paperwork, I get that), you may want to ask them if they will split the different with you, just for a good faith gesture. I doubt the visiting cat could have brought in fleas that fast, but you never know and if someone saw that happen they could say that was the carrier and it was your fault for letting it in.
Just my 2 cents worth. Good luck! Post back what happens.
I would not have people come in to a flea-infested place. I dont think you have to pay. Landlords have to pay for that.
Thank you for taking time to answer. I am not letting anyone inside! I will have my cat at Vet 7am tomorrow all day. It is interesting as my cat Louie was acting weird suddenly here and licking and when I came home he was in the tub like he wanted to wash himself. I took the hint and got an ole washcloth and soaked it in hot water and rubbed his body and the relief on him. Oh me. This was AFTER he was treated by vet.
Oh no. Your landlord should take care of that immediately. They are not part of your plan!
as far as canceling the visit, it is not as dire as if it were bedbugs or even cockroaches — I don’t see the fleas (unless it’s a fierce infestation) would affect them overmuch unless they bring their pet. But it may be good to tell them and let them make up their minds. Some ppl might not care and want to come anyway, others might feel icky and want to postpone
as far as the landlord, since the neighbor testimonial is that the previous tenants did not have pets, you may have trouble making a case for yourself unless you choose to spend money on a lawyer and that would probably cost more than $75
find out if some other neighbor in a neighboring unit had pets. Most likely they were just waiting around and saw your cat and came in for the kill. If you can demonstrate some other unit had fleas and they came to infect yourse, you may have a case
Question: Fleas In An Apartment
What can I do myself to kill fleas or mites in my apartment?
We have 5 cats right now and a whole lot of fleas in our house. I’m going to be giving my cats baths all week and pick up that spot on flea treatment from the vets when I get paid on August 1st, but I need remedies for getting rid of them in my apartment. All 5 cats are indoor/outdoor cats.
I have a 14 month old son and our floors are linoleum. We have 2 couches. I gave the cats a bath last night and now I am going to give them one every night from now on and comb them out until i can get to the vets next week. Our orange tiger cat has tons of fleas, then we have 2 pure black cats, one black calico cat, and one dark grey cat.
Any advice would be great. The fleas are driving me nuts!
Set a light on the floor; it must have a regular bulb that produces heat. Fleas are attracted to the heat. In front of the light place a white or light colored shallow container—even an old dinner plate will work. In this container put a mixture of water and dish soap. The fleas are attracted by the heat and the light color of the container. While fleas are strong enough to break the surface tension of water, they cannot break the surface tension of the soapy water. It doesn’t take much soap, but it needs to be mixed into the water. Suds on top is too much soap. Empty daily until there are no more fleas. I used this when fleas came in from the condo next door and it worked quite well.
get Moth Flakes and place them in the couch in the closet and on the floor in corners. If you have rugs crush them into the rug for 1 day then vacumn. another way is get flea dip mix it into your mop bucket water wash your floors down with the dip . let it dry. No fleas.
several ways to get rid of fleas. My late husband was a vet and we used these tricks in our own home. #1. If you have non carpeted area get some flea dip friendly to your pets Dilute about 2 capfulsl in a bucket of water and wash the floors with the dip. Let it dry do not rinse. #2 if you have rugs get a flea shampoo and mix it into the water of your rug shampooer. and shampoo the rugs. vaccum and remove the eggs and the larve. repeat this after 14 weeks. #3 If you use foggers. you have to spray under the all furniture to treat then fog.
Save all your receipts and sue the landlord for not providing you with a clean apartment. Please note One pregnant flea lays 500 eggs. The eggs hatch in 14 days after you treat.so repeat everything in 14 days whether you see fleas or not. As for me I’m lazy. I shampoo my pets with a name brand flea shampoo ( no Hearts or Sergents) Adams , Vet Kem are great.When you lather you make sure you do the ears and the private areas first Fleas will hide run and hide there.. leave the shampoo on for 10 mins rinse rewash leave on for 10 mins rinse and last wash leave on for 10 mins and rinse you should not see fleas on the 3rd rinse. dry off the pet and take him/her out for 4 hours while you fog come back in 2 hours after you set off the bomb and air out the place for 2 hours. Vaccumn in 2 days remember in 14 days repeat it. If you see white thing in there stool, those are tape worm segment from the flea.. no problem just worm the pets. the dead worms will be digested.
Question: Getting Rid of Fleas in a Flat
There’s been a flea infestation for many months. We’ve got 3 flats. Pros have done flea bombs and spray of some type. The 2 empty flats were successful, but the one I’m living in wasn’t. I’m so stressed because they’re in my towels and clothes. My house is spotless, as well. It is very disturbing. I tried Staykill twice, to no avail. Please advise me. Thank you.
Try a different product. Do it once and again 3 weeks later.
One thing that fleas do not like is eucalyptus. You could use the essential oil in a diffuser, or even place sachets throughout your dwelling. I find that the smell of eucalyptus is a lot more pleasant than dealing with fleas, but that is my own personal preference. They also do not like black walnut leaves. When other products did not work, my mom would find someone with a black walnut tree and get some leaves, placing them in strategic locations throughout(like under couch/sofa cushions, in cupboards etc.) We never had flea trouble as long as we used these methods and they are a lot less toxic than sprays and bombs.
Getting rid of fleas.
Do you have a pet? If so wash everything they lay on or put in a hot dryer to kill eggs and fleas.
Treat the dog with advantage or whatever the vet recommends.
Sprinkle salt,or borax on carpets and vacuum everywhere you can.
Put your vacuum bag in a tied bag outside.
Keep humidity in room under 50 % for two days this will kill fleas.Get a dehumidifier or borrow one.
Vacuum daily.Put your towels and clothes in a dryer for 20 minutes to kill fleas and eggs.
Boil some lemons in water put in spray bottle when it cools.
Spray around the house.
Use 1/4 cup distilled vinegar to 3/4 cups water mix in a spray bottle.Spray all your fabrics this will get rid of them.
ThriftyFun is one of the longest running frugal living communities on the Internet. These are archives of older discussions.
Archive: Fleas In An Apartment
If I use flea bombs to kill the fleas in my apartment will the fleas migrate over to the other apartments in my housing unit?
By Sherry from Danielson, CT
Fleas In An Apartment
Call your landlord and tell him/her of the problem and ask them to hire someone to get rid of them. (09/17/2010)
Archive: Fleas In An Apartment
I just moved to an apartment that is completely infested with fleas. I originally had asked the landlord to flea bomb as a precaution before I moved in. I knew the previous tenants had a dog. I myself have no pets.
She did, but I went into the the apartment the day after the bomb and I got attacked by hundreds of them all over my pants, inside my pants, on my back, in my hair, and on my face. It was a nightmare.
I’d already signed a lease and given my deposit before I knew of the problem. Yet still I had hope that more flea bombs would help. When I came back again I only got 2 or 3 on me. I figured that was normal. But I am still seeing them crawl out of my pant legs and jump on me. We have flea bombed 7 times, changed all the old carpets, and laid tiles. We had the whole house exterminated yet nothing works.
After each fogging they are still happily jumping around biting us all over. Its driving me insane. The exterminator is coming back sometime this week and I’m renting a steam cleaner. I’m beside myself because nothing is working. I’ve even vigorously salted all the rugs and furniture, after vacuuming for hours. They are biting me and my children from head to toe. We catch 5-6 of them daily with masking tape while they’re biting us. Please help.
Fleas In An Apartment
Most bombs of the market (especially the ones you buy in the store and not from a vet) kill only living adult fleas, and not their eggs or young. You’ll need to re-bomb or spray with a high quality product from the vet. Be sure to put you dishes, open foods, and toothbrushes in the fridge or in oven to keep the chemicals off them! You apartment manager should pay for you to buy these products.
Do yourself a favor, spend an hour reading up on killing fleas here on ThriftyFun and on the internet, it will be well worth your time! You need to bomb a certain amount of time between each time to kill the just-hatched eggs, (I think it’s 10 days) unless you buy a products that «also» kills the eggs and young. If you vacuum first, the vibration helps to hatch the young fleas so they can be killed. Believe me, I know about fleas, because both my son and myself are allergic to them. There are many good posts about ridding a home of fleas here on ThriftyFun.
Start your reading here:
«Ask the Vet» from the Division of Humane Services:
The university of Kentucky college of entomology at the URL below:
You know about salt, Try adding borax. This is an additional option:
Mix equal parts of: baking soda, borax, and salt. Mix together well, then put in a shaker container (like for Parmesan cheese). Sprinkle this mixture everywhere, all over your carpets and wood floors and furniture. Next sweep it into the rug, wood floor cracks, and upholstery as deeply as you can. Leave this on the floors and carpets for 2 or 3 weeks, then vacuum it up (with a flea collar inside your vacuum). Then do the same thing again.
You’ll have to do this 2 times for sure and possibly 3 times. This formula works because the borax and salts dehydrate the fleas and their shells, which kills them. It’s not the best thing for carpets because the salts are slightly abrasive and can make the carpets wear out faster. If you live in a very humid area like Florida and don’t have air conditioning, then the salt can attract and absorb moisture from the air, so if you live in a humid climate without air-conditioning just use the borax all by itself. It’s not nearly as effective, but it’s an option. Don’t worry if you have air-conditioning because it gets rid of excess humidity.
They sell this very same formula at most vets, but you’ll have to pay a pretty penny for it. The salt and baking soda are usually sold 2 or 3 for $1 at most dollar stores. The borax can be hard to find. They don’t sell it at my Walmart, but I’ve found it at several grocery stores in the laundry aisle. (It’s called: 20 mule Team Borax and it’s sold as a laundry additive.)
If you have a pet, you’ll need to buy those flea drops you put on the back of the pet’s neck like «Advantage» or «Revolution». (10/22/2009)
Fleas In An Apartment
Diatomaceous earth (horticultural or food grade/not swimming pool filter grade). I’d highly recommend getting some, and using it generously on all carpeting and upholstered furniture in the house. You can even rub it on your pets safely. I used only about 1/2 pound to treat a mama cat, her 3 kittens, an upholstered chair and ottoman, and the floor and baseboards in my house.
It’s a white powder, fine, much like flour or confectioner’s sugar. It is completely non-toxic. I made a shaker can to distribute mine; drilled holes in the top of a Pringles can, filled the can halfway, went to town.
Fleas In An Apartment
I forgot something. You may have picked up some on your clothes which you took away with you. Make sure any clothes you wore are also treated (10/22/2009)
Fleas In An Apartment
Call the health dept maybe they can help and you may get your money back, move to another place. Good luck. (10/23/2009)
Fleas In An Apartment
This has worked for years for me. Mop your floors with Pine-Sol water. For a bad flea problem I mix a cup of Pine-Sol to a gallon of water. Don’t buy the knock-off pine cleaner. I sprayed my furniture with a solution (weaker) in a spray bottle. (10/26/2009)
Fleas In An Apartment
I just recently was in the same situation where the people before had an indoor outdoor pet and I too became infested along with my eight year old indoor only cat who has never, ever had fleas before. My landlord hired a professional pest control company to come in and spray and have only seen a couple renegade fleas just after that because it sometimes takes a few days for all the critters to die. The company said they will come back and spray again if I see any more.
It is definitely your landlord’s responsibility so you need to be firm and tell her that you are demanding a professional pest control company be hired. You shouldn’t have to go through all this turmoil and I hope you are not the one paying for the additional flea bombs! Anyway, be sure to do this in writing with an explanation included just like what you wrote here (keep a copy for yourself) and postal mail it certified and return receipt requested. If she does not hire a professional within a couple of days after she receives the letter then call your local health department.
Keep a copy of that letter and the mailing receipts in a «safe place» just in case you need to move because of the flea infestation. You may have a lovely landlord who takes care of it, but if you don’t that letter will protect you if you have to break the lease and be able to get your security deposit back. (10/26/2009)
Fleas In An Apartment
20 Mule Team Borax is sold in the laundry section of most grocery stores. I have used this several times for fleas. Sprinkle it on your floors, leave it overnight, vac it up, then repeat the process in a few days. Be sure to throw away the filter bag after each use. Good luck. (10/26/2009)
Fleas In An Apartment
Steam. It kills not only fleas, but any other crawling critter you may have, destroys the bacteria in their feces, their eggs, mites and their droppings, and human borne bacteria as well. And you can apply it to any surface, hardwood, carpets, mattresses, etc. Anything you can wash like drapes, clothing, etc. wash in very hot water. No need for chemicals kiddo, just steam. (12/12/2009)
Homemade Lemon Spray for Flea Control
Homemade Lemon Spray for Flea Control
Fleas are bloodsucking disease carriers that you definitely don’t want in your home. If they turn up, though, you have to act quickly to get rid of them, or they can make life miserable for you and your pet. Unfortunately, many of the sprays and bug bombs that are available to combat fleas are made with toxic chemicals and aren’t that effective in any case. If your home and pet have fallen victim to fleas, there are safer, more natural solutions to the problem, like using a spray repellent that you can make from water and fresh lemons (Citrus limon, USDA zones 9 through 11) and removing conditions that are favorable to flea habitation.
The Dirt on Fleas
Of the 2,000 species of fleas that have been described, the one most likely to parasitize domestic cats and dogs is the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). These fleas can enter your yard via infested neighborhood pets and wild animals, such as raccoons and squirrels, which carry adult fleas and their larvae and eggs. The eggs don’t stick to surfaces so they randomly fall off host animals in your yard. After the eggs hatch and the insects go through the larval and pupal stages, they emerge as adults that hop on birds and mammals, like you and your dog. When you go back inside, fleas jump from host to host or take up residence in carpeting and pet bedding. This means that even if you don’t let your cat go outside, she could end up infested too, which further complicates your flea-control mission.
Checking for Fleas
On your pet: Observe your pet for scratching behavior and use a special fine-toothed flea comb on her regularly to monitor for fleas. Check the comb as you go and pull off any fleas that get stuck between the teeth, dropping them into a cup of water containing a few drops of dish liquid.
In your yard or home: Put on long, white socks and walk around in areas where fleas may linger, such as near shrubs and in leafy, shady areas under trees if you’re outside, or in carpeting and pet bedding if you’re inside. If flea pupae or adult fleas are present, the pupae will emerge as adults from their cocoons in response to increased carbon dioxide in your vicinity and vibrations caused by your movement, and both will jump on your socks, where they’ll be visible against the white background.
If your yard inspection turns up fleas – and even if it doesn’t – consider fencing your yard with a solid wood or masonry fence to discourage wild animals from entering. A fence can’t keep some flea-infested animals, such as squirrels, out of your yard, but it may help to deter others. If you already have a fence, seal any holes in or under it and plug any vents or other openings into your house. If tree branches are hanging over into your yard, ask your neighbor to cut them back or get permission to do it yourself. Then tidy up the area and make it as inhospitable for fleas as you can. Sweep and mop your porch, cut the grass to the shortest recommended height for the species you have, remove weeds, prune trees and shrubs to allow more sun in, and remove clutter, as fleas often inhabit piles of leaves, wood and other organic debris. To repel fleas, scatter cedar chips around the perimeter of your yard, under the porch and in areas where your yard inspection turned up fleas. Also consider planting pennyroyal (Piloblephis rigida, USDA zones 9 through 10), which is a member of the mint family that also repels fleas.
If you find fleas or evidence of fleas in your home, vacuum baseboards, carpeting, rugs, upholstery, and underneath beds and couches thoroughly and regularly; launder your pet’s bedding at least once a week in hot, soapy water and dry it in a hot dryer. According to an article published by Cornell University Insect Diagnostic Laboratory, «keeping your home clean may be more important [to controlling fleas] than keeping your pet clean.»
Making Lemon Spray
Although it’s not really known whether homemade lemon spray is effective against fleas, an article in the Canine Journal states that it «is claimed to be another natural flea repellent» when sprayed on your dog and in indoor areas frequented by fleas. If you want to give it a try, quarter or thinly slice one to three lemons and add them to a pot with 12 ounces of water. Cover the pot and bring the water to a boil. Then lower the heat and let simmer for about 30 minutes. Take the pot off the stove and let the lemons steep overnight or for about eight hours. Remove the lemons and pour the lemon water into a clean spray bottle. Store the lemon solution in the refrigerator for up to three days.
«>Treating Your Pet
Because the ASPCA says that lemons contain certain compounds that are toxic to dogs, cats and horses if ingested or may cause photosensitivity if applied to their skin, talk to your vet before you treat your pet with homemade lemon spray to find out if it’s OK to use. Keep in mind that some animals may be also be sensitive to the spray in areas that they’ve recently been scratching.
Start with a clean, dry pet and, with your vet’s approval, spray the lemon solution lightly on her coat, primarily in the areas where you’ve noticed scratching activity. Avoid spraying your pet’s eyes, ears, nose, genitals and between her toes and don’t saturate your pet’s coat, as the spray may be irritating if applied liberally. Comb or brush your pet’s coat to better distribute the solution.
Pay attention to your pet’s behavior and observe whether the lemon spray seems to be working or if it’s causing irritation. If she’s OK and the fleas seem to have subsided, consult your vet to determine whether you should continue the treatment.
«>Treating Your Home
To treat your home, clean and vacuum thoroughly, and lightly spray the solution on rugs and carpeting, on and under furniture, on pet bedding and along baseboards. Place the vacuum cleaner bag or the contents of the vacuum in a plastic garbage bag; then seal it and dispose of it immediately.
«>Keeping Fleas Away
Don’t relax once your pet stops scratching. Flea eggs can be viable for weeks or even months, so be proactive. Check your home, yard and pet regularly for fleas and repeat the whole cleaning-and-spraying cycle until you’re sure they’re gone.
The California Childcare Health Program suggests the following as a last resort:
If fleas persist on your pet in spite of your best efforts, talk to your vet about possibly using a commercial spot-treatment product. When using any pesticide, carefully read and follow all instructions on the product label.
Contract with a pest-control company for treatment of your home with an insect growth regulator to disrupt the flea-development cycle, rather than allowing the use of permethrin or other pyrethroids.