Field Lab

Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle control in oilseed rape

Investigating defoliation as a control for cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB) larval populations in oilseed rape.

This field lab will assess the impact of defoliating oilseed rape (OSR) during the winter on cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB) larval populations and yield at harvest on-farm.

Defoliation of OSR will be tested with a variety of methods chosen by the triallists, e.g. using a topper, roller, mower or livestock grazing. Plants will then be sampled and each treatment assessed for larval content.

This methodology is based on earlier trials by ADAS that found that using a mower to defoliate an OSR crop in the winter resulted in significant reductions in CSFB larval populations (31-55% reduction compared to the undefoliated plots depending upon the timing of defoliation). Yield at harvest was also found to be higher in plots defoliated in December or January than in undefoliated plots. Results also showed that very few CSFB larvae were able to re-invade OSR plants from plant debris following defoliation, suggesting that defoliating OSR crops during the winter will significantly reduce larval populations and damage, and increase yields.

www.innovativefarmers.org

Entomology Today

Brought to you by the Entomological Society of America

Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle: New Guide Offers Pest Management Tips for Organic Growers

The yellowmargined leaf beetle (Microtheca ochroloma)—adult females (left) and males (right) shown in dorsal (A) and lateral (B) views above—is a major pest of crucifer vegetables. A new profile in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management offers a guide for growers in managing the pest. (Photo credit: Rammohan R. Balusu, Ph.D.)

In recent years, the demand for organic foods by the consuming public has exploded. Organic food sales surpassed $35 billion in the United States in 2014, up from an estimated $12 billion in 2005, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

While humans are falling in love with organic food more and more, insects are also quite fond of it. Insecticide restrictions on organic crops mean the insects have an easier chance to grab a free meal without getting killed in the process. One insect causing a considerable amount of damage to organic crops in the southeastern United States is the yellowmargined leaf beetle (Microtheca ochroloma).

The beetle is usually susceptible to synthetic insecticides, but, in the absence of those insecticides in organic systems, the beetle has become one of the major pests of organic cruciferous vegetable crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, collard, and radish. A new profile of M. ochroloma in the open-access Journal of Integrated Pest Management (JIPM) offers growers a useful guide for understanding how to manage the pest.

Past research has shown that the yellowmargined leaf beetle prefers some crucifers over others; a behavior that can be used to manage the beetle via a method known as trap cropping. Trap cropping involves planting a border of crops that the beetle is most attracted to—turnips and Napa cabbage—around a main crop like cabbage or mustard. By doing this, growers can reduce the beetle’s impact on the main crop. They can then apply organically approved insecticides on the trap crop to reduce or eliminate the use of insecticides on the main crop, says Rammohan R. Balusu, Ph.D., a research fellow in the Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology at Auburn University and lead author of the JIPM article.

“Although the use of trap crops for M. ochroloma management is gaining popularity through extension publications and hands-on training, it is still currently an underutilized tactic,” Balusu says. “Our research showed that farmers that adopt the integrated trap crop-biopesticide strategy will likely make on average $232 per acre more than those using the growers’ standard practice.”

Yellowmargined leaf beetle adults and larvae feed voraciously on crucifers, causing severe defoliation such as in the cabbage shown above. (Photo credit: Rammohan R. Balusu, Ph.D.)

In their article, Balusu and his colleagues summarize the basic life stages, ecology, and feeding behavior of the yellowmargined leaf beetle, and they identify various other management methods available to organic crucifier growers, including:

  • Cultural control, such as cultivation and clean-up of fields immediately after harvest, to reduce plant debris that serves as shelter and food for overwintering beetle populations.
  • Biological control, such as introduction of the spined soldier bug (Podisus maculiventris), a predator of the yellowmargined leaf beetle.
  • Chemical control, such as application of Entrust (spinosad) and PyGanic (pyrethrin), which are approved by the Organic Material Review Institute (OMRI) for use in organic crop production.

“During warm conditions—around 25 degrees Celsius—the beetle can complete its entire lifecycle in less than a month, allowing population to build up very quickly and destroy an entire crop in no time,” says Balusu. “Scouting the crop frequently and regularly could help diagnose the pest early to make timely management decisions.”

Currently, no scientifically confirmed economic thresholds exist for managing yellowmargined leaf beetle, though Balusu and colleagues suggest a level of one adult per plant. Balusu says research is currently ongoing to establish a field-based threshold. Regardless, a well-rounded combination of methods is recommended.

“An integrated pest management strategy, which combines cultural control tactics such as trap cropping, pest monitoring, and targeted application of OMRI-approved insecticides, is the most effective and ecologically sustainable method of managing M. ochroloma populations in crucifer production systems,” they conclude.

Read More

Journal of Integrated Pest Management

entomologytoday.org

Bean Leaf Beetle Control: How to Identify, Prevent and Get Rid of Bean Leaf Beetles

The eggs of bean leaf beetles are orange, shaped like a lemon, and has an average length of .85 millimeter. When they are in the larval stage, on the other hand, they are white with dark brown plates. The length can be as long as 10 millimeters with an appearance that is similar to corn rootworm larva. Meanwhile, its pupa has an average length of 5 millimeters and has a white soft body. Lastly, once it grows into an adult, the color can range from light tan to red with an approximate length of ¼ inch. It has a black triangle on its back and four trapezoid spots on the middle. You can see its head from the above.

A Bean Leaf Beetles on the Leaf

Bean Leaf Beetle’s Habitat

This pest survives in the different parts of the plant depending on its specific stage of development. The adults will hide on decaying vegetation or plant debris. They usually start feeding on their hosts in April or when the temperature ranges from 50 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit. They commonly attack the leaves when they are adults. On the other hand, the larvae will thrive on the roots, nodules, and stems. The adults will lay their eggs in clusters, which you can find in the soil or adjacent to the stem of the plant where it will feed as an adult.

Identifying Bean Leaf Beetle’s Damage

Plants Affected

This is a destructive pest that feeds mainly on soybeans. Other common hosts include dry edible beans, snap beans, clover, alfalfa, and wild legumes, among others.

Symptoms

The following are some of the most common signs that will be indicative of damages by bean leaf beetle:

  • One of the parts that will demonstrate the signs of the damage is the leaf. There will be holes on the surface and crooks on the edges. It will start with little oval holes and eventually will eat up the whole leaf. With severe foliar damage, the leaf will fall off.
  • When the foliage matures, it is no longer that attractive for bean leaf beetles. This is the point wherein they will start feeding on the pods of their host plant. They will eat the green tissue and end up with a thin membrane that is visible on the seed. These membranes will crack and serve as an entry point that will attract pathogens, causing more damages on the plant.
  • The root module is another breeding ground for bean leaf beetles. This leads to a reduction in crop yield, killing the plant while it is still young.
See also:  Biological Pest Control - an overview, ScienceDirect Topics

Results of Infestation

When the population of lady beetles is too high, it will quickly destroy young plants, and hence, inhibiting their growth. They prefer tender and young tissues, which is why the damages will be apparent from early on the growth of the host. They result to the reduction of vigor of the plant where they thrive and restrict the nutrients that they receive. In turn, this will cause severe defoliation, and in some cases, death of the plant. They can also be a carrier of different plant diseases, although not as big as a problem as other common garden pests.

Contender Green Beans Damaged by Bean Leaf Beetles

How to Get Rid of Bean Leaf Beetles

Natural and Organic Solutions

For a safe and effective way to eliminate bean leaf beetles in the garden, the following are some of the solutions that will work:

  • Manual removal of the bean leaf beetle will be a promising solution. However, this works best only in a small garden as it can be an exhausting task. Hand-pick the adult beetles and make sure to throw them in a bucket with water and mild soap. This is a mixture that will kill the beetles. Do not just throw them in the garden as they will easily find their way back to their host plant.
  • The use of floating row covers will also work. This is more of a preventive than a control measure. The cover will provide a protective barrier, which will hide the plant. Nonetheless, at one point, you will need to take out the cover when the plant needs pollination.
  • Companion planting also holds a lot of promise. To prevent the bean leaf beetle from growing in soybeans and other common hosts, it is best to grow marigold, yarrow, daisy, sweet alyssum, and rosemary.
  • There are also natural predators that you can encourage in the garden. They are available for commercial purchase, although you have to make sure that their number is more than enough for the size of the area you will treat. Among its natural enemies, parasitic wasps are some of the most effective. You can also consider having plants with sweet nectar to attract wasps that can kill bean leaf beetles.
  • Another organic solution that will work is neem oil. Unlike conventional pesticides, they do not contain toxic ingredients. You can apply neem oil even without having protective equipment. The best thing is that they will kill only the pest and not beneficial insects. They will also not harm your pets.

Chemical Solutions

It is common for commercial growers to resort to the use of insecticides containing ingredients that will kill the bean leaf beetles. While this will work, especially for large-scale infestation, this is not an eco-friendly solution. It kills not only the bean leaf beetles, but even the beneficial insects that will be essential in controlling their population.

Some of the most common ingredients in pesticides to control the population of bean leaf beetles are esfenvalerate and permethrin. Among others, some of the most common brand names of insecticides that will work best for bean leaf beetles include Asana, Baythroid, Brigade, Karate, Prolex, and Sevin.

How to Prevent Bean Leaf Beetles

Among others, one of the best preventive measures is to keep the garden clean. Because they often hide in leaf litter, it is important to remove the latter so that they won’t be a breeding ground for pests. Also, taking proper care of the plant will be a good measure. Water it often, but make sure that there is proper drainage. Regular inspection is necessary to prevent severe damages. It will also help if you will plant resistant varieties.

homyden.com

Cabbage, Broccoli & Other Cole Crop Insect Pests

Factsheet | HGIC 2203 | Updated: Feb 7, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF)

Aphids

Cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae).
Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, www.insectimages.org

Two primary species of aphids (plant lice) attack cole crops: the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and the turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi). Because they are similar in life habits and response to treatments, they will be considered together. Plants in all stages of growth are frequently covered with dense clusters of whitish-green plant lice. Each is about the size of a pinhead. They suck plant sap from the leaf. The a-ffected leaves curl and crinkle or form cups, completely lined with the aphids. In severe infestations, the plants wilt and die. The plants, if not killed, are dwarfed, grow slowly and form small light heads. Badly infested plants become covered with a mass of the small soggy aphids, and the dying leaves and plants rapidly decay.

Aphids are more troublesome during cool, dry weather. Because these pests are difficult to control, treatments should be applied early. On a smaller scale, as in a vegetable garden, spray foliage with soapy water, then rinse with clear water or use insecticidal soaps. Planting in aluminum foil-covered beds and filling yellow pans with water to trap the aphids are both helpful as control measures.

Turnip aphids (Lipaphis erysimi). The large, swollen aphids have been parasitized by beneficial insects.
Alton N. Sparks, Jr., University of Georgia, www.insectimages.org

On a larger scale, two or three insecticide treatments at five-day intervals may be needed to clean up plants. When 2 percent of the plants are infested with aphids, an insecticide application should be made with high spray volume and adequate pressure to thoroughly wet foliage. Because of the waxy powder that covers the bodies of the aphids and the tendency of leaves to form pockets or cups which protect aphids, it is essential to add spreader-stickers (liquid detergent, which breaks the surface tension of the spray droplets) to the spray mix. Destroy old stalks of cabbage as soon as the crop is harvested to help prevent destructive outbreaks of these aphids.

Cabbage Looper

The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is a very destructive and difficult-to-control pest of cabbage and other cole crops. It is the larva (an immature insect stage that in this case is a caterpillar) of a medium-sized grayish brown moth. The moths have a figure-8-shaped silver spot near the middle of each of the front wings. They have a wingspread of 1¼ to 1½ inches (3.2 to 3.8 cm). The moths are most active at night and fly about at plant height while they are laying eggs.

Cabbage looper larva (Trichoplusia ni) and feeding damage.
David Cappaert, Michigan State University, www.insectimages.org

The moths lay their greenish-white eggs singly and mainly on the lower surfaces of the outer leaves of the plants. The eggs are smaller than a pinhead, ridged and almost round. Newly hatched larvae (caterpillars) have dark heads and almost clear bodies. They later become pale green and have several white lengthwise stripes. Mature larvae are about 1½ inches (3.8 cm) long. They move with a looping motion, like an inchworm.

Newly hatched larvae usually eat out small areas on the undersides of leaves. As they grow, they move to the center of the plant, eating through the leaves between the veins. Large larvae are heavy feeders and may cause serious damage to cabbage heads especially when numerous. Damage, however, may at times be restricted to wrapper leaves.

See also:  Карточки Animal Behavior: Senses and Stimuli, Quizlet

In a vegetable garden, you can handpick the caterpillars. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) (see Control of Cole Crop Insects section) works very well. The larvae or caterpillars do not die immediately, but they stop feeding shortly after ingesting B.t. spores.

With a larger planting, after cupping (early head formation), insecticide treatments should be made when there is an average of one larva or one new hole per 10 plants.

Cabbage Webworm

The cabbage webworm (Hellula rogatalis) is the larva (caterpillar) of a moth that has brownish-yellow front wings mottled with darker brown and pale gray rear wings. The moths have a wingspread of a little more than ½ inch (1.27 cm). When disturbed in the field, moths make short, erratic flights and come to rest quickly among the leaves of a plant or on the ground, where their color blends with that of the soil.

Cabbage webworm (Hellula rogatalis) showing lengthwise stripes.
Alton N. Sparks, Jr., University of Georgia, www.insectimages.org

Moths lay grayish-white eggs near the buds of young host plants. As the plants mature, moths begin to lay their eggs on the underside of leaves in the angle along the leaf stems.

Larval webworms are about ½-inch (1.27 cm) long when mature. They are dull, grayish yellow and marked with five conspicuous brownish-purple lengthwise stripes. Their heads are black and bear a V-shaped mark.

When they first hatch, larvae feed on either side of the partly folded leaves of the plant buds. After a few days, they begin to feed beneath a protective web made from silk-like threads that they form. Sometimes the larvae are found on the outer leaves or in the angle between the main plant stalk and the leaf. They can be detected by debris and webs at the point of feeding.

Cabbage webworms tunnel into and kill the buds of young plants. Destruction of the original bud causes the production of secondary buds that cannot mature by harvest-time. Less severe injury may disfigure the head produced from the original bud. Feeding on the outer leaves of older plants usually does little harm. Treatments applied for other pests usually keep the webworm under control.

Cross-Striped Cabbageworm

The moth of the cross-striped cabbageworm (Evergestis rimosalis) has a wingspread of about 1 inch (2.54 cm). The front wings are mottled yellowish-brown to brown and are marked with zigzag lines of dark brown. The rear wings are lighter, being almost transparent at the base, darker at the front and marked across the free end with a row of five or six small, indistinct dusky spots.

Yellow striped cabbagworm larva (Evergestis rimosalis).
Zachary Boone Snipes, ©2015, Clemson Extension

The eggs are laid in masses of 20 to 30 on the undersides of leaves of cole crops. They are light yellow, semi-transparent and overlap one another as shingles on a roof.

When first hatched, the larvae are gray. When full-grown, they are about 3/5-inch (1.5 cm) long and have numerous horizontal black stripes across bluish-gray backs. Along each side of the back is a longitudinal black stripe and below that, a bright yellow stripe. The underside of the body is light green, mottled with yellow.

Cross-striped cabbageworms prefer the tender terminal buds and the heads of cole crop plants and riddle them with holes. Eggs are laid in clusters, and large numbers of the larvae hatch on individual plants.

In a vegetable garden, you can handpick the caterpillars. In addition, treatments made for other larvae generally keep these pests in check.

Diamondback Moth Caterpillars

Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) are gray, about 1/3-inch (8.5 mm) long, and have a wingspread of less than 1 inch (2.54 cm). The males have three light yellow diamond-shaped markings on their wings. The moths move rapidly when disturbed. They fly short distances from plant to plant during the daytime.

The moths lay eggs singly or in groups of two or three on the leaves. Eggs are small, nearly round and yellowish white.

Life stages of the Diamondback moth larva (Plutella xylostella).
Zachary Boone Snipes, ©2015, Clemson Extension

The larvae are light green and pointed at each end. Their bodies are covered by tiny, erect black hairs. When mature they are about 1/3-inch (8.5 mm) long. They wiggle rapidly when disturbed, often dropping from the plant and hanging by silk-like threads. The larvae feed on all parts of the plant but prefer places around the bud of a young plant, crevices between loose leaves of a firm head, and the undersides of wrapper leaves. Larvae will often not eat completely through the leaf, leaving tiny “windows” of thin foliage. Their feeding may disfigure the bud of a young plant so that the cabbage head will not develop properly.

In a vegetable garden, control early infestations with Bacillus thuringiensis (see Control section) because it is not toxic to helpful insects. For larger plantings, after cupping (early head formation), apply insecticides when there is an average of one larva or one new hole per 10 plants.

Imported Cabbageworm

The imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae) is the larva (caterpillar) of a yellowish-white butterfly. The butterflies have several black spots on their wings and a wingspread of about 1 inch (2.54 cm). They fly around cabbage plants during the day.

The butterflies lay eggs singly on either side of the leaves. Eggs are yellow, oblong, bluntly pointed at the ends, deeply ridged lengthwise and attached to the leaf by one end.

Imported cabbageworm larva (Pieris rapae).
Zachary Boone Snipes, ©2015, Clemson Extension

The larvae are velvety green. They have a narrow orange stripe down the middle of the back and a yellowish stripe along each side of the body. When mature, larvae are about 1¼-inches (3.2 cm) long. Larvae are sluggish when disturbed.

Imported cabbageworm damage is similar to cabbage looper injury. Imported cabbageworms feed near the center of plants and do more damage to the cabbage head. They do not limit feeding to areas between leaf veins, but chew through leaves indiscriminately.

In a vegetable garden, Bacillus thuringiensis adequately controls cabbageworms. Tiny parasitic wasps and predatory insects provide common natural controls. For larger plantings, after cupping (early head formation), apply insecticides when there is an average of one larva or one new hole per 10 plants.

Cabbage Maggot

Plants attacked by the cabbage maggot (Delia radicum) appear sickly, off-color and stunted. If the attack is severe, plants wilt suddenly during the heat of the day and die. Cabbage roots show brownish grooves over their surface and slimy winding channels running through the flesh.

Damage caused by cabbage maggot (Delia radicum).
Mary Ann Hansen, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, www.insectimages.org

Many of the small fibrous roots are eaten off. Larvae of this insect are legless, white maggots from ¼- to 1/3-inch (6.4 mm to 8.5 mm) long, blunt at the rear end and pointed in front. They can often be found in the burrowed-out channels within the roots. Spring cabbage after transplanting and fall cabbage while still very young are the most severely injured by this insect.

The adult stage of the cabbage maggot is a fly similar in general appearance to the common housefly but only about half as long (¼-inch or 6.4 mm in length). They are dark ashy gray with black stripes on the thorax (chest region) and many black bristles over the body.

Flies are attracted to fields which are high in decomposing organic matter, i.e., fields recently turned, new ground, weedy areas or fields recently treated with postemergence herbicides. Any rotting vegetation is likely to attract flies. As flies enter a field, they fly close to the ground and deposit their small white, finely ridged eggs on the plants near where the stem meets the ground or in cracks and crevices in the soil. The eggs hatch and the very small maggots promptly seek the roots and eat into them. Each maggot feeds for three to four weeks, and the roots often become riddled with their tunnels. When the maggots are abundant, underground parts of the plants soon become honeycombed and rot. Over 125 maggots have been taken from the roots of a single plant.

See also:  Gruesome footage shows moment doctors remove LIVE cockroach from woman - s skull after she complained of a - tickling sensation - in her head

The cabbage maggot can be controlled by cultural means. Any cultural practice that will reduce the decaying organic matter content of soil will reduce the chances of an infestation becoming established. Any plant material left in the garden can attract flies. If possible, till the soil four to six weeks before planting. This allows sufficient time for rotting of vegetation and may reduce the need for an insecticide treatment. Floating row covers with the edges buried well may prevent infestation.

Postemergence herbicides also contribute to cabbage maggot problems. Weedy fields where postemergence herbicide treatments are used often become infested with maggots as dead weeds decompose. Inspect these fields daily for flies and maggots a couple of weeks after herbicide use.

Harlequin Bug

Harlequin bug adult (Murgantia histrionica).
Zachary Boone Snipes, ©2015, Clemson Extension

The harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica) is a flat, shield-shaped stink bug (3/8- inch or 9.5 mm long) with red and black spotted markings on its back. The immature stage known as a nymph has the same markings but is smaller and more round. The eggs stand on end in double rows and appear as tiny white kegs with black hoops.

The harlequin bug can cause serious damage to crucifers and other vegetable crops. Both the adult and nymph suck sap from the collard/cabbage plant, causing it to wilt, turn brown and die. Younger plants are more susceptible to the feeding. Larger plants can withstand higher populations but show reduced growth and yellowing.

Control of Cole Crop Insects

All of the caterpillars (larvae of moths and butterflies) infesting cole crops can be effectively controlled using Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.), spinosad, or pyrethrin. B.t. is a microbial insecticide that contains spores of these bacteria and is used to control caterpillars when they feed on leaves containing the spores. B.t. works best while the caterpillars are small. B.t., spinosad, and pyrethrin are all less toxic control options. Spray B.t. early or late in the day.

Aphids may be controlled by using a commercially prepared insecticidal soap product, neem oil extract or pyrethrin, which are all less toxic control options. Harlequin bugs, stink bugs, flea beetles and whiteflies, as well as aphids and caterpillars may be controlled using cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin or bifenthrin. Bifenthrin is not labeled for use on Brussels sprouts. Read and follow all label directions on recommended pesticides. See Table 1 for a list of both natural and conventional contact insecticides for use on cole crops. Table 2 lists examples of brands and products for each insecticide, along with the pre-harvest interval (PHI). The pre-harvest interval is the time to wait between spraying and harvesting.

Table 1. Insecticides for Control of Insect Pests of Cole Crops.

Cabbage Cauliflower Broccoli Brussels
Sprouts
Aphids
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
Caterpillars
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
spinosad
pyrethrin
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cypermethrin
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
spinosad
pyrethrin
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin|
cypermethrin
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
spinosad
pyrethrin
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cypermethrin
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
spinosad
pyrethrin
permethrin
cyfluthrin
cypermethrin
Harlequin Bugs & Stink Bugs
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cypermethrin
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cypermethrin
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cypermethrin
permethrin

cyfluthrin
cypermethrin

Flea Beetles
neem oil extract
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
bifenthrin
cyfluthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
neem oil extract
permethrin
cyfluthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
Whiteflies
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
cyfluthrin
bifenthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
cyfluthrin
bifenthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
cyfluthrin
bifenthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin
insecticidal soap
neem oil extract
pyrethrin
cyfluthrin
cyhalothrin
cypermethrin

Table 2. Insecticide Products Labeled to Control Cole Crop Insect Pests.

Insecticides & Fungicides Examples of Brand Names & Products
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
(0 days PHI)
Bonide Thuricide B.t. Concentrate
Monterey B.t. Concentrate
Natural Guard Caterpillar Killer Spray with Bt Concentrate
Safer Caterpillar Killer with B.t. Concentrate
Garden Safe B.t. Worm & Caterpillar Killer Concentrate
Southern Ag Thuricide Spray Concentrate
Tiger Brand Worm Killer Concentrate
Bifenthrin (7 days PHI) Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate
Cyfluthrin (1 day PHI) Bayer Bio Advanced Vegetable & Garden Insect Spray Conc.; & RTS; & RTU
Cyhalothrin (1 day PHI) Martin’s Cyonara Lawn & Garden Concentrate
Spectracide Triazicide Insect Killer for Lawns & Landscapes Conc.; & RTS 2
Cypermethrin (1 day PHI) GardenTech Sevin Insect Killer Concentrate; & RTS 1
Insecticidal Soap (0 day PHI) Bonide Insecticidal Soap Multi-Purpose Insect Control Conc.; & RTU 1
Espoma Earth-tone Insecticidal Soap Concentrate; & RTU 1
Natural Guard Insecticidal Soap Concentrate; & RTU 1
Safer Brand Insect Killing Soap Concentrate; & RTU 1
Garden Safe Insecticidal Soap Insect Killer Concentrate; & RTU 1
Whitney Farms Insecticidal Soap RTU 1
Neem Oil Extract (0 day PHI) Concern Garden Defense Multi-Purpose Spray Concentrate
Ferti-lome Rose, Flower & Vegetable Spray Concentrate
Garden Safe Fungicide 3 Concentrate; & RTU 1
Monterey 70% Neem Oil Fungicide, Insecticide/Miticide Conc.; & RTS 2
Natural Guard Neem Concentrate
Southern Ag Triple Action Neem Oil Concentrate
Safer BioNeem Insecticide & Repellent Concentrate
Permethrin (1 day PHI) Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable Fruit & Flower Concentrate
Bonide Eight Insect Control Yard & Garden RTS 2
Pyrethrin (0 day PHI) Bonide Pyrethrin Garden Insect Spray Concentrate
Southern Ag Natural Pyrethrin Concentrate
Spectracide Garden Insect Killer Concentrate (with Pipernyl Butoxide)
Monterey Bug Buster-O
Monterey Take Down Garden Spary Conc. (with canola oil)
Spinosad (1 day PHI) Bonide Captain Jack’s Dead Bug Brew Concentrate; & RTS 2 ; & RTU 1
Bonide Colorado Potato Beetle Beater Concentrate
Ferti-lome Borer, Bagworm & Leafminer Spray Concentrate
Monterey Garden Insect Spray Concentrate
Natural Guard Spinosad Landscape & Garden Insecticide RTS 2
Southern Ag Conserve Naturalyte Insect Control Concentrate
Note: The PHI (pre-harvest interval) is time to wait in days between spraying and harvesting.
1 RTU = Ready to use (a premixed spray bottle). 2 RTS = Ready to spray (a hose-end applicator).
To protect pollinating insects, always spray as late in the evening as possible.

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.

Original Author(s)

Randall P. Griffin, PhD, Retired Extension Entomologist, Retired Clemson University

Revisions by:

Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University
Zack Snipes, Horticulture Program Team, Beaufort and Charleston County, Clemson Extension

This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.

hgic.clemson.edu

Share:
No comments

Добавить комментарий

Your e-mail will not be published. All fields are required.

×
Recommend
Adblock
detector