Desert Shrew Description — Facts — PPC Pest Database

Desert Shrew Pest Profile

Common Name:
Desert Shrew

Scientific Name:
Notiosorex crawfordi

Order and Family:
Soricidae, Shrews

Description:
Grayish, washed with brown above; pale gray below. Long grayish tail, paler below. Ears more noticeable than in most shrews. Prominent flank glands; larger than in any other North American shrew. Only 3 unicuspids; teeth pigmentation orange. L 3-3 5/8″ (77-93 mm); T 7/8-1 1/4″ (22-32 mm); HF 3/8″ (9-11.5 mm); Wt 1/16- 1/8 oz (2.9-5 g).

Food:
Mealworms, cutworms, crickets, cockroaches, houseflies, grasshoppers, moths, beetles, earwigs, centipedes, the carcasses of small mammals and birds, and dead lizards.

Similar Species:
No other North American shrew has 3 unicuspids or such pale-colored teeth; others have chestnut-colored teeth.

Habitat:
Arid regions, especially in areas dominated by sagebrush and prickly pear. Sometimes found in woodrat nests or in large masses of vegetation at the base of agave, cactus, or other plants in desert areas.

Range:
Southern California east through Arizona, New Mexico, and s Colorado to w Texas and w Arkansas.

Discussion:
Like many desert animals, the Desert Shrew can exist solely on the water obtained from its food, usually the soft inner parts of larger insects. Young Desert Shrews are able to fend for themselves by the time they are 40 days old. The most common predators of this species are owls. Little is known about breeding habits; apparently breeds throughout warmer months, probably bearing litters of 3-5 young.

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Elephant Shrew

Elephant shrews, sometimes known as “jumping shrews,” or “sengis,” are small, rodent-like mammals. They get their traditional common name from the resemblance between their elongated nose (a “proboscis”) and the trunk of an elephant; as well as an incorrect assumption of a close relationship with the true shrews. There are 19 species of elephant shrews, and they are found across southern Africa.

Description of the Elephant Shrew

Elephant shrews are not rodents, but do resemble hunchbacked mice, or gerbils in their shape. They are also not true shrews but are more closely related to tenrecs, golden moles, and aardvarks. Their most noticeable feature is an elongated snout, which they can twist and turn when searching for invertebrate prey (insects, worms, and other creatures without spines). Their rear legs, which they use for hopping like rabbits, are considerably longer then their forelegs.

Elephant shrews have scaly, almost furless, tails under which is a scent gland they use for marking their territory. They have large, erect ears and many species have a pale circle around their relatively big eyes. Some of the larger elephant shrews are rather brightly colored, such as having an almost black body, but a ginger neck and head. The smaller elephant shrews tend to be brown or gray.

Some species have a “dermal shield” of thickened skin on the rump. The skin there is three times thicker than the skin on the back, and provides protection against the bites of other elephant shrews.

Interesting Facts About the Elephant Shrew

Because elephant shrews are unusual in that, unlike most small mammals, they are active during the day, they have several unusual adaptations related to escaping predators. These adaptations are further effected by the wide variety of habitats in which they are found.

  • Great Speed – They have been recorded to run at speeds of 18 mph (29 km/h)
  • Great Leapers – When running, they make leaps of over 3 feet (1 meter)
  • Warning Signals – Many species foot-drum or tail-slap the earth if approached by a predator
  • Scent Glands – They have scent glands at the base of the tail, in the genital and anal regions, on the soles of the feet, the chest, behind the ears, and the corners of the mouth

Habitat of the Elephant Shrew

Elephant shrews are not particularly common anywhere but can be found in a wide range of habitats. These include deserts, semi-arid mountains, rocky outcrops, and thick forests.

Distribution of the Elephant Shrew

Elephant shrews are only found in the wild in Africa. They live throughout the continent, except for western Africa, and the Sahara.

Diet of the Elephant Shrew

Elephant shrews mainly eat invertebrates, including earthworms, spiders, insects, centipedes, and millipedes. Some species also eat green plant matter, seeds, and small fruits.

Elephant Shrew and Human Interaction

In some countries, such as Kenya, elephant shrews are trapped and eaten by humans. Their main threats are from deforestation, habitat loss, and habitat fragmentation due to agriculture and logging.

The gray-faced elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon udzungwensis) is the largest of the elephant shrews, and was only discovered in 2005. They were the first new elephant shrew species identified in more than 120 years. The population, estimated to be fewer than 100, is restricted to a single African mountain range.

Domestication

The elephant shrew has not been domesticated, possibly because they mate for life, with just a single partner (monogamous).

Does the Elephant Shrew Make a Good Pet

Due to their very shy nature and endangered conservation status, elephant shrews do not make good pets.

Elephant Shrew Care

When kept in zoos, a tank of 20 x 32 in (0.5 x 0.8 m) is considered suitable for a single elephant shrew, but if they are kept as pairs for mating, as much room as possible should be provided to reduce aggression. A heat lamp should be provided in the tank.

Behavior of the Elephant Shrew

Elephant shrews, unlike most small mammals, are diurnal (active during daylight), or crepuscular (some activity during both daylight and night-time), which means they are usually very well camouflaged, often wary, and have well-developed senses and escape behaviors. Several species make interconnecting pathways through the undergrowth in their territories. They use these either as high-speed escape routes, or patrol them when hunting for invertebrate food. Some species build leaf nests, whereas others create burrows, or use the burrows of other species. New nests are built every 1-3 days, and take approximately 2 hours to construct.

Elephant shrews are not very sociable: females ward off females, and males fight off other males. Although they sometimes live in pairs, it often appears the sole purpose of this association is for reproduction, as social behaviors are uncommon. In some species, the male and female have adjoining home territories of approximately 4 acres (1.7 hectares), and may even have separate nests.

Reproduction of the Elephant Shrew

The mating period for elephant shrews lasts for several days. After a pregnancy gestation period (the time the babies remain in the mother’s body), varying from 45 to 60 days, females give birth to a litter of one to three young. She may have litters several times a year. The young are relatively well developed when they are born (precocial), and can run just a few hours later. However, they remain in the nest for several days before leaving for the first time. After about 14 days, the young begin to migrate and develop their own home territories. They become sexually active within 40 to 45 days. Reproduction is continuous at low latitudes, but seasonal at higher latitudes.

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Shrew

Whereas rodents have gnawing incisors that grow throughout their lives, the teeth of shrews gradually wear down like human teeth do.

Amazing Facts About the Shrew

  • They have a higher metabolic rate than any other animal. The heart of the masked shrew, Sorex cinereus, beats 800 times a minute, considerably faster than that of the hummingbird.
  • Shrews must eat 80-90 % of their own body weight in food daily. Most will starve to death if deprived of food for half a day. They eat anything available, but prefer small animals; they are economically important as destroyers of insects and slugs that harm crops.
  • Shrews are easily startled and will jump, faint, or drop dead at a sudden noise.
  • The Etruscan Shrew (Suncus etruscus) which at about 3.5 cm and 2 g is the smallest living terrestrial mammal.
  • Unlike most mammals, some species of shrew are venomous. Shrew venom is not conducted into the wound by fangs, but by grooves in the teeth. The venom contains various compounds and the contents of the venom glands of the American short-tailed shrew are sufficient to kill 200 mice by intravenous injection.

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Quick Facts

  • Type: Mammal
  • Diet: Omnivore
  • Life span: Approximately 23 months
  • Size: 55 – 82mm
  • Weight: 5 – 12g
  • Habitat: In general, shrews are terrestrial creatures, but some specialise in climbing trees, living underground, in or under snow and even hunting in water.
  • Range: Shrews are distributed almost worldwide: of the major tropical and temperate land masses, only New Guinea, Australia, and New Zealand do not have native shrews at all.
  • Scientific name: Order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae

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Who is the shrew — description, features, useful qualities, photos

Shrew — one of the types of shrews. Despite the constant proximity to the person, it is very difficult to see because of the secretive way of life.

Very often shrew confused with the mouseHowever, its main difference is a narrow elongated muzzle. The animal is not a pest, but helps to fight against various insects.

Appearance

The shrew genus includes about 130 species, which differ from each other not only in their habitat, but also in size. These are small animals, the distinctive features of which are the long tail and elongated muzzle.

Body size can range from 5 to 10 cm, depending on the species. Tail — from 3.5 to 7.5 cm. Weight — from 2.5 to 15 grams.

The whole body is covered with fine dark hair, in most species — brownish-gray. The belly is light. The tail has a coating in the form of thick short hair.

Tops of teeth have brownish red color — thanks to this, the animal got its name. However, the older the shrew, the stronger the teeth are erased in her, and this color may gradually disappear. Tooth formula shrew: incisors 3/2, tusks 1/0, premolars 3/1, basic 3/3.

The ears are small, almost do not protrude above the surface of the coat. The eyes are black, but due to the predominantly underground lifestyle, the vision is poor and poorly developed.

As a result, the animal searches for food using a powerful sense of smell or echolocation.

Shrews — one of the oldest the branches of mammals, and their teeth have a clear division into canines, incisors, indigenous.

Animal prints are shallow, small, usually arranged in pairs. When there is no hard crust on the snow, there remains a clearly visible imprint of the tail.

Distribution and reproduction

Shrews are common in many countries. Most often they are found in North America, northern Asia, and Europe.

This is the most common type of shrew that can live in any conditions — forests, forest-steppe, tundra, sometimes even in the floodplains of steppe rivers and meadows. Does not settle on wetlands.

There are about 15 species in Russia that are difficult to distinguish from each other. The main features here are the details of the structure of the body and the genitals.

They live everywhere, starting from Moscow and ending with the Primorsky Territory and Sakhalin.

In the taiga zone, the normal number of animals is in the range of 200-600 individuals per hectare, in conditions of tundra — 3-5 times less.

The average lifespan of the shrew is 1-1.5 years. It begins to multiply in the second year, immediately after the end of the winter period.

Creates nests in the form of a ball of plant stems, which is located under the stumps and roots of trees. Pregnancy lasts an average of 20 days.

Young individuals leave the nest on the 20th day after birth. During the season, the shrew leaves 3 litters, and in the first there are 8-10 pups, and in the latter — only 3-4. The second litter appears after the grown individuals leave the nest from the first.

Lifestyle

Shrew active throughout the yearand they endure the winter without hibernating. During the day, they spend a lot of activity at dusk and at night.

Although the animal enters genus of shrews, independently it does not build holes, but uses ready-made mazes of underground animals, moles, natural cracks and dips in the ground.

They can tread passages under the forest floor and in the thick of snow (passage diameter 2 cm).

In winter, they practically do not rise from under the snow, but if it is impossible to dig up insect larvae from frozen soil, they move along the surface in search of plant seeds.

REFERENCE! In the absence of food dies in a few hours.

The shrew shrew has a very high metabolic rate — it eats up to 150% of its body weight, 15 grams of animal food or 20 grams of fish per day.

The frequency of eating depends on the size — the smaller the animal, the more often you need to eat. For example, a tiny shrew should eat food 78 times a day!

During the winter season, the volume of seeds and plant foods in the diet increases. There are cases of stockpiling at this time from earthworms.

Also for successful wintering there are innate protective processes — in the autumn period there is a serious decrease in body weight and its volume, which includes all the internal organs, including the brain.

In the spring, before the onset of the breeding season, the body returns to its normal size.

A photo

See below: shrew photos

Distinctive features from other rodents

Shrew often confused with mice. Their main differences are small eyes, a long elongated muzzle with inconspicuous ears, a reddish hue of the teeth.

Benefit and harm

Shrews are predominantly insectivorous animals, and therefore usually do not damage agricultural landings.

However they can in winter wade in houses, barns, sheds to search for food, like plant (seeds), like the larvae of sleeping insects.

At the same time, thanks to the constant search for food, the animal destroys a huge number of insect pests, including those wintering in the litter and in the upper soil layer.

Her basic diet they are made up of worms, larvae, spiders, woodlice, including such pests as slugs, khruschi, bearfish, leaf beetles, weevils, moth caterpillars and scoop.

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In case of a strong hunger, the shrew attacks the ground beetles or small mice.

IMPORTANT! If the desire to get rid of the animal in the area still exceeds the benefits it can bring, it is best to use non-fatal methods — for example, ultrasonic repellents.

Conclusion

Shrew — These are small animals from the shrews family. They are common in many parts of the world, live in almost the entire territory of Russia. They do not build their own moves using ready-made underground passages of other animals.

They feed on insects and their larvae than bring great benefits home and farm. Harvest can only be affected if there is a severe shortage of feed.

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PEST Analysis

What Is PEST Analysis?

PEST Analysis (political, economic, social and technological) is a management method whereby an organization can assess major external factors that influence its operation in order to become more competitive in the market. As described by the acronym, those four areas are central to this model.

A popular variation on the PEST Analysis format, especially in the U.K., is the PESTLE strategic planning approach, which includes the additional aspects of Legal and Environmental.

It is believed that PEST Analysis was first introduced under the name ETPS by Harvard professor Francis J. Aguilar. In the 1967 publication «Scanning the Business Environment,» Aguilar presented the economic, technical, political, and social factors as being major influences on the business environment. Subsequently, the letters were rearranged to create a convenient and quirky acronym used today.

Key Takeaways

  • PEST analysis stands for political, economic, social, and technological.
  • This type of analysis is used to gauge external factors that could impact the profitability of a company.
  • Generally, it is more effective with larger organizations that are more likely to experience the effects of macro events.
  • PEST analysis is commonly used in conjunction with SWOT analysis, which stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

The Areas Assessed by PEST Analysis

A comprehensive assessment of the major areas of influence that affect the sector in which an organization is positioned, as well as the organization itself, can facilitate more effective strategic planning. This planning can be undertaken to maximize the organization’s ability to capitalize on conditions as they exist, and to be forewarned of and better prepared for imminent changes, allowing the organization to stay ahead of competitors.

The political aspect of PEST Analysis focuses on the areas in which government policy and/or changes in legislation affect the economy, the specific industry, and the organization in question. Areas of policy that may particularly affect an organization include tax and employment laws. The general political climate of a nation or region, as well as international relations, can also greatly influence the organization.

The economic portion of the analysis targets the key factors of interest and exchange rates, economic growth, supply and demand, inflation and recession.

The social factors that may be included in a PEST Analysis are demographics and age distribution, cultural attitudes, and workplace and lifestyle trends.

The technological component considers the specific role and development of technologies within the sector and organization, as well as the wider uses, trends, and changes in technology. Government spending on technological research may also be a point of interest in this area.

Applications of PEST Analysis

PEST Analysis can assist an organization in recognizing and thereby capitalizing on opportunities offered by existing conditions in the business environment. It can also be used for identifying current or possible future challenges, allowing for effective planning of how to best manage these challenges.

PEST Analysis can also be applied in assessing the in-house structure of an organization in order to identify strengths and weaknesses in its internal politics, economic outlook, social climate, and technology base. The results of this analysis can facilitate changes or improvements in areas identified as subpar.

PEST Analysis can be used in conjunction with other forms of strategic business analysis, such as the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) model, for an even more comprehensive result. Conducting a comparison between these completed analyses can provide a very solid basis for informed decision-making.

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Animal Diversity Web

More Information

Additional Information

Chimarrogale himalayica Himalayan water shrew

Geographic Range

The Himalayan water shrew ( Chimarrogale himalayica ) has a wide but sporadic distribution across the Himalayas, including: Northern India, Nepal, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, southern China, and Taiwan. This species is sometimes confused with other water shrew species, such as the Japanese water shrew (Chimarrogale platycephalus) and the elegant water shrew (Nectogale elegans), due to similar habitats, appearances, and taxonomy. Three subspecies have been distinguished within C. himalayica : C. h. himalayica found in the Himalayas; C. h. varennei found in Myanmar, Yunnan, China, Laos, and Vietnam; and C. h. leander found in Fujian, China and Taiwan. (Yuan, et al., 2013)

Habitat

This semi-aquatic species is associated with clear, swift-flowing streams in forested mountainous regions. Himalayan water shrew can be found in lowland habitats at elevations of 220-250 m, and in pre-montane conifer/broad-leafed evergreen forests with an elevation range of 250-1270 m, although specimens have been collected at elevations as high as 3048 m. The depth range of this species is unknown but previous capture efforts focused on a 0.5 m deep stream. The wide distribution of Himalayan water shrew is attributed to a broad adaptive capacity and dispersal ability that is associated with an aquatic lifestyle. (He, et al., 2010; Jenkins, 2013; Lunde and Musser, 2002)

  • Habitat Regions
  • temperate
  • terrestrial
  • freshwater
  • Terrestrial Biomes
  • forest
  • mountains
  • Aquatic Biomes
  • rivers and streams
  • Range elevation 220 to 3048 m 721.78 to 10000.00 ft
  • Average depth 0.5 m 1.64 ft

Physical Description

Himalayan water shrew are small, semiaquatic mammal. Few individuals have been captured. Those few possessed a head-body length range of 111 — 132 mm, with an average of 121 mm, and a tail length of 79 — 88 mm, with an average of 85 mm. The tail is slender but densely haired. Adult Himalayan water shrews weigh between 37 — 56 g. There is no sexual dimorphism in appearance or size. Pelage is flat and dense, and grey-brown in colour with no dorsal-ventral colour boundaries. Skull and facial features include: relatively flat snout, small pinnae, and long, brown whiskers, and the brain cavity volume is large in comparison to other shrews. The greatest length of skull is between 25 – 28 millimeters, possessing 3 upper unicuspid teeth (upper incisors lack cusps). (Francis, 2008; Li and Boren, 1999; Lunde and Musser, 2002; Sterndale, 1884)

This shrew is historically placed in the subfamily Crocidurinae based on presence of white tipped teeth. However, ultraviolet rays have revealed red coloured teeth tips, and karyotyping evidence has suggested this shrew be placed in subfamily Soricinae. There are three recognized subspecies of C. himalayica , as previously mentioned, but new evidence strongly supports these subspecies as paraphyletic, and suggests they should be considered as individual species. (Mōri, et al., 1991; Yuan, et al., 2013)

Metabolic rates have not been quantified but are known to be particularly high within aquatic soricines; this high metabolic rate is thought to be an adaptation for the high-energy expenditure associated with diving and foraging in cold water. (He, et al., 2010)

  • Other Physical Features
  • endothermic
  • homoiothermic
  • bilateral symmetry
  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • sexes alike
  • Range mass 37 to 56 g 1.30 to 1.97 oz
  • Range length 190 to 220 mm 7.48 to 8.66 in

Reproduction

Little is known about the mating systems of Himalayan water shrews.

Breeding occurs in May, producing a litter of five to seven offspring. Offspring are kept in a small chamber constructed in a riverbank, which usually has several openings, and one of these openings will typically be underwater. (Sterndale, 1884)

  • Key Reproductive Features
  • seasonal breeding
  • gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
  • sexual
  • viviparous
  • Breeding season May
  • Range number of offspring 5 to 7
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Little is known about the parental investment provided by the Himalayan water shrew. As previously mentioned, there are several offspring per litter, and the young are housed in a chamber in a riverbank. (Sterndale, 1884)

Lifespan/Longevity

Himalayan water shrews have never been kept in the captivity, and little is known about their lifespan, but they are assumed to be short-lived. (Li and Boren, 1999)

Behavior

Little is known about the behavior of the Himalayan water shrew other than it is an semi-aquatic mammal associated with clear, swift-flowing streams and rivers. (Sterndale, 1884; Yuan, et al., 2013)

Home Range

Home range and territory size of individuals is unknown.

Communication and Perception

Little is known about the communication and interactions of Himalayan water shrews. The presence of long whiskers suggests reliance on tactile senses. (Sterndale, 1884)

Food Habits

Due to high metabolic demands, soricines consume as much as three times their body weight in 24 hours and can survive only a few hours without feeding.

Himalayan water shrews are insectivores. Samples of the stomach contents of C. himalayica show consumption of only insects and spiders, such as fishing spiders (Family Pisauridae). There is no evidence they consume crustaceans or fish, a common food source to other species of water shrews. (He, et al., 2010; Lunde and Musser, 2002)

Predation

Little is known about predation on this species, and no predators have been identified.

Ecosystem Roles

C. himalayica are thought to be ecological competitors with Nectogale elegans, another water shrew of similar body size, that shares a similar habitat of swift-flowing streams in forested mountainous regions. Both are found in high altitudes (up to 3048 m), with large altitude ranges (>2000 m). These two species have never been documented to coexistence, suggesting direct ecological competition.

Himalayan water shrews are commonly infected with the larvae of Gnathostoma nipponicum . Infection rates in the wild have been documented at >70% of the population. (Jenkins, 2013; Oyamada, et al., 1996)

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

C. himalayica is harvested for local medicinal uses. (Molur, 2008)

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Although the primary habitat of this species is swift flowing streams and rivers, individuals have occasionally been found in ditches, fields, houses and barns. This presence may lead humans to perceive the Himalayan water shrew as a pest. (Sterndale, 1884)

  • Negative Impacts
  • crop pest
  • household pest

Conservation Status

C. himalayica is classified by the IUCN as a species of least concern which is justified by wide geographic distribution (>2000 km), presumed large population size and the unlikeliness of a rapid population decline. Identified threats to this species include: habitat lost due to agricultural expansion and logging, harvesting for medicinal use, pest control methods, and a decline in prey species. The effects of rain forest logging on the Southeast Asian population of C. himalayica have been investigated, but these studies have been inconclusive, due to the elusiveness of this species. (Jenkins, 2013; Molur, 2008; Wells, et al., 2007)

Contributors

Kirsten Solmundson (author), University of Manitoba, Jane Waterman (editor), University of Manitoba, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Glossary

living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

an animal that mainly eats meat

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease

animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

mainly lives in water that is not salty.

An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.

specialized for swimming

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.

breeding is confined to a particular season

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

uses touch to communicate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

Living on the ground.

reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.

References

He, K., Y. Li, M. Brandley, L. Lin, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Jiang. 2010. A multi-locus phylogeny of Nectogalini shrews and influences of the paleoclimate on specialization and evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution , 56/2: 734-746.

Ichikawa, A., H. Nakamura, T. Yoshida. 2005. Mark-recapture analysis of the Japanese water shrew Chimarrogale platycephala in the Fujisawa Stream, a tributary of the Tenryu River, central Japan. Mammal Study , 30: 139-143.

Jenkins, P. 2013. An account of the himalayan mountain soricid community, with the description of a new species of Crocidura (Mammalia: Soriciomorpha: Soricidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology , 29: 161-175.

Jones, G., R. Mumford. 1971. Chimarrogale from Taiwan. Journal of Mammalogy , 52/1: 228-232.

Li, Y., J. Boren. 1999. Population Distribution, Habitat Usage, and Conservational Strategy of Himalayan water shrew (Chimarrgogale himalayica) in Taiwan . Tokay University, Republic of China: Council of Agriculture Forest Service. [Translated].

Lunde, D., G. Musser. 2002. The capture of the Himalayan water shrew (Chimarrogale himalayica) in Vietnam. Mammal Study , 27: 137-140.

Molur, S. 2008. «Chimarrogale himalayica» (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed November 01, 2015 at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T40614A10341024.en.

Mōri, T., S. Arai, S. Shiraishi, T. Uchida. 1991. Ultrastructural observations on spermatozoa of the soricidae, with special attention to a subfamily revision of the japanese water shrew Chimarrogale himalayica. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan , 16: 1-12.

Oyamada, T., H. Kobayashi, T. Kindou, N. Kudo, H. Yoshikawa, T. Yoshikawa. 1996. Discovery of mammalian hosts to Gnathostoma nipponicum larvae and the prevalence of the larvae in rodents and insectivores. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Science , 58/9: 839-843.

Sterndale, R. 1884. Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon . Calcutta: Thacker, Spink. Accessed December 03, 2015 at https://archive.org/details/naturalhistoryof00ster.

Wells, K., E. Kalko, M. Lakim, M. Pfeiffer. 2007. Effects of rain forest logging on species richness and assemblage composition of small mammals in Southeast Asia. Journal of Biogeography , 34: 1087-1099.

Yuan, S., X. Jiang, Z. Li, K. He, M. Harada, T. Oshida, L. Lin. 2013. A mitochondrial phylogeny and biogeographical scenario for asiatic water shrews of the genus Chimarrogale: implications for taxonomy and low-latidue migration routes. PLoS ONE , 8/10: 1-15.

The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides!

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2 Comments
  • ASTRO-MAN معاذ سمير says:

    You know something guys, I am crying right now, because these shrews was there 190 MY ago in jurassic era, it is so wonderful that these creatures cross so much Horror and terror of dinosaurs to become us!
    I LOVE EARTH -^_^-

    • Insect Farmer says:

      Omg this is so adoreable how they move together ^^

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