Control of the strawberry mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) in strawberry plantations by alternative acaricides
Control of the strawberry mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) in strawberry plantations by alternative acaricides
- 1 Control of the strawberry mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) in strawberry plantations by alternative acaricides
- 2 Highlights
- 3 Abstract
- 4 Physical Control of Spider Mites Using Ultraviolet-B With Light Reflection Sheets in Greenhouse Strawberries
- 5 Abstract
- 6 Strawberry
- 7 Mite pests of strawberry crops
- 8 Mites (6).JPG
- 9 TSMfemale montage.jpg
- 10 RSM female with egg Scanlon montage.jpg
- 11 Mitespreds.jpg
- 12 DSC_3453.JPG
- 13 Symptoms of mite infestation
- 14 Means and ways to combat strawberry pests
- 15 Pliers
- 16 Strawberry leaf beetle
- 17 Strawberry Nematode
- 18 Strawberry raspberry weevil
- 19 Cruciferous flea
- 20 Dark Nutcracker (Wireworm)
- 21 Aphid
- 22 Bib penny
- 23 Slugs
- 24 May Western Hrusch
- 25 Birds
Spirotetramat and abamectin have shown high efficacy five weeks post treatment in the control of Phytonemus pallidus.
The efficacy of Spirotetramat was dependent on the rate.
Abamectin applied in combination with the adjuvant did not display any better level of control than when applied alone.
The control levels of the strawberry mite obtained with spirotetramat and abamectin were similar or better than those obtained with pyridaben.
Due to the withdrawal from the plant protection industry of several main insecticides (e.g. endosulfan, amitraz and propargite) commonly used to control the strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus spp. fragariae), there is a constant need to search for new control measures against this pest.
The efficacy of spirotetramat (Movento 150 OD at rates of 0.5 and 0.7 and Movento 100 SC at rates of 0.75 and 1.0 l ha −1 ), abamectin (Vertimec 018 EC, 1.0 l ha −1 ) and abamectin (1.0 l ha −1 ) + the adjuvant Slippa (0.2 l ha −1 ) for control of strawberry mite was evaluated in the current study. Pyridaben (Sanmite 20 WP, 2.25 kg ha −1 ) was used as a reference product. All of the products were used twice at weekly intervals, after fruit harvest, when the population of P. pallidus exceeded the risk threshold. All products significantly reduced P. pallidus populations in strawberry plantations compared to control plots. The results obtained with spirotetramat were dependent on dose and formulation, and ranged from 60% to over 90% efficacy. The efficacy of abamectin for controlling the mobile forms of strawberry mite was 81–99%. This active ingredient applied in combination with the adjuvant did not display any better level of control than when applied alone (efficacy 77–95%). The results obtained with the reference product (pyridaben) were similar or slightly lower (average > 80%) than those obtained with the test products.
Previous article in issue
Next article in issue
Physical Control of Spider Mites Using Ultraviolet-B With Light Reflection Sheets in Greenhouse Strawberries
Masaya Tanaka, Junya Yase, Shinichi Aoki, Takafumi Sakurai, Takeshi Kanto, Masahiro Osakabe, Physical Control of Spider Mites Using Ultraviolet-B With Light Reflection Sheets in Greenhouse Strawberries, Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 109, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages 1758–1765, https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow096
Development of spider mite management technology other than chemical control is desired because of the serious development of acaricide resistance worldwide. Recent studies have evidenced the lethal effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on spider mites. To develop the technology on how to use UVB irradiation for spider mite control, we tested whether UVB lamp–light reflection sheet (LRS) combinations suppressed the population size of Tetranychus urticae Koch on strawberry in a greenhouse from December to May (2012–2013, 2013–2014) in Japan. We designed four combinations of UVB lamps and LRSs: 1) neither UVB lamps nor LRSs (UV−LRS−); 2) a UVB lamp without an LRS (UV+LRS−; 2012–2013 only); 3) a UVB lamp and a mulch-type LRS (UV+LRSm); and 4) a UVB lamp and a wing-type LRS (UV+LRSw). The number of adult females peaked at 438.0 and 222.0 per plant in UV−LRS− of 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, and peaked at 191.6 females in UV+LRS− of 2012–2013. In contrast, the peak abundance was 20.9–98.0 females in UV+LRSm, and fewer than 15 females were noted in UV+LRSw over either experimental period. UVB irradiance on lower leaf surfaces was higher in UV+LRSm and UV+LRSw than UV−LRS− and UV+LRS−, and the mite densities were significantly correlated with UVB irradiance on lower leaf surfaces. Consequently, we conclude that the combinations of UVB lamp–LRS have an excellent capacity to control T. urticae on greenhouse strawberry, and that the LRS was an essential component in this technological approach.
Biological pollination and pest control… common practice in your strawberry crop!
IPM makes the difference
Biological products are an essential aspect in the cultivation of today’s strawberry crops. But why, precisely, is it such a good idea to choose IPM or integrated crop protection?
- You help prevent pests and diseases from becoming resistant to chemical pest control methods.
- You comply with the strict regulations and meet the demands of the consumer.
- You choose residue-free methods and, therefore, produce healthier strawberries.
- You reduce the risk of yield losses.
- You reap a rich harvest by choosing IPM. How? You can count on increased cost-effectiveness and improved fruit quality, to help optimise your competitive position.
Biological pest control for strawberries
Will you also take the step to implement biological strategies in your crops? If so, Biobest offers a wide range of solutions that can be used safely at any time. You can utilise:
- a wide range of natural enemies, such as Phytoseiulus-System and Californicus-System, for controlling spider mite;
- the nutritional feed supplement Nutrimite™, which ensures that predatory mites − such as Swirskii-System − are working at full strength when an infestation occurs;
- pheromone traps and sticky traps, such as Bug-Scan ® , to monitor and scout pests in the crop;
- the biological fungicide Prestop ® 4B distributed via the Flying Doctors ® Hive to treat flower botrytis;
- the thrips pheromone ThriPher to lure thrips out of their shelters;
- the natural product Bluestim ® to control abiotic stress;
- the Droso Trap ® with the attractant Dros’Attract ® to catch the Japanese fruit fly Drosophila suzukii.
Bumblebee pollination of strawberries
In spite of the fact most strawberry varieties self-fertilize, bumblebees can contribute significant added value to your crop. Bumblebees are larger and have hairier bodies than honeybees, which means they can bring greater quantities of pollen to the flowers and have greater contact with the flowers. The result? Bumblebees visit more flowers in a shorter space of time and facilitate the thorough pollination of those they visit. For you, as a grower, this means larger, higher quality fruit, which means you can achieve greater yields. Biobest helps you to achieve these results with its wide range of bumblebee hives.
Bumblebee pollination and biological pest control with Flying Doctors ®
Our Flying Doctors ® can also help prevent fruit rot. When you choose our Flying Doctors ® Hive, you combine pollination and crop protection in one strategy. The bumblebees not only head out of their hive to pollinate your flowers, they also protect against Botrytis by distributing Prestop ® 4B − a biological fungicide. These Flying Doctors ® do all the work – pollination and protection.
Did you know that.
… bumblebee pollination has become well established in strawberry production? From covered crops to open-air applications… it is all possible! And, as a strawberry grower, you can count on biological pest control to keep your crop healthy naturally.
Mite pests of strawberry crops
Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review.
The most common mite pest of strawberry crops is two-spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae), also known as spider mite or red-spider mite. It has a wide range of alternative hosts which provide a constant source of mites to infest strawberry crops.
The strawberry spider mite (also called banana spider mite), Tetranychus lambi, also occurs in Western Australia and is likely to infest strawberry crops. Further information on that mite can be found in Crop insects — The Ute Guide Northern Grain Belt; Pests of Field Crops and Pastures: Identification and Control.
RSM female with egg Scanlon montage.jpg
Symptoms of mite infestation
Mottled, brown leaves are caused by mites feeding on the undersides of the leaves in low numbers. As infestation builds, the mites move up and infest the whole plant and the characteristic fine webbing is seen.
Plants which have been severely infested are stunted and may die. Damage usually results in lower yields.
Two-spotted mites are very small (0.5mm for females and 0.3mm for males) and a hand lens is required to see them clearly. Adults are yellowish-green with a large dark spot on each side of the abdomen. With the onset of cooler conditions in autumn they become reddish-orange.
Females can lay up to 60 to 70 eggs each. Mite eggs are very small and spherical.
Juveniles hatch 3 to 10 days after laying, depending on the temperature. Juvenile stages of mites are similar in appearance to adults but smaller and lighter in colour. They go through three moults until they become adults. The whole life cycle (egg, larvae, protonymph, deutonymph then adult) can take 9 to 22 days, depending on temperature.
Two-spotted mites are most active during summer when they thrive in the hot dry conditions.
In the cooler months, numbers are low, but during the warmer spring weather numbers can build up rapidly.
Miticides are registered for use in strawberry crops, but should be managed carefully. Repeated applications of the same miticide can result in the development of resistance to the chemical and reduced or no control of the pest.
Biological control using predatory mites is now the main approach used by strawberry growers. Phytoseiulus persimilis is commercially produced in Australia, including Western Australia, and is introduced into strawberry crops for control of two-spotted mite. For more information on the use of beneficials commercially available in Australia see www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/resources/bookshop/good-bug-book.
Growers need to ensure that their use of pesticides is compatible with IPM and will not harm the predators. This includes application of pesticides to planting material prior to delivery and to the crop during the season. Growers unsure about the effect of pesticide residues on plants can refer to the side effects manuals for information that is updated regularly.
Cultural control techniques can also be used in managing mites. This includes keeping plants healthy so they can tolerate larger populations with less damage. Mowing or removing weeds helps minimise pest infestation.
Treating infested runners may prevent early infestation, but you will need to check with runner producers what pesticides have been applied to the runners, and when, as this may affect your treatment options and delay the ability to apply predators.
Means and ways to combat strawberry pests
Before you plant strawberries garden, you need to familiarize yourself with all the pests that can eat the berry. This will help to carry out preventive measures efficiently and in time and will ensure maximum yield.
- Strawberry Mite
- Spider mite
- Strawberry leaf beetle
- Strawberry Nematode
- Strawberry raspberry weevil
- Cruciferous flea
- Dark Nutcracker (Wireworm)
- Bib penny
- May Western Hrusch
Consider the types of ticks that can be seen on the bed, the main features that determine the pest on strawberries, and methods of dealing with them.
One of the most dangerous pests for strawberries is the strawberry mite. It is impossible to see him with the naked eye, because it is up to 0.2 mm in length. In all phases of its development, strawberry mite lives on the young leaves of the plant, feeding on its juice. The mite is particularly bad for strawberries in the second half of summer. The tick causes damage not only to the harvest of the current year, but also to the future, since it disrupts the formation of flower buds at the end of summer.
On what grounds can you determinethat the plants were attacked by strawberry mite? First, the yield of strawberries is significantly reduced, the leaves shrivel, acquiring a yellowish-oily shade, and die. Secondly, plants overwinter badly and may die.
The fight must begin in early spring. First you need to remove all dry leaves from the bed and after disinfection put them in the compost. This will reduce the number of pests. Then you can conduct heat treatment. On each bush, you need to pour about 0.5 liters of hot water to 80 ° C. After this, the plants need to pile up and feed. Also effective against strawberry mites is treatment with 70% solution of colloidal sulfur. Processing should be carried out with an interval of 2 weeks: in the period of growth of leaves, before flowering, after the formation of berries.
Before the appearance of the leaves of the plant, the earth can be treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. This will help in the fight not only with the tick, but also with other pests and diseases.
To folk remedies in the fight against strawberry mite are spraying infusion of onion peel or garlic decoction.It is better to treat the plant with pesticides after harvesting or in spring, with the appearance of the first leaves. To do this, you can use the «Fufanon», «Kemifos», «Aktellik» according to the instructions. Eat berries can only be a month after the chemical treatment.
Choose for the seedlings resistant to the pest varieties: «Omsk early», «Vityaz», «Zarya», «Zenga-Zengana», «Torpedo».
If the leaves of strawberries are shrouded in cobwebs and turned yellow, then this indicates the defeat of plants with spider mites. This usually occurs after harvest. For the fight using insecticides — drugs against ticks on strawberries: «Vermitek», «Fitoverm», «Actofit». The drugs are not able to kill the eggs of the tick. Therefore, it is necessary to spray the plants several times at intervals of two weeks.
With a large defeat of the plant with a tick, it is necessary to mow and destroy the infected leaves. This procedure is carried out at the beginning of August. Next, the bed is well watered and fed to the plants had time to form the crown before the onset of cold weather.
Strawberry leaf beetle
Strawberry leaf beetle is a small yellow-brown bug measuring 3-4 mm, which damages the leaves, which can lead to the death of the plant. Harm is brought by both larvae and beetles. Beetles gnaw holes in the center of the sheet and along the edges, eating away the pulp with winding passages. The larvae gnaw through the window from the underside of the leaf. Focal reproduction of this pest is noted.
The methods of control are based on loosening the soil under the bushes at the end of strawberry fruiting and insecticide treatment in the spring.
The nematode is a small worm with a length of 1 mm round, white or brownish in color. With forceps that are in the nematode’s mouth, it attaches to the stems or roots of plants and injects a substance into them that makes the plant an easily digestible food product. Nematode females do not lay eggs, and, attached to the plant, form cysts. In one cysts up to 1000 eggs.
Survival in the cyst is very high. They are not afraid of any chemicals or other adverse conditions. For several years, cysts can wait in the ground for favorable conditions for procreation.
Recognizing the nematode at the initial stage is almost impossible. It gradually affects plants and soil, and this leads to a deterioration in the quality of the crop.
On what grounds can you recognize the nematode on strawberries? These are inhibited development of the roots and leaves of the plant, the presence of cysts on the roots, in the form of small white dots, slow growth of the plant, wrinkling of the foliage and thickening of its vein, a defective form of berries.
The fight against the nematode is a long process and involves an integrated approach.
To effectively combat the nematode, it is necessary to begin it at the stage of planting seedlings. To do this, choose healthy seedlings and before planting treated with a solution of «Parationa» or «Fosdrina». The roots of the plant are immersed in a chemical solution of the required concentration for 10-15 minutes, a field of which is washed with running water.
You can also effectively use heat treatment of plants.For this, the plants are immersed in hot water (approximately 50 ° C) for 10 minutes, and then in cold water, after which they are planted in the ground.
Nematode is afraid of fungus. Therefore, it is recommended to periodically fertilize the soil with compost, which contributes to the development of fungi that are safe for humans and dangerous for nematodes. There are plants that help fight the nematode. They must be planted next to the bushes of strawberries. These include marigolds, calendula, rudbeckia, etc.
Do not thicken the beds. Timely weeding and fertilizer will help reduce the amount of nematodes in the soil.
Such preparations from nematodes: Oksikor, Fundazol, Fitoverm, Skor, etc. are considered to be chemical agents for the control of affected strawberry plants. They must be used according to the instructions.
Strawberry raspberry weevil
Strawberry-raspberry weevil is a dangerous pest. It can destroy up to 90% of the crop of strawberries. It is a black beetle, 2-3 cm long, with a long vertex with a mustache. First, beetles use spring leaves of strawberry for their food, gnawing holes in them, then, when buds appear, beetles eat the anthers of the plant.During the mating period, the female gnaws a strawberry bud and lays an egg. Bud dries out over time and falls to the ground.
The larva weevil on strawberries can be seen in the second half of May. Then the larva turns into a pupa, and after 3 weeks into a beetle.
Harm is brought by both beetles and weevil larvae. But especially dangerous for early varieties of strawberries, destruction of buds during egg-laying. What are the signs of the appearance of weevil on the bed of strawberries? These are small punctures of foliage in early spring, damage and drying of buds and the presence of larvae in them.
Mechanical methods of dealing with the weevil include the collection of foliage and fallen buds and shaking off beetles on film, as well as autumn digging of soil under bushes. Spraying plants with decoctions of hot peppers, tansy, laundry soap and mustard, onions and celandine are among the popular methods of struggle. Scare weevil marigolds, marigolds, nasturtium and garlic.Therefore, they can become good neighbors bed of strawberries.
The chemical means of struggle include Fufanon-Nova, Kemifos, Iskra-M, Novoaktion. Spraying is carried out before and after flowering according to the instructions.
Cruciferous flea — tiny black bugs, got their name from the name of the cruciferous family, that is, those plants that they use as food. These include cabbage, radish, turnip, rutabaga, radish, horseradish, etc. Flea wakes up as soon as the temperature has reached 15 ° C and are actively starting to feed on young leaves. The struggle should begin immediately, because they need one or two days to completely riddle the plants.
Fleas do not like a wet environment. Therefore, young bushes should be watered abundantly. Also effective are dry pollination of leaves and aisles with a mixture of wood ash and lime in a 1: 1 ratio, a mixture of ash and tobacco dust, or a mixture of ash and road dust.
We should not forget about the plants that scare away fleas of their smell. These include dill, potatoes, garlic, tomatoes, coriander, marigold, calendula, etc.
The most effective way is chemical. To do this, treat the plants with an insecticide solution. Spraying is best done in the evening when the flea is sitting on the leaves.
Dark Nutcracker (Wireworm)
Dark clicker is a beetle 15-16 mm long, brown or black in color. When turning on its back, it makes a sound in the form of a click, which is why it got its name. The harm of strawberries and vegetable crops is brought not by beetles, but by their larvae — delays. They have a yellow-brown solid, resembling a wire. The main hotbed for delays are areas covered with grass. Delays are moisture-loving insects and do not tolerate drying out of the soil.
The beds of strawberries, on which the larvae of clickers are most often found, are usually heavily littered with weeds and are neglected. The larvae gnaw the roots of strawberries and greatly weaken the bushes.
Consider ways to deal with the wireworm. Wireworm does not like plants such as mustard, rape, oilseed radish, black beans, beans, soybeans, peas, and marigold juice is poisonous to it. It is recommended to sow these crops on the plot, and the wire will leave.He also does not like an alkaline and neutral environment, so it is recommended to bring ashes or onion peels into the soil.
If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to conduct liming. For strawberries suitable bait from potatoes. Sliced potatoes must be buried along the edges of the beds in several places. Wireworms will crawl on the bait and leave the strawberries alone. The bait every three days, check and destroy the larvae gathered there. Since the wireworm likes wheat grass, it is necessary to get rid of this weed in the garden beds. Of the chemicals used insecticides «Barguzin», «Pochin», «Provotoks» according to the instructions.
Everybody who has planted cultivated plants and cared for them is familiar with aphids. Small green or black pests that feed on plant sap have time to foul not only on strawberries, but also on all young shoots or buds of plants. Aphids on strawberries are usually concentrated on the back side of the leaf.
She clings to young leaves and covers them with sticky liquid — paddy. The affected leaves curl and dry, the buds do not open and the fruits do not develop. The fight against aphids should start immediately.If the berries of the plant have already appeared, then the protection of strawberries from pests must be carried out by folk remedies.
These include spraying with soapy water (2 cups of water, 2 tsp. Of liquid soap), infusion of tomato leaves (2 cups of finely chopped leaves to insist in 2 cups of water), infusion of garlic (5 crushed garlic cloves, 2 tsp. Of vegetable oil, 2 glasses of water, 1 tsp. liquid soap), flushing of insects with a stream of water. Do not forget about plants that repel aphids. These include onions, garlic, chamomile Dalmatian.
Of the biological methods of dealing with aphids can be distinguished ladybugs and gold-eyed. To resort to the help of chemical means it is necessary in extreme cases. To do this, use insecticides «Aktara», «Phytoferm», «Fufanon» according to the instructions.
During the formation of peduncles on the leaves of strawberries appear balls of foam. Under the foam is a tiny creature with a thickened head and a thin tail, which is actively moving, sticks a thin proboscis into a leaf of strawberries and sucks the sap of the plant.This is the Afrophorida larva, and the foam serves as its protection against predatory insects.
As a result of exposure to penicature, the leaves become wrinkled, and the ovaries are underdeveloped. It is easy to fight the pest: it is necessary to powder each ball of foam with ashes, and the larvae will die.
Garden slug on strawberries not only spoils the presentation of the berries, but also leaves a trace of mucus on them. Since slugs are nocturnal, it is almost impossible to see them in the afternoon on the garden. The most dangerous thing is that slugs are intermediate hosts of parasitic worms that cause intestinal diseases in animals and people.
You can fight pests with the help of ash. With the help of a sieve we apply it with a thin layer on strawberry bushes, and the slugs are not touched. Also around the perimeter of the garden bed sprinkled with sawdust or sprayed plants with brine. It is also effective against slugs.
May Western Hrusch
One of the most dangerous pests for strawberries is the Maybot larvae. These are thick white-yellow worms, curved by a crescent, sometimes found when digging the ground. At a younger age, they feed on humus, and after 2-3 years — the roots of plants. It should be noted that strawberries, strawberries belong to their favorite delicacies.It is necessary to combat them in a comprehensive manner.
In infected or newly developed areas, it is necessary to sow the plants that do not tolerate the brute larvae: lupine, marigold, buckwheat, rape, and then dig them up. Compost and dung heaps must be shoveled during frost, then the larvae will die.
The beds planned for strawberries must be treated with ammonia water in April-May and kept steaming and clean from weeds until next season. The larvae will contact with the soil and die.
Chemicals are also widely used in the fight. They make a plant under the bush in the spring before the appearance of berries. Common insecticides used to fight the larvae of the May Khrushchev include «Aktara», «Force», «Antihrusch». Apply them according to the instructions.
Birds can significantly damage your strawberry harvest. To prevent this, it is necessary to divert their attention and resort to some tricks. If you arrange around the beds the red balls used in the design, they will attract the attention of birds, but they obviously will not like them to taste. It will distract them and will not cause interest in the ripening of strawberries.It will also be effective to stretch the net over strawberries or place scare items.
To get a good harvest of strawberries, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures and processing strawberries from pests in spring. Be sure to remove rotted mulch, loosen the soil, transplant to the place of dead bushes young and apply fertilizer.
Treatment of bushes from pests and diseases in the spring is carried out at least three times. This will significantly increase the chances of getting a big crop.