CDC — Lice — Body Lice

Biology

Causal Agent:

Pediculus humanus humanus, the body louse, is a louse insect and is an ectoparasite whose only host are humans. The louse feeds on blood several times daily and resides close to the skin to maintain its body temperature.

Life Cycle:

The life cycle of the body louse has three stages: egg, nymph, and adult.

Eggs: Nits are body lice eggs. They are hard to see and are often confused for dandruff. Nits are laid by the adult female and are cemented at the base of the hair shaft nearest the skin. They are 0.8 mm by 0.3 mm, oval and usually yellow to white. Nits take about 1 week to hatch (range 6 to 9 days). Viable eggs are usually located within 6 mm of the skin.

Nymphs: The egg hatches to release a nymph. The nit shell then becomes a more visible dull yellow and remains attached to the hair shaft. The nymph looks like an adult body louse, but is about the size of a pinhead. Nymphs mature after three molts and become adults about 7 days after hatching.

Adults: The adult louse is about the size of a sesame seed, has 6 legs (each with claws), and is tan to grayish-white. In persons with dark hair, the adult louse will appear darker. Females are usually larger than males and can lay up to 8 nits per day. Adult lice can live up to 30 days on a person’s body. To live, adult lice need to feed on blood several times daily. Without blood meals, the louse will die within 1 to 2 days off the host.

www.cdc.gov

Phthiraptera

Parasitic lice

This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

Introduction

Lice belong to the order Phthiraptera, and are the only truly parasitic group amongst the exopterygote insects. As permanent ectoparasites of most birds and mammals they exhibit a remarkable level of host specificity which is unparalleled in most other metazoan parasites. Most individuals will spend their entire life cycle on a single host, with transmission largely occurring opportunistically when hosts are in close contact with each other, such as during breeding (but see also phoresy). This unique lifestyle has led to numerous adaptations according to their precise ecological niche on the host, consequently lice are considerably diverse in terms of their size and general body form. Specializations in the diet of lice underpin their major taxonomic divisions and they can be broadly separated into those that feed on skin debris, feathers and fur, and those that have specialized in blood feeding.

To date there are more than 3000 known species of lice and yet many more remain undescribed. With the possible exception of those species that impinge on the activity of humans and their livestock, the true biology of this cryptic group of insects remains obscure, but their remarkable host specificity has attracted much recent attention by evolutionary biologists interested in the ecology and cospeciation of lice and their hosts.

Characteristics

  • Wingless (apterous) ectoparasites
  • Three nymphal instars
  • Hemimetabolous (having a simple metamorphosis, i.e. no pupa)
  • Mouthparts — mandibles for chewing lice, stylets for sucking lice
  • Tarsi 1 or 2 segmented (1 in Anoplurans)
  • Dorsoventally flattened head
  • Development of operculum in egg
  • Reduced labial palps
  • Reduced compound eyes and no ocelli
  • Antennae are 3 to 5 segmented and capitate
    • Recessed into the head in the Amblycera
    • Filiform in the Ischnocera (May be modified as clasping organs in the male)
    • Typically short in Anoplura

Classification

The order Phthiraptera has been traditionally divided into two groups according to their different feeding habits: the chewing lice or «Mallophaga», and the Anoplura, colloquially known as the sucking lice. It is commonly assumed that the order is derived from a primitive Pscopteran-like ancestor which became parasitic first on birds.

Chewing lice with their large head and mandibles comprise the largest group with some 2900 species. These are separable into three distinct superfamilies — the Amblycera, Ischnocera and Rhyncophthirina. Amblycerans are found on a diverse range of mammals and birds, and have retained some of the more primitive characteristics of the order, with a lesser degree of specialization for particular habitats. This is reflected in their classification, and they divided into around sixty homogenous genera, whilst the Ischnocera are contained by over a hundred and fifty genera, of which around three quarters are confined to birds. Amblycera chew away at younger feathers and soft areas of the skin, causing localized bleeding from which some can drink. They usually roam freely about the surface of their host and seldom attach firmly to fur or feathers, unlike the avian Ischnocera which are more site specific, and will attach securely to the feathers or fur to escape the preening activity of their host. Ischnocera confine themselves to feeding on the downy part of feathers and softer fur. The Rhyncophthirina comprises a single genus which parasitise elephants and wart-hogs. They are a small louse carrying mandibles at the end of a long proboscis-like snout. This allows them to drill through their hosts thick skin.

Anoplura are a much smaller group comprised of some 500 species. These are restricted to mammals, and like the Rhyncophthirina, feed using maxillae positioned at the end of a snout-like protrusion to pierce the skin. Feeding solely on blood they remain at the feeding site causing localized skin irritations to their host. Because of this they are the vectors to a number of blood borne diseases. This group includes the human louse Pediculus humanus, consequently they are probably the most well studied louse group.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The phylogenetic relationships and classification of the four main groups of lice have been matters of contention for some time. A cladistic analysis of the morphological data conducted by Lyal (1985) detailed objections to the traditional classification of lice into «Mallophaga» and Anoplura. His study supported the monophyly of the Phthiraptera, with Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina forming a monophletic group, sister group to the Ischnocera; the Amblycera are the sister group of this assemblage. This working hypothesis seems to have received general support amongst most leading lice systematists. Nevertheless, the familial relationships amongst most major groups of lice are poorly understood, and resolution of these relationships awaits an analysis of all available morphological data, as well as the gathering of molecular information. These relationships will not be easy to uncover as many groups have had a long and complex independent history, frequently involving instances of parallel and convergent evolution.

Other Names for Phthiraptera

  • Vernacular Names: Parasitic lice

References

Clay, T. 1949. Some problems in the evolution of a group of ectoparasites. Evolution 3: 279-299.

Clay, T. 1951. An introduction to a classification of the avian Ischnocera (Mallophaga): Part I. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 102,2:171-195.

See also:  How to Control the Colorado Potato Beetle Organically

Clay, T. 1970. The Amblycera (Phthiraptera: Insecta). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History Entomology 25: 75-98.

Demastes, J. W. and M. S. Hafner 1993. Cospeciation of pocket gophers ( Geomys ) and their chewing lice ( Geomydoecus ). Journal of Mammalogy 74(3): 521-530.

Durden, L. A. and G. G. Musser 1994. The sucking lice (Insecta, Anoplura) of the world: A taxonomic checklist with records of mammalian hosts and geographic distributions. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History 218: 90 pp.

Hafner, M. S. and R. D. M. Page 1995. Molecular phylogenies and host-parasite cospeciation: gophers and lice as a model system. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. 349: 77-83.

Hopkins, G. H. E. and T. Clay 1952. A checklist of the genera and species of mallophaga. London, British Museum of Natural History.

Lakshminarayana, K. V. 1986. Data book for the study of chewing lice (Phthiraptera : Insecta). Records of the Zoological Survey of India: Miscellaneous Publication, Occasional Paper 81: 1-63.

Lyal, C. H. C. 1985. A cladistic analysis and classification of trichodectid mammal lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 51(3): 187-346.

Page, D. M., R. D. Price, et al. 1995. Phylogeny of Geomydoecus and Thomomydoecus pocket gopher lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) infered from cladistic analysis of adult and first instar morphology. Systematic Entomology 20: 129-143.

Page, R. D. M. 1994. Parallel phylogenies: Reconstructing the history of host-parasite assemblages. Cladistics 10: 155-173.

Pilgrim, R. L. C. and R. L. Palma 1982. A list of the chewing lice (Insecta: Mallophaga) from birds in New Zealand. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 6: 1-32.

Rothschild, M. and T. Clay (1952). Fleas, flukes & Cuckoos: A study of bird ectoparasites. Colins (New Naturalist Series).London.

R?zsa, L. 1993. Speciation patterns of ectoparasites and «straggling» lice. International Journal for Parasitiology 23(7): 859-864.

tolweb.org

Lice vs. Ticks

Lice and ticks are parasites. Lice are small wingless insects that feed on dead skin or blood of hosts where as ticks are small arachnids that feed on the blood of mammals, birds and some reptiles.

There are three lice species that are known to be disease agents in humans. There are over 2,500 species of chewing lice, and 500 known species of sucking lice.

Comparison chart

Lice versus Ticks comparison chart

Lice Ticks
About Lice are small wingless insects that feed on dead skin or blood of hosts. Ticks are small arachnids that are also external parasites that feed on blood of mammals, birds and some on reptiles and amphibians.
Classification and Anatomy Lice belong to Phylum Arthopoda and Class Insecta, and Order Mallophaga (chewing lice) or Order Phthiraptera (sucking lice). Ticks belong to the Phylum Arthopoda, and Class Arachnida, and Order Acari.
Feeding and Nutrition Blood of hosts Blood of hosts
Life Cycle The life cycle of lice consists of three stages, nit, nymph and adult, and the duration from egg to egg stage is about one month. The life cycle of ticks consists of four stages: egg, larva, nymph and adult. It feeds on three different hosts during their life cycle which lasts for 2 years.
Behaviour and Habitat Chewing lice feed on mammals (except humans) and birds. Sucking lice are found on humans and mainly thrive by sucking blood from the scalp. They spread through common clothes, combs and other bedding. Ticks are commonly found near trees and shrubs and water. They attach to a host’s body by inserting its mandibles and feeding tube into the skin of the host (mainly dogs and cats).
Diseases Lice are associated with Rickettsial diseases. Ticks can transmit diseases like Lyme disease, Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis.

Contents: Lice vs Ticks

Differences in Biological Classification and Anatomy

Lice belong to Phylum Arthopoda and Class Insecta, characterized by a separate head, thorax and abdomen, and three pairs of legs. Chewing and sucking lice fall into two different orders Mallophaga (chewing lice) and Phthiraptera (sucking lice).

Ticks belong to the Phylum Arthopoda, and Class Arachnida characterized by a fused head and thorax and four pairs of legs in adults. These parasites have sensory organs that can detect odor, heat and humidity which helps them locate their host.

Life Cycle of Ticks vs Lice

The life cycle of lice consists of three stages: nit, nymph and adult, and the duration from egg to egg stage is about one month. Lice can last about one month on a person’s scalp.

The life cycle of ticks consists of four stages: egg, larva, nymph and adult. It feeds on three different hosts during their life cycle which lasts for 2 years.

Differences in Behavior and Habitat

Unlike some insects that only lay eggs in other parasitic hosts, ticks and lice spend their entire life-span as parasites.

Chewing lice feed on mammals (except humans) and birds. Sucking lice are found on humans and mainly thrive by sucking blood from the scalp. They spread through common clothes, combs and other bedding. Besides head lice, humans host other types of lice such as body lice and pubic lice.

Ticks are parasites that feed on blood and are commonly found near trees and shrubs and water. They attach to a host’s body by inserting its mandibles and feeding tube into the skin of the host. Ticks are commonly found in dogs and cats.

Diseases caused by lice and ticks

Lice are associated with Rickettsial diseases, which are caused by bacteria and lead to conditions such as Typhus, rocky Mountain Spotted fever and other diseases in humans. Ticks can transmit diseases like Lyme disease, Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis.

References

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Comments: Lice vs Ticks

Anonymous comments (1)

The class and specie name of thick and lice.

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How (And Why) To Turn Off Live Photos On Your iPhone

Live Photos was introduced in iOS 9 as a special feature for the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus. It’s also the default camera setting for the iPhone SE, iPhone 7 and iPhone 7Plus.

The way Live Photos works is to capture a MOV video file every time you snap a photo with your iPhone. The MOV file includes three seconds of video and sound, so when viewed on a supported device, the image seems to come to life.

Pretty cool, but there are some downsides.

For one, all that extra data makes for image file sizes that are roughly double that of a standard photo. If you snap a lot of pictures, that can quickly add up and cause you to run short on storage space.

If you take low light pictures, Live Photos can result in grainy images because the camera is forced to continue shooting video so it can’t use a longer exposure to capture more light. Turning the feature off can result in a significant improvement.

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Finally, if you upload your iPhone photos to software that doesn’t support the feature, you can end up with a collection of photos plus unrecognized files. Using the software to delete the photos on your iPhone —as is typically done after import— leaves a mess of blank video files on the iPhone that then must be manually deleted (see below).

Orphaned Live Photos MOV files on iPhone after the associated photos were deleted (Credit: screen . [+] capture by Brad Moon)

So how do you turn off Live Photos?

Unlike many iOS features, there’s no Setting for Live Photos. Instead, you have to open the Camera app itself. At the top of the frame there are a series of icons. The one in the center —a circle with concentric rings— is the toggle for Live Photos. If the icon is yellow, Live Photos is active. Tap the icon and it turns white to indicate Live Photos has been turned off.

The yellow icon means Live Photos is on, white means Live Photos is turned off (Credit: screen . [+] Capture by Brad Moon)

That’s it. With the preference located with in the Camera app itself, it’s much more convenient for toggling Live Photos on and off, as needed. Whichever setting you leave it on remains, even after you quit out of the camera app.

My primary mission is to help readers enjoy the best experience from their gadgets, consumer electronics, and accessories — through hands-on reviews, commentary and

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How To Use Live Photos To Create Amazing Moving Images On iPhone

Posted by Kate Wesson | October 22, 2019 Comments 126

Live Photos is an iPhone camera feature that brings movement in your photos to life! Instead of freezing a moment in time with a still photo, a Live Photo captures a 3-second moving image. You can even create stunning long exposure images with Live Photos. Read on to discover how to use Live Photos to create unforgettable living memories with your iPhone.

Table Of Contents: iPhone Live Photos

Click any title link below to go straight to that section of the article:

1. How To Capture A Live Photo On iPhone

It easy to shoot a Live Photo with your iPhone!

Simply open the built-in iPhone Camera app, and select Photo mode at the bottom of the screen.

The Live Photos icon (three circles) is at the top right of the screen. If it doesn’t have a line through it, Live Photos is switched on. If the icon has a line through it, tap it to turn on Live Photos.

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A Live Photo captures 3 seconds of movement and sound. 1.5 seconds of the Live Photo is captured before you press the shutter button, and 1.5 seconds is captured after.

Therefore, ensure you compose your shot and hold it there for a couple of seconds before you press the shutter. If you don’t do this, the first part of your Live Photo will be of you moving the camera to frame the shot.

Likewise, your iPhone will record for 1.5 seconds after you’ve pressed the shutter. So make sure you keep your phone still for a couple of seconds after taking the shot.

Also, be aware that Live Photos capture audio as well as video. So you’ll hear any sound in your Live Photo when you play it back.

Below is a 3-second Live Photo of people on the beach. Hit the Play button to view it:

If you’re taking an action shot of a person, you might need to tell your subject to move when you take the photo.

Do this at least a couple of seconds before you press the shutter so that you don’t capture your voice in the Live Photo.

When you no longer want to shoot Live Photos, tap the Live Photos icon at the top of the Camera app to switch it off.

Live Photos take up a lot of storage space on your iPhone. So if you leave it on for every shot, you may find that your phone quickly becomes full.

2. How To Play A Live Photo

After taking a Live Photo, it appears in the Photos app alongside your ordinary still images. You’ll also find it in a separate album titled Live Photos.

Unfortunately, in thumbnail view, there’s no way of knowing whether an image is a Live Photo.

In the screenshot below, there are several Live Photos amongst these images. But it’s impossible to tell which ones they are when viewing them like this.

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So how do you know which of your images are Live Photos?

Tap on the image thumbnail so it opens in full screen. If it’s a Live Photo, you’ll see the word LIVE at the top of the photo.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23357/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

To view the Live Photo animation, hold your finger down on the photo. As soon as you remove it, the video will stop playing.

3. How To Edit A Live Photo

Editing Live Photos in the Photos app is similar to editing still images. But for Live Photos, there are some extra editing tools.

When you open a Live Photo, tap Edit at the top right of the screen.

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The editing tools appear at the bottom of the screen.

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The Adjust icon lets you adjust color, exposure, and sharpness using a range of tools.

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Swipe across the adjustment tools beneath the photo and select the one you want to use. Then drag the slider to make the adjustment.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26686/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

To apply a color or black and white filter, tap the Filters icon.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26687/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

Swipe through the list of filters, then tap a filter to apply it to your image. Use the slider to adjust the filter strength.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»560″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/560/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/708/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/970/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/996/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/1062/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/1120/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/1120/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/1494/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26688/1680/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

To crop or rotate your Live Photo, tap the Crop icon.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26689/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

To straighten your image, tap the Straighten icon, then drag the slider left or right.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26690/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

To crop your photo, drag the corner crop handles.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26691/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

You can also rotate or flip the photo using the icons at the top left. You can adjust the vertical or horizontal perspective using the icons near the bottom right.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26692/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

You can make further edits to the Live Photo by tapping the Live icon.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26693/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

If the sound you recorded with the Live Photo is distracting, tap the Sound (speaker) icon to mute the audio.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26694/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

The Sound icon will turn grey to indicate that the sound is switched off.

You can change the key photo (the one you see in your photo library) using the slider at the bottom of the screen. Move the slider until you find the image you want.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26695/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

Tap Make Key Photo to confirm your choice.

A white dot will appear over your chosen photo. A grey dot appears over the original key photo in case you ever want to go back to it.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26696/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

If you want to convert your Live Photo to a still image, tap the yellow Live icon at the top of the screen.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26697/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

The icon will turn white to show that it’s no longer a Live Photo. You can switch it back to a Live Photo at any time by tapping the Live icon again.

When you’ve finished editing your Live Photo, tap Done to save the changes.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26698/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

If you want to remove the editing you applied, you can revert back to the original Live Photo at any time.

In the Photos app, find the Live Photo you want to revert, and tap Edit.

Then tap Revert > Revert to Original.

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»560″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/560/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/708/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/970/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/996/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/1062/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/1120/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/1120/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/1494/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/26699/1680/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

4. How To Add Live Photo Effects

There are three special effects that you can apply to your Live Photos: Loop, Bounce, and Long Exposure.

To apply a Live Photo effect, go to the Photos app and open a Live Photo. Next, swipe up to reveal the Effects section:

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23359/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

Tap the effect you want to use (Loop, Bounce, or Long Exposure). The effect will apply to your Live Photo immediately.

You can change your mind at any time by tapping on a different effect. Or select Live to return to the original Live version with no effect applied.

Below you’ll discover what the three effects look like. But first, here’s our starting point – a basic Live Photo video with no effect applied:

4.1 Loop

The Loop effect turns your Live Photo into a continuous video loop. Once the video ends, it starts playing from the beginning again, until you stop it.

This works best where the subject is doing something in roughly the same area of the scene. For example, someone skipping, juggling, or dancing.

It can also work well if your subject enters and exits the scene during the original 3-second Live Photo. For example, someone getting out of a vehicle and leaving the scene. The end result could look like hundreds of people leaving the vehicle!

Below we’ve turned the waterfall Live Photo into a loop:

4.2 Bounce

Bounce is a fun effect that makes your Live Photo play as normal, and then in reverse. It repeats this until you stop the video.

The Bounce effect makes the waterfall below look rather unnatural. But it’s definitely interesting!

4.3 Long Exposure

The Long Exposure option creates a photo with a long exposure (slow shutter) effect.

Long exposure is most suited to scenes that include movement as it blurs the motion. Flowing water, firework,s or a moving car’s lights look great with a long exposure effect.

If you think you’ll want to create a long exposure from your Live Photo, it’s best to use an iPhone tripod. This ensures that the stationary parts of the scene remain sharp in the final image.

The waterfall Live Photo below has had the Long Exposure effect applied. Notice the soft blur of the moving water, while the stationary objects such as the rocks appear sharp:

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»560″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/560/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/708/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/970/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/996/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/1062/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/1120/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/1120/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/1494/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23366/1680/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

5. How To Share Live Photos

Once you’ve shot some great Live Photos on iPhone, you might want to share these moments with family and friends.

You can share Live Photos to another iPhone or iPad as long as it’s running iOS 9 or later. You can use iMessage, AirDrop, or iCloud Photo Sharing.

To share a Live Photo, open it in the Photos app, then tap the Share icon.

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Next, select the sharing option that you want to use, e.g. Messages, Airdrop, etc.

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Note that you can’t email a Live Photo. If you email it, the attachment will send as a still JPEG image.

6. How To Upload Live Photos To Facebook & Instagram

As well as sharing your Live Photos to other iPhones and iPads, you might want to share them on social media.

Facebook and Tumblr already allow you to share Live Pictures. More social media platforms are likely to support Live Photos at some point too.

If you want to share a Live Photo on Facebook, you can’t use the Facebook sharing option in the Photos app. Instead, you need to upload the photo from within your Facebook app.

From there, you can choose whether you want to share it as a Live Photo or a still image. Use the Live icon at the top of the photo to switch it on or off:

» alt=»Live Photos» width=»320″ height=»auto» data-src=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/1120/Live-Photos.jpg» srcset=»» data-srcset=»https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/546/Live-Photos.jpg 640w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/616/Live-Photos.jpg 720w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/320/Live-Photos.jpg 769w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/640/Live-Photos.jpg 750w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/640/Live-Photos.jpg 828w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1125w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1136w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1334w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/960/Live-Photos.jpg 1242w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1538w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/640/Live-Photos.jpg 1792w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2208w, https://images.iphonephotographyschool.com/23360/960/Live-Photos.jpg 2436w» sizes=»(min-width: 768px) 768px, 100vw» />

Instagram doesn’t yet support the use of Live Photos. But you can use a third-party app such as Lively (free to download from App Store) to convert a Live Photo to video. You can then upload the video to Instagram.

Here’s how to save a Live Photo as video:

Open the Live Photo in the Lively app, then select Movie at the top of the screen. Tap Export Movie, then tap the Save icon. This saves the Live Photo as an ordinary video file in your photo library:

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You can then open the Instagram app and upload the video from your library.

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Before posting to Instagram, you can use the filters and editing tools to enhance your Live Photo.

7. When To Use iPhone Live Photos For The Best Results

A Live Photo offers so much more than an ordinary still image.

The iPhone Live Photo feature is perfect for capturing any scene with moving subjects or interesting sounds.

A Live Photo will capture all those extra little details that you can’t convey in a still image.

Crashing waves, a river or waterfall, trees swaying in the wind, or a busy street scene all make great Live Pictures.

It’s also fantastic for scenes where the sound would add an extra sensory element to the image. For example, birdsong or the sound of water when you’re shooting out in nature.

Live Photos also works well when photographing people – especially children. It allows you to capture those fun “out-take” moments before and after you take the photo.

Without Live Photos, you wouldn’t be able to preserve these special little moments.

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