Carnation treatments, most common diseases and pests of this flower, Nexles

Carnation treatments, most common diseases and pests of this flower


The carnations are a plant species which blooms annually, twice a year or year-round. The carnation has pointy, lanceolate, a green to gray color, positioned alongside the stem leaves; the leaves also slightly bend towards the outer side.

The flowers can be pleasant smelling, simple or double, brightly colored. There are a lot of carnation hybrids which do not have a smell, but they can have a large variety of colors.

The carnations often bloom during the cold seasons, mostly at the beginning of winter. These flowers are perfect garden flowers, but also, they look great as vase flowers. If the carnations are well taken care of, they can live up to one month in flowerpots.

The carnations originated from Eurasia and are the most popular garden flowers, a part of the 300 annual, bi-annual perennial Dianthus plant species. There are hundreds of types and hybrids. In Greek, “dianthus” means “flower of Zeus” or “divine flower”.

The carnations can grow up to 60-90 cm long, although most garden species only reach 25-50 cm.

Planting and taking care of the carnations

The carnations are very popular flowers, both commercially and ornamentally.

The carnations could be well used as sideways decorative plants, in rock/pebble decorated gardens and even in flower pots. The carnations grow in a large variety of colors, such as, red, brick-red, orange, violet, yellow, pink, white, cream-colored.

The carnations require a fertile soild, slightly alkaline or neutral from a pH point of view, easily drainable, with at least 4-5 hours of sun per day.

The soil must be moist. Avoid over-watering the plants because it can lead to the foliage turning yellow. To have to carnations bloom constantly, they must be treated with a liquid fertilizing solution (10-10-10), every 6-8 weeks.

The wilted flowers must be removed in order to encourage continuous blooming.

Main diseases

Fairy-ring Leaf Spot is produced by the Mycosphaerella dianthi fungus. The disease is visible on all the plant’s organs, where round or oval spots, yellow to brown in color, with a red or violet margin, grow. On the surface of the spots a brown to black, dusty looking mold grows, which represents the fungus’ sporulation. The affected flowers no longer open or they grow irregularly.

Prevention and control measures:

  • Avoid excess watering and periodically air the greenhouse
  • Gathering and burning the plants which have been severely attacked
  • Plant healthy treatments using Topsin 70 WDG (10 g/ 10 l water), Teldor 500 SC (7 ml/ 10 l water), Rovral 500 SC (10 ml/ 10 l water).

Carnation Rust is caused by the Uromyces caryophyllinus fungus. The disease attacks the leaves and stems. The affected plants have yellow leaves and on both sides of the yellow leaves the fungus’ uredospore grow, which are oval, brown and limited by the torn apart epidermis. The affected plants have thin stems, do not bloom or if they do, the flowers are bleached.

Prevention and control measures:

  • Gathering and destroying the affected parts of the plants
  • Avoid excess moisture in the crop
  • Plant health treatments using Bumper 250 EC (20 ml/ 10 l water), Polyram (20 g/ 10 l water), Dithane M 45 (20 g/ 10 l water), Topas 250 EC (5 ml/ 10 l water).

Dianthus Leaf Spot is caused by the Septoria dianthi fungus. The disease attacks the leaves, stems and the flowers. On the affected organs, circular or irregularly shaped spots, white to gray colored spots, narrowed by red to violet edge, appear. This disease affected both greenhouse plants and crop plants. The affected plants have dried-up base leaves, with a wrinkled and twisted look.

Prevention and control measures:

  • Using healthy cuttings
  • Gathering and destroying the plants which have been severely attacked
  • Plant health treatments using Topsin 70 WDG (10 g/ 10 l water), Merpan 50 WP (20 g/ 10 l water), Mirage 45 EC (35 g/ 10 l water), Falcon 460 EC (20 ml/ 10 l water).

Carnation Blight is caused by the Alternaria dianthi fungus. The disease attacks the leaves, the stems and the flowers. The affected organs have circular, gray to white spots, of 10-15 mm diameter, covered by a black mold in the center. The affected leaves gradually wilt from the base towards the edges and on the stems injuries form which surround the stems like a ring. As a result of the attack, the stems break. The plants which have been severely affected have shorter internodes and bloom less.

Prevention and control measures:

  • Avoid excess moisture inside the plant’s growing places
  • Using healthy cuttings
  • Plant health treatments using Antracol 70 WP (20 g/ 10 l water), Bravo 500 SC (20 ml/ 10 l water), Merpan 50 WP (20 g/ 10 l water), Dithane M45 (20 g/ 10 l water).

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi in Carnations is caused by the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi fungus. The symptoms are the leaves gradually wilting and turning yellow. At the base of the stem, the tissues are brown and destroyed. As a result of the attack, the stems easily break. If the stems are sectioned on the affected areas the veins will look completely brown or will have longitudinal brown stripes. The affected roots are either brown or red. On the rotten tissues, especially on the base of the stem, the fungus grows a cotton like mycelium where the sporulation can be differentiated.

Prevention and control measures:

  • Using only healthy cuttings
  • Gathering and destroying the affected plants
  • Plant health treatments using Dithane M45 (20 g/ 10 l water), Topsin70 WDG (10 g/ 10 l water), Falcon 460 EC (25 ml/ 10 l water), Zamir 40 EW (25 ml/ 10 l water)

Gray Mold disease caused by the Botrytis cinereal fungus. The disease mostly attacks the flowers. Rapidly extending and turning brown spots grow on the flowers. On the surface of the affected tissues, the gray sporulation, which is characteristic to this fungus, grows.

Prevention and control measures:

  • Gathering and destroying the affected leaves and flowers
  • Plant health treatments using Teldor 500 SC (7 ml/ 10 l water), Rovral (10 ml/ 10 l water), Topsin 70 WDG (10 g/ 10 l water), Ridomil Gold MZ (25 g/ 10 l water)

Pests

Aphids , for which the following pesticides are recommended: Calypso 480 SC (2 ml/ 10 l water), Decis Mega (3 ml/ 10 l water), Karate Zeon (2 ml/ 10 l water), Fastac (2 ml/ 10 l water).

Acari, for which the following pesticides are recommended: Envidor 240 SC (5 ml/ 10 l water), Nissorun (5 g/ 10 l water), Milbeknock (7.5 ml/ 10 l water).

Thrips, for which the following pesticides are recommended: Confidor Energy (25 ml/ 10 l water), Novadim Progress (20 ml/ 10 l water).

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Got a question?

Carnations were blooming profusely but have not seemed to thrive. Height has not increased and they have stopped blooming. There were lots of buds but now it looks as if the inside of the buds have been eaten I dug one up and the roots have not made any growth. I have fertilized and watered with care. Any idea please? Pinks planted at the same time in a different area have thrived the problem is how to displat the blooms.

Can you tell us if you saw any pest inside the buds (because you said that’the inside of the buds have been eaten’)? Also, they are in pots or in the garden?

www.nexles.com

7 Steps to an Effective Pest Management Program

February 1, 2006 • FQ&S Staff

In food processing environments, quality pest control is a must. A pest infestation can put your product and your business’ reputation at risk because nobody wants to find something in the product that’s not on the label. But pest management in such environments is also very sensitive. Special precautions must be taken to keep pest control treatments from threatening food safety. To better control pests while respecting a food plant’s sensitive environmental needs, you need to apply the principles of integrated pest management (IPM).

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IPM programs are successful for a simple reason. They recognize that pest management is a process, not a one-time event, and that relying solely on chemical controls when so many other tools are available is never the best solution. By addressing the underlying causes of pest infestations – access to food, water and shelter – IPM can prevent infestation before pesticides are even considered. In practice, IPM is an ongoing cycle of seven critical steps:

Step 1: Inspection

The cornerstone of an effective IPM program is a schedule of regular inspections. For food processors weekly inspections are common, and some plants inspect even more frequently. These routine inspections should focus on areas where pests are most likely to appear – receiving docks, storage areas, employee break rooms, sites of recent ingredient spills, etc. – and identify any potential entry points, food and water sources, or harborage zones that might encourage pest problems.

Step 2: Preventive Action

As regular inspections reveal vulnerabilities in your pest management program, take steps to address them before they cause a real problem. One of the most effective prevention measures is exclusion, i.e., performing structural maintenance to close potential entry points revealed during inspection. By physically keeping pests out, you can reduce the need for chemical countermeasures. Likewise, sanitation and housekeeping will eliminate potential food and water sources, thereby reducing pest pressure.

Step 3: Identification

Different pests have different behaviors. By identifying the problematic species, pests can be eliminated more efficiently and with the least risk of harm to other organisms. Professional pest management always starts with the correct identification of the pest in question. Make sure your pest control provider undergoes rigorous training in pest identification and behavior.

Step 4: Analysis

Once you have properly identified the pest, you need to figure out why the pest is in your facility. Is there food debris or moisture accumulation that may be attracting it? What about odors? How are the pests finding their way in – perhaps through the floors or walls? Could incoming shipments be infested? The answers to these questions will lead to the best choice of control techniques.

Step 5: Treatment Selection

IPM stresses the use of non-chemical control methods, such as exclusion or trapping, before chemical options. When other control methods have failed or are inappropriate for the situation, chemicals may be used in least volatile formulations in targeted areas to treat the specific pest. In other words, use the right treatments in the right places, and only as much as you need to get the job done. Often, the “right treatment” will consist of a combination of responses, from chemical treatments to baiting to trapping. But by focusing on non-chemical options first, you can ensure that your pest management program is effectively eliminating pests at the least risk to your food safety program, non-target organisms and the environment. You’ll also see higher pest control scores at audit time.

Step 6: Monitoring

Since pest management is an ongoing process, constantly monitoring your facility for pest activity and facility and operational changes can protect against infestation and help eliminate existing ones. Since your pest management professional most likely visits your facility on a bi-weekly or weekly basis, your staff needs to be the daily eyes and ears of the IPM program. Employees should be cognizant of sanitation issues that affect the program and should report any signs of pest activity. You don’t want to lose a day when it comes to reacting to an actual pest presence.

Step 7: Documentation

Let’s face it, the food safety auditor’s visit can make or break your business. Since pest control can account for up to 20 percent of your total score, it’s imperative that your IPM program is ready to showcase come audit time. Up-to-date pest control documentation is one of the first signs to an auditor that your facility takes pest control seriously. Important documents include a scope of service, pest activity reports, service reports, corrective action reports, trap layout maps, lists of approved pesticides, pesticide usage reports and applicator licenses.

www.foodqualityandsafety.com

Termites & Borers

Termite Information Guide

Termites or as they are often called White Ants are a common and serious pest to homeowners. The CSIRO reports that termites cause more damage than fire and that more than one in five houses had termite damage with an estimated damage bill of more than $100 million every year.

The Termite Colony

The number of castes that make up a Termite colony, are a king, queen, worker, soldier, reproductives and alates. All of these castes contribute in individual ways to growth of a colony. White ant colonies can grow up to 1 million termites in each.

The Queen can lay over 1000 eggs per day and can live for up to 25 years. She and the King initiate the colony and produce most of the eggs until the colony matures. When the Queen dies a replacement from the chosen reproductives takes her place.

A soldiers’ function is to protect the colony from intruders. They are males and females whose reproductive organs and sexual characteristics have not yet formed.

Worker castes are the primary locaters of the food source and feeders of the other members of the colony. Reproductives are the future Kings and Queens of colonies yet to be developed or replacements of existing if they die. They are more susceptible to the outside environment than other castes. When fully developed they acquire wings and swarm in the warmer months leaving their parent colony. These new colonies are usually set up in trees or where moisture and food is evident.

The prime source of food for termites is cellulose which is predominantly found in timber. Termites can eat dried timber, rotting timber and living trees. Termites are extremely tenacious in finding timber even though those scouting for food are blind. If timber is present, termites will find it.

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Common Termites

There are 2 main species of termites in Brisbane that cause the most damage to sound timber. Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes.

Coptotermes (Acinaciformis)

Coptotermes is considered to be the most destructive termite in Australia mostly because of the fact that is present over the entire mainland. The nests can be mound type in Queensland but the most common nest site is in tree stumps/living trees, in filled patios or sleeper retaining walls.

Soil contact is desirable but not essential, provided that there is a moisture supply for the colony. For example a leaking tap in the wall behind a shower. Of particular concern is the fact that this species has been known to cause electrical fires by shorting out wiring. For example workings behind a power point. Coptotermes soldiers measure up to 6mm long with tear-shaped yellowish heads and dark slender tapering mandibles without visible teeth.

Their habit of exuding a drop of milky fluid from the frontal gland (on the top of the head) when disturbed, offers a sure means of identifying living specimens. Soldiers are relatively numerous in the colonies and when the galleries are broken open they will usually appear promptly.

Schedorhinotermes

These are the most common termite found around Brisbane. These white ants Brisbane are a serious pest species that is capable of causing extensive damage to homes, fences, trees living and dead, retaining walls etc. The nests are often very difficult to locate, preferred locations include trees living/dead, Retaining walls under in-fill patio slabs, or under other concrete slabs.

Colonies can be very populous, consisting of many thousands of termites. The minor soldiers appear first in a developing nest, once the nest is well established the major soldiers appear. The appearance on the major soldier usually indicates the colony’s increasing potential for damaging timber in service.

Schedorhinotermes soldiers (major) are 5mm — 7mm long and have bulbous heads, the minor soldiers are about 2/3 the length of the majors, they have narrower heads and more slender mandibles.

This species of termite is very easy to disturb, if workings are broken open ect-the termites will often retreat deep into affected timbers or back to the nest. This can have an adverse effect on treatments, as such and suspicious activity should be left alone until it can be inspected.

Hetrotermes

Found throughout Australia this species of termites is not considered to be a risk to homes. Instead, these white ants often attack fences, decking, posts and poles where some from of decay is already present.

This species do not build mounds, but have very small colonies adjacent to stumps, logs or on the ground, especially near rotting wood. Soldiers are 3.5mm — 7mm long with long rectangular heads, and no obvious teeth on their curved mandibles.

Nasuitermes

Whilst not common in Brisbane this is a species that can cause damage to sound timber. They build arboreal nests (mound on the side of a tree) commonly on Ironbark and Stringybark trees. They often attack fence posts and power poles but can enter homes esp in homes built in native bushland blocks. Soldiers are 5-7 mm long with a head that is drawn out to a point.

Microcerotermes

A very common termite found around gardens and old fences they are 4.5mm — 5.5mm long Nests are built on the ground as a small mound or on the side of a living or dead tree. Can enter homes but damage is mostly limited to trim timbers of gyproc it is not an important economic pest.

If you find Termite activity! Do not disturb them just call us! Our experienced pest control services include inspections and treatments of properties affected by termites and white ants Brisbane.

You should have regular termite inspections of all timber and possible termite entry points. We can identify timber problems and advise you of the solutions. If you find termite damage in your home, call us and do not disturb the termites. We will investigate the size and nature of the infestation and advise you on the available options.

Borers

Brisbane residents face a few different types of borer pests.

Powderpost Beetles

The powderpost beetle is one of the most important timber borers found in Queensland. The larvae can reduce susceptible timber to a fine, flour-like powder. The beetle can attack seasoned timber causing significant structural damage, often with considerable financial consequences.

Scientific Name
Lyctus Brunneus

Description
The adults are up to 7mm long, dark-brown, shiny, flattened and elongated. Adults have a distinct head and the terminal segments on their antennae appear to be clubbed. The larvae are cream-coloured with brown head and jaws and three pairs of small jointed legs. Larvae, on hatching, are about 0.5mm long and straight-bodied but later become C-shaped.

Distribution
Powderpost beetle attack in susceptible timber is very common in tropical and subtropical climates in Queensland.

Life Cycle

Female beetle lays up to 70 eggs in sapwood containing starch, which is essential for larval growth. Eggs hatch after 14 days and the larvae create tunnels along the wood grain as they feed. Larvae may take from 2-12 months to mature, depending on temperature, humidity and food supply. Fully-grown larvae tunnel towards the surface and create oval cells within which they pupate. Mature beetles emerge after 2-3 weeks through circular holes (1-2 mm diameter), creating small piles of frass on the timber surface. Re-infestation is common for up to five years after tree-felling, until the food resource is depleted.

Damage
Powderpost (and all Lyctine) beetles attack only the sapwood of certain hardwoods and do not attack softwoods. Susceptible timbers must contain enough starch to nourish the developing larvae. The heartwood is never infested, although adults may emerge through it. Most infestations occur in logs or sawn timbers drying at the saw-mill. Infestation may not be noticed until the timber is in-service and adults begin to emerge. Infested timber contains galleries packed with fine, powdery frass.

The infested area may be reduced to powder within a shell of wood, perforated by emergence holes. Small piles of smooth, floury frass may be found outside the timber. Infestation may occur anywhere where susceptible timber has been used (for example, in subfloor areas, living space, roof space, or in furniture and artefacts). In new houses, emergence holes may appear in the lining materials (for example, in plasterboard and paneling) and joinery. Such holes are made by adults emerging from the hardwood framing beneath.

Queensland Pine Beetle

The Queensland pine beetle is a small native beetle and a pest of hoop pine timbers. There are about 1100 species of Anobiid beetles (Family Anobiidae) world-wide, but only about 200 of these occur in Australia. In Queensland, four species of Anobiid may be found in or around buildings. The Queensland pine beetle and the common furniture beetle, a native of Europe, are of economic significance, while the pine bark Anobiid and the cigarette beetle are of minor importance.

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Changes to building practices have decreased the risk of attack to timber-in-service and reports of damage have become less frequent. The Queensland pine beetle is a small native beetle and a pest of hoop pine timbers.

There are about 1100 species of Anobiid beetles (Family Anobiidae) world-wide, but only about 200 of these occur in Australia. In Queensland, four species of Anobiid may be found in or around buildings. The Queensland pine beetle and the common furniture beetle, a native of Europe, are of economic significance, while the pine bark Anobiid and the cigarette beetle are of minor importance.

Scientific Name
Calymmaderus Incisus

Description
The adult beetle is oval in shape, about 3mm long, 1.5mm wide and shiny reddish-brown.The antennae terminate in a three-segmented club. The body surface is covered in fine hairs and numerous minute punctures, which are not discernible to the eye. The legs can be tightly folded against the body. The eggs are white, spherical, 0.4mm in diameter and just visible. The larva is soft-bodied, clothed with numerous fine hairs, curved, wrinkled, and creamy white with dark-brown mandibles.When fully grown the larva measures 4-5mm in length and 1.5mm wide. The pupa is soft, oval, creamy-white and measures 3.0mm — 3.5mm in length and 1.5mm wide.

Distribution
It is a small native beetle widespread in south-eastern Queensland . Previously, it has caused significant damage to timbers only within the area limited by Murwillumbah (New South Wales) in the south, Bundaberg in the north and west to the Great Dividing Range.

Lifecycle & Habits
Live adults are found only from October to February and live for up to four weeks. Eggs are laid in cracks of susceptible timber and larvae hatch in a few weeks. Larvae can burrow long distances in the host timber and only the larval stage is responsible for destruction of timber. Tunnels run with and across the grain, giving a honey-combed appearance. The tunnel is loosely packed with frass, which, if viewed under a lens, is seen to consist of cigar-shaped pellets made up of the chewed wood. When rubbed into the palm of the hand, the frass is fine and gritty, quite distinguishable from the frass of the powderpost beetle, Lyctus, which is soft and silky.

Frass is sometimes ejected in small amounts through flight holes. Before pupating, the larva moves closer to the surface and constructs a pupal chamber. The development period for larvae is usually three years. Mature larvae pupate and adults emerge leaving a circular 2 mm hole in the timber surface. Painted surfaces or wall sheeting materials may be penetrated during emergence. It is a very slow working insect that may take many years to cause extensive damage.

Damage To Timber
Queensland pine beetle is a pest of susceptible hoop pine sapwood and rarely attacks other timbers. It attacks exposed (without paint or varnish finish), susceptible wood in housing and, less commonly, in furniture. Attack is most serious in old homes of more densely populated areas. Susceptible timber, if left untreated, will be re-infested until it is completely honeycombed and has lost most of its strength.

Beetles are most commonly found attacking hoop pine floors and walls, but are rarely found in roofing timbers. Typically, only some boards, or sapwood areas within boards, are attacked.
Adults emerge mainly from the underside of floors, so that boards which appear quite sound from the top may be riddled with holes underneath. Larvae can reduce susceptible timber to gritty, cigar-shaped pellets. In very old structures, it is likely that any infestation has died out naturally as the susceptible material was exhausted. In these structures painted wall boards often have a dimpled surface, with no new holes. This indicates an extinct infestation.

Furniture Beetle

The common furniture beetle is an introduced pest of exotic pine and some hardwood timbers and is found primarily in imported furniture and occasionally pine timber buildings in Queensland. There are about 1100 species of Anobiid beetles (Family Anobiidae) worldwide, but only about 200 of these occur in Australia.

In Queensland, four species of Anobiid may be found in or around buildings; the Queensland pine beetle and the common furniture beetle, a native of Europe, are of economic significance, while the pine bark Anobiid and the cigarette beetle are of minor importance.

Scientific Name
Anobium Punctatum

Description
The adult is about 4 mm long and usually chocolate brown with reddish-brown legs. The head is concealed beneath the hooded (cowl-like) Prothorax and the antennae end in a three-segmented club. The beetle is covered with fine yellowish hairs and has longitudinal rows of pits on the forewings.

The adult is larger, more rectangular and not shiny like the Queensland pine beetle; microscopic examination is usually required to distinguish between the two species. The characteristic shape of the head and Prothorax readily distinguish the common furniture beetle from the powderpost beetles, Lyctus species.

The eggs are ovoid and easily seen. The larva is greyish white with a gold-brown head, chestnut-brown mandibles and is covered with fine hairs. The larva is normally hook-shaped, but curls into a tight ball when removed from its tunnel.

Damage To Timber

It commonly attacks pine timbers, particularly those which have been in service for at least 20 years. It will attack hardwoods such as English oak and infestations have also been recorded from spotted gum. Both the sapwood and the heartwood of some timbers can be infested. Radiata pine in New Zealand is very susceptible and this has led to mandatory immunisation when it is used for building construction or furniture.

In Australia there have been very few examples of attacks on Radiata Pine, despite the widespread use of this timber — the reason for this anomaly is unclear. Attacks in buildings are generally heaviest in the damper areas including cellars, flooring, skirting boards and outbuildings.

Our team has the best treatments for borers, termites and white ants Brisbane has to offer.

Life Cycle
Powderpost (and all Lyctine) beetles attack only the sapwood of certain hardwoods and do not attack softwoods. Susceptible timbers must contain enough starch to nourish the developing larvae. The heartwood is never infested, although adults may emerge through it. Most infestations occur in logs or sawn timbers drying at the saw-mill. Infestation may not be noticed until the timber is in-service and adults begin to emerge. Infested timber contains galleries packed with fine, powdery frass. The infested area may be reduced to powder within a shell of wood, perforated by emergence holes.

Small piles of smooth, floury frass may be found outside the timber. Infestation may occur anywhere where susceptible timber has been used (for example, in subfloor areas, living space, roof space, or in furniture and artefacts). In new houses, emergence holes may appear in the lining materials (for example, in plasterboard and paneling) and joinery. Such holes are made by adults emerging from the hardwood framing beneath.

tanzerpestcontrol.com.au

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