Beetle barbel insect

Beetle barbel insect. Description, features, species, lifestyle and habitat of the barbel beetle

Barbel beetle or lumberjack — a large and widespread family of beetles. A characteristic feature of this species is a huge mustache, several times longer than the body. They are classified as follows: arthropod insects coleoptera barbel.

Entomological collectors love these beetles very much for their diversity in body size, elytra shape, various sculptural outgrowths, tubercles and spikes on elytra, and a wide range of colors. Some dried specimens cost about $ 1,000.

And also, a colony of woodcutter beetles is capable of destroying a significant territory of the forest in a short time, so foresters destroy them. For the above reasons, despite the multiplicity of species and wide distribution around the planet, individuals listed in the Red Book are found in the beetle family.

Description and Features

These insects are mostly harmless in themselves, they feed on plants, mainly of a tree species. But they sometimes look very menacing. The most striking sign is a long movable mustache, their size is 2, or even 5 times, exceeds the length of the body. At the base of the antennae are insect eyes. Mustache — the organ of smell and touch.

Common to all these bugs is the elongated body structure, although, depending on the species, the shape itself can be wider at the sides and more elongated. In the body structure of adults, three main parts can be distinguished: head, chest and abdomen. The limbs are divided into 5 components — the pelvis, trochanter, thigh, lower leg and foot.

They have 3 pairs of paws, hard chitin elytra, and some have large jaws. The abdomen is soft, divided into segments, most often by five. Their head is rounded, it happens that it is quite tightly inserted into the prothorax.

Males differ from females in a longer mustache, the upper jaws of males are also more developed, the abdomen is sharper, and often they are painted in a different color. Their body shape is more flattened and wider. These beetles are characterized by such a thing as sexual dimorphism. This is when females and males look different, as if from different species.

Many barbel beetles make harsh sounds, creak or rattle. This happens due to friction of the rib of the prothorax on the rough surface of the mesothorax, or friction of the hips of the hind legs on the elytra. They make such sounds when threatened by enemy attacks. Most likely to scare them away.

Their color is very different. It consists of the color of chitin wings and hairs on the body. Colors delight with its variety. Light shades — creamy yellow, lettuce, lemon, pink.

Dark shades — brown, purple, black. Very often combined coloring occurs — stripes, spots and other patterns, sometimes complex and ornate. All external differences of beetles depend on the habitat and species.


Very rough estimates reveal about 26,000 species of these creatures, but these data often change. Almost every year new species are discovered from different places, mainly from the tropics and areas close to the equator. However, in civilized Europe, exotic Asia and advanced America, new species also appear.

In Russia, there are 583 species. Despite the diversity and abundance, these insects have been well studied by scientists. Most of them are medium sized for beetles. But there are giants among them. For example, a lumberjack-titan living in North America reaches 19-22 cm in length.

There is another large species in South America — the Brazilian lumberjack, the big tooth, whose size is 17-18 cm. The barbel beetle from Fiji is the third largest of the large beetles known at the moment. Its size reaches 15 cm.


The largest European beetle at the moment is the carpenter barbel, it is about 6 cm long. In Russia, there is also a large representative of this species — the Ussuri relic barbel. He grew to 11 cm.

Relic barbel

There are 11 subfamilies related to barbel. Let’s talk about some of them. Their names: real barbel, lamina, barbel, prondrina, prionina barbel, spondylidin. Lamines include more than 13,000 species of beetles; outwardly, many of them look elegant. For example, some have transverse stripes of black and green in color along their wings.

Prionins include 1000 species. This is one of the oldest bugs. It is found everywhere on earth, except for the cold polar regions. The size is very different, from 2 mm to 178 mm, but mostly these are large beetles, sometimes even up to 22 cm.

Painted in brown, black, brown tones. It is to this subfamily that the giants among the beetles belong: the lumberjack-titan, the Brazilian lumberjack-big-tooth, and the Ussuri relic lumberjack.

Parandrins number 50 species, live in the tropics and subtropics. Atypical for the family, as they have a very short antennae, more reminiscent of stag beetles. The color of the hard wings is usually red-brown or black.

Whiskers or lepturins are a family of 100 genera and 2500 species. Small beetles, wings are painted with yellow-black stripes.

Spondylidins include over 100 species. These are night and twilight representatives. Their mustache is also not very long, their size is smaller than the body. The color of the wings is blue-black or black-brown.

This barbel beetle in the photo resembles a picture from Egyptian frescoes. It is very beautifully outlined, in the middle of the body there is an interception, wings with a noble matte sheen, a bit like a bronze vase. The mustache is segmented, the legs are very elegant. Just a model for the coat of arms.

Lifestyle & Habitat

Barbel beetle lives all over the planet where there are forests. Their distribution depends on the availability of food — mainly trees. The exceptions are the Arctic and Antarctic, precisely because of the lack of food supply.

In the way of life, they are quite mobile. They crawl, many quite fast. Some of them can fly. If you pick up a beetle, it emits a characteristic chatter. Their lifestyle depends on the climate and habitat.

In the southern regions, these insects have «become winged» since mid-spring. Central Asian beetles begin to fly closer to autumn. Some are active during the day; they feed mainly on flowers that open during the day. Others are active at night. Their food does not hide in the dark.

Both night and day bugs find hard-to-reach spots for rest or pairing. Depending on the size, the flight range is also determined. The larger the bug, the less it flies, the more it crawls. They lead a very secretive lifestyle. To see an adult beetle in the forest is a real gift for an entomologist and an alarming signal for a forester.

That what does the barbel beetle eat?, depends on its habitat. Adult beetles are saturated with pestles and stamens of flowers, young bark and leaves of bushes and trees. Slices of dead or healthy bark, petioles, sap of plants, pulp of cacti or other plants — this is what the barbel beetle eats.

That is, an adult beetle is almost harmless. And here barbel beetle larva — This is a scourge for trees, wooden buildings and objects made of wood. They develop in trees and feed on wood, causing great harm to forests on the planet.

Many beetles were divided into subspecies precisely due to the choice of tree species, which was chosen for feeding their larvae. For example, oak beetle barbel prefers hardwood, oak, for example.

It can settle in oak stumps, as well as in places of damage to the tree. This beetle is medium in size, from 3 to 6 cm, black with a brown tint, and glossy like resin. Elytra reddish at ends. In addition to oak, he chooses beech, hornbeam, elm, walnut for future larvae.

Black barbel beetle, or pine prefers to choose conifers. It is also called ship bug. His larva inexorably destroyed even finished ship designs, if they were built from infected pine. He himself eats flower pollen, needles and leaves.

Beetles that prefer coniferous trees for their masonry — larch, spruce, pine, include the flat beetle, with a purple color.

Purple beetle barbel he feeds on the soft bark of young trees, tender young needles. But its larvae harm trees almost on an industrial scale. They continue to destroy wood, even harvested and chopped for consumption. And they also love to live close to humans, destroying buildings.

Reproduction and longevity

The whole process of reproduction takes place in a quiet and peaceful place, somewhere higher. On the top of the tree, on the roof. In females, a special fluid (secret) is released that attracts a partner. Mating takes about 30 minutes. The female who receives attention remains under the protection and supervision of the male, who accompanies her until the appearance of eggs.

At the end of the mating season, the male dies, and the female survives it to lay eggs. The female beetle lays up to 100 eggs in the cracks of trees and wood details. She chooses the masonry by smell. Having created the clutch, the insect shows no more concern for the offspring.

Larvae emerge from the eggs, then pupae, and only after a few years they eat the passages in the tree and crawl out. The larvae themselves, growing, almost reach the length of an adult beetle. The entire life cycle consists of several stages: egg, larva, pupa, and imago.

Sometimes longhorn beetles pre-prepare a place for feeding and development of future larvae. They choose small trees, eat around the bark around the perimeter in the form of a ring, closer to the root. As a result, the tree begins to die slowly. And delayed larvae complete the destructive process.

They emit a loud crunch, biting into the wood. Sometimes in a dry forest you can even hear this characteristic sound. Larvae are very hardy. They tolerate any adverse conditions, live in dry and low-nutritional trees for many years.

They have a light body color, from white to yellowish. The body itself is soft, slightly flattened, with a well-developed cephalothorax. It is equipped with powerful jaws directed straight forward, which can perform both cutting and chewing functions.

The life cycle of an adult is quite short. The beetle emerges from the pupa in early spring, though for this the larva must have time to “pupate”. If the spring is far away, the chrysalis burrows into the core of the tree with a drill, and hibernates, waiting for the onset of heat.

Benefits and harm to humans

When the larva gets out, a hole is formed in the tree, from which small sawdust spills out. So it becomes clear where this harmful bug lives. Sometimes they eat a tree from the inside to complete trash, and it collapses.

Some bugs, such as a barbel, have become unpleasant human neighbors. In nature, they are rare, but they feel great in wooden houses. Upholstery of the house, floors, wooden window frames, rafters of the ceiling and the roof — everything can suffer if this insect starts. They lay larvae that destroy everything wooden.

Even furniture, beds, tables and chairs can suffer from such a neighborhood. Beetles prudently lay their eggs in inaccessible places — deep cracks in wooden products. After 2 weeks, larvae appear from them, which begin their invisible destructive activity. If you do not process these items on time, after a while everything will turn into dust.

There are, however, individuals of the lumberjack beetle that are not dangerous, but rather benefit. For example, gray barbel beetle not so harmful to the forest. It affects only old and dying trees, which accelerates the transition of loose wood into humus. Many beetles act as pollinators of flowering plants, benefiting more than classic pollinators.

How to get rid of a barbel

Beetle beetle at home — One of the worst enemies of man, if not the most dangerous. Its larvae are hardy, voracious, and not immediately detected. Therefore, you need to know some rules, how to get rid of the barbel bugso as not to be left without housing.

  • When choosing wood, be sure to check whether it is treated with an antiseptic.
  • When building a building, use special finishes for wood with an antiseptic. They will prevent the invasion of beetles.
  • If you have bugs, be sure to carry out an emergency chemical treatment. This is bromomethyl, zinc chloride, mercuric chloride. Moreover, such processing should be carried out 2-3 times a year. Larvae are tenacious; prevention is definitely necessary. It is important to remember that the process must be carried out under the supervision of the relevant services. It is better to call specialists from the sanitary and epidemiological station for this purpose.
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Experts also need to contact if you decide to carry out fumigation from bugs, poisonous gas treatment or the installation of poisonous baits. All these methods require a careful professional approach.

You can carry out the treatment with dry steam or, conversely, freezing. Only these methods are difficult to implement at home. And they are unsafe. Therefore, they are used in production, and only in strictly designated areas.

A modern method of getting rid of house bugs is microwave irradiation. A special device heats the wood even in hard to reach places, destroying the larvae. The advantage of this method is safety for people and buildings. It happens that some affected parts are easier to cut and replace with new, undamaged and processed.

Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry

Forest Health Protection Links Menu

Spruce Beetles in Firewood

Spruce beetles attack and breed only in spruce. Birch, hemlock, aspen, cottonwood and other trees are not at risk. Spruce beetles spend most of their life in the phloem tissue between the bark and the wood of a host tree. Adult beetles emerge in the spring and bore through the bark of a new host tree. Female beetles excavate galleries in which to lay eggs. The newly hatched larvae create feeding tunnels at right angles to the larger egg galleries, where they complete their one or two year life cycle.

If numerous beetles attack the tree, the resulting brood can girdle and kill the tree. Spruce beetles prefer to attack recently windthrown trees, but they also attack and kill standing trees that are weakened or diseased. Slow growing and less vigorous trees are also attacked when conditions favor beetle dispersal.

Trees killed by spruce beetles are often used as firewood. During the first winter after infestation both larvae and adult beetles may be present under the bark. Adult beetles may also be under the bark around the base of the tree through the second winter, and may emerge the following spring. Two years after the attack, beetles have left the tree. A two-year life cycle is most common in South-central Alaska.

Adult beetles over-wintering under the bark of firewood emerge when warmer weather arrives and seek out new host material, often a valuable landscape tree near the woodpile. By examining spruce logs to be used for firewood, and following suggestions below, you may avoid spruce beetle infestations in your live standing trees.

Condition of spruce firewood and ways to reduce beetle populations:

Fresh log with green needles when cut; bark peels away from wood smoothly; wood not split.

  • Store only enough firewood for a single winter’s use.
  • Split into stove-size pieces to dry out; stack loosely or separate to allow maximum air circulation.
  • Dry wood discourages new spruce beetle attacks.
  • De-bark log to eliminate potential beetle habitat.

Fresh log with green needles when cut; visible beetle attacks on bark surface (reddish-brown boring dust and pitch globules); bark may peel smoothly; wood not split.

  • Store only enough firewood for a single winter’s use.
  • Split into stove-size pieces to dry out; stack loosely or separate to allow maximum air circulation.
  • This will dry out the larvae and their food source.
  • De-bark log to eliminate larvae and habitat.

Dry log; rust colored or no needles present on tree when cut; some evidence of old beetle attacks or woodpecker activity; bark may adhere tightly or pull off in pieces.

  • Split and use prior to next spring to kill adult beetles that will emerge at that time.
  • Fire-scorch the outer portion of the bark, killing beetles beneath, but keep the bulk of the wood
  • intact (messy, but intact) for future use.
  • Consider preventive measures on surrounding live spruce trees.

Dry, old log or split wood; barks pulls off loosely

  • Spruce beetles will not attack well-seasoned wood and are normally gone from trees that have been dead for more than one year ( though beetles and other insects may enter the wood). Old wood, free of spruce beetles, is not a potential spruce beetle infestation source.

For more information:

Alaska Division of Forestry Forest Health Program
(907) 269-8460

Insect beetles species of beetles beetles of Russia

The first beetles appeared on our Earth more than three hundred million years ago. These living creatures make up the largest group of insects. Imagine that a squad consists of more than 350,000 different species.

Sixty percent of landmarks of beetles are representatives of only five families:

  1. Predator Beetles — 45 000.
  2. Ground beetles — 40 000.
  3. Weevils — 60 000.
  4. Barbels — 26,000.
  5. Leaf beetles — 35,000.

Insects have a wide range of habitats around the world, sometimes even settling in our houses and apartments. In our article we want to consider some species of beetles.

May bugs

May beetles are quite common in our latitudes. Their appearance occurs in the spring — most often it occurs in late April. What species of May beetles are known? In general, the entire genus is represented by 24 species, nine of them inhabit the territory of Russia. It is believed that bugs appear with budding on oaks and the appearance of leaves on birches. If you look at the soil on warm spring days, you can see the May beetles creeping out after wintering. In the evening, near the blooming green trees can be heard the buzz of insects. This may beetles. During the day they can be overlooked on the plants, they sit on the leaves, clinging to them with their feet. I must say that all types of Maybirds harm shrubs and trees, eating their greens and flowers.

The appearance of the May beetle

The body of the May beetle in length reaches 2-3.5 centimeters. It is covered with chitinous shell, which protects the internal organs. We are accustomed to the fact that the insect has a light brown shade. But in nature, different types of beetles (photos are given in the article) can have different colors, from reddish-brown to black. Shades depend on the habitat of insects. Brown color is characteristic for those individuals that live in open sunny places, and inhabitants of shady places, such as forests, have black cover. Beetles live in Asia and Europe, preferring forest-steppe with young pines. But quite well mastered and in the city, in artificial plantings of fruit trees.

Insect unique abilities

May beetles fly at a speed of three meters per second — quite good for a small creature. With good weather conditions, they travel up to twenty kilometers per day. The height of the flight of an insect ranges from six to one hundred meters. The purpose of the flight of all varieties of the Maybeetle is always green space. Eastern insect prefers the nearest forest or tall trees. And the western May beetles are oriented during the flight on the highest objects in the distance, as a rule, these are forests.

A feature of these unique insects is the ability to find the right path. Studying the habits of the beetle, biologists caught them and moved them to a completely different place, releasing them in a couple of days. Whatever seemed incredible, but insects took the same course, as if they were programmed to fly in a certain direction.

It is still unknown how the beetles are oriented. On the one hand, they determine the direction of the sun, but on the other — they fly beautifully in the evening when it is not there. Apparently, they have enough polarized light to understand where to go. Biologists even suggest that May beetles are able to memorize the surroundings, orienting themselves on the most visible objects.

Who are the bark beetles? The species of these insects are very diverse. All of them live in vast areas, causing significant damage to plants, both growing and felled. All these types of beetles are pests. These include:

  1. Dendrokton, or Luboed spruce.
  2. Beetle bark beetle-grinder (furniture or brownie).
  3. Sapwood birch.
  4. Shashel
  5. Oak big black barbel.
  6. Xylophage beetle.
  7. Beetle typograph. In the people it is called the bark beetle beetle.
  8. A wood bast beetle or wood bark beetle (woodcutter).


All species of this insect are common not only in forests, but also in all places where there are accumulations of wood. They calmly appear in wooden houses, in warehouses, country houses and even in wooden furniture. Since childhood, we know another insect name — wood beetle, or grinder.

Different types of pest beetles are able to deliver a lot of trouble to the inhabitants of the house. As a rule, when building a house or giving wooden elements are not always treated with protective equipment. If after a while you notice something wrong, or the floorboards creak, you should be aware that you have got uninvited guests — tree beetles. All types of household pests are subject to immediate destruction, since they themselves will not leave you, but during their stay many wooden things will be spoiled, including floors, frames, floors.

Drevototsy have a characteristic feature to lay their larvae not in the living wood, namely, in the saws. The beetle has a very small size — just a few millimeters. Almost all the time he is in the wood, there his life flows, and prefers dry old wood. I must say that the main harm is caused not by bugs, but by their larvae. After all, it is they who make the aisles in the boards, turning them almost into dust. It is difficult to imagine, but the larvae live from five to twenty years, gnawing through kilometers of moves. The woodwire himself is not capable of inflicting heavy damage. The beetles multiply rapidly, in the spring the females lay their eggs, and after a week the larvae feeding on the tree appear.

Methods of dealing with wood borers

If you have found damage on wooden surfaces, then it means that borer has penetrated into your home. This is the signal to start a fight with him. The fact is that for sure you will not immediately notice the uninvited guests, and when their presence becomes obvious, the colony reaches a decent size. To combat use of various kinds of persistent insecticides that have different forms (gel, spray, liquid).

Dendrocton, or fir bark

Dendroctones are common species of bark beetles. They can be found in Italy, England, Norway, in the countries of the Far East. The most acceptable for them is the taiga terrain, less often they live in steppe areas. Luboed can make small flights. But the main way of its distribution is the transportation of contaminated wood.

Coloring of beetle depends on its habitat, most often it is brown, black or brown. The body of an insect has an elongated elongated shape. A mustache resemble mace.

The female of the parasite lays eggs inside the wood; the hatched larvae feed on the whole network of tunnels. Then they grow up and after a while lay their larvae.

Grinders are parasites, like all species of bark beetles. The body of the insect is elongated, and the head is hidden by a peculiar hood. Basically it has a brown or brown tint. The surface of his body is covered with down. The beetle can fly, and then populates large areas. Insects perform mass migrations at the beginning of summer. Pests have their own protective mechanism, which is the ability to pretend to be dead.

Insects breed very quickly. For the year, females make four laying. With its modest size, beetles eat a lot.

Birch sap

All types of beetles (the photos are given in the article) — bark beetles — have an excellent appetite. The exception was not the birch sap. His favorite delicacy is old birch. But during breeding, the parasite will not bypass its attention and young trees. If such an insect settled in a tree, then it will live no more than a few years and will die.

The beetle gnaws holes in the wood, which provide airing of their home and become the place of fertilization of females. Insect length does not exceed 6.5 millimeters. On the wings there are spots. Mass beetles fly at the beginning of summer. They are currently found throughout Europe. What wood do beetles prefer? Different types of birch trees of all ages become home to parasites. In addition to digging out the tunnels, beetles still infect trees with fungi. Since their bodies are covered with villi, they easily spread the spores. Diseased trees gradually lose branches, and then die.

The shashel is of medium size, his body is painted white. In the neck you can see black spots among the white villi. It is difficult to say which species of bark beetles are most dangerous for plants. Moreover, usually the larvae do more harm than adults. The larva of the shashel makes numerous moves, the trunk very quickly turns into dust. In the tree, it can live up to several years, and then turns into a full-fledged beetle. Shashel has one feature that makes it difficult to detect them. All holes made in the wood remain filled with wood flour. It does not get enough sleep, and therefore it is difficult to externally determine infection by such a parasite.

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Black oak barbel beetle

These beetles are larger than their relatives. A distinctive feature is the mustache of an insect, whose length is much greater than the size of the body. The beetle prefers the wood of oak, fir, spruce and pine. So, the largest part of these insects lives in wooded areas. Having found a new tree, the insect first destroys the young twigs, which are old to it is not under its power. Fallen trees are the most suitable for life.

Xylophage and typographer

A special feature of xylophage is that its digestive tract contains fungi and bacteria that help break down wood. This parasite feeds on decaying fallen trees.

As for the printing beetle, it destroys the forests of Kamchatka, the Far East, Europe, Sakhalin, Siberia. He prefers trees with sufficiently thick bark, and the plant must be alive. The insect will never settle on a dead tree. Such beetles in the house are very dangerous. Types of wood are of no particular importance to them if they have chosen a wooden suburban building. From such a house in just a year can be only one dust. And because of the small size of the beetle is difficult to see, because it is so dangerous.

As we can see, all the representatives of bark beetles we have examined are very dangerous beetles (species and names are mentioned earlier), which are harmful not only to dwellings, but also to large forests.

Beetle — description, description, structure, photo. What do beetles look like?

A characteristic feature of beetles, or beetles, is the presence of solid chitinous or leathery elytra, formed from the upper pair of wings. This kind of armor protects the folded flying wings of an insect from damage in those moments when it is not in the air.

The body shape of the beetles depends on the habitat and species. In aquatic inhabitants, it is slightly flattened, streamlined and compact (swimmers, wizards).

For beetles living in the soil, a slightly convex body shape with a powerful, widened front part (scarabs, dung beetles) is characteristic.

The beetles living on the surface of the earth have a strongly convex upper part and rather long limbs (ground beetles).

In the structure of the body of adults there are three main sections: the head, chest and abdomen.

The head of the beetle is round, slightly flattened, although in some families it has the appearance of an elongated tube. It can go deep into the prothorax and be practically invisible or connect with it freely with the help of a moving neck. In some beetles, the head is a constrictor, at the end of which there is an oral apparatus (weevils, pseudo-slopes, trubkovertov).

The head of a beetle can be:

  1. Prognathic (mouthparts and antennae are directed forward),
  2. Orthognathic (hypognathic) (mouthparts directed downward),
  3. Opistognathic (mouthparts directed back).

On the upper surface of the head are placed different lengths of the antenna of the beetle, consisting of separate segments that perform the functions of the olfactory organs.

The mustache of the fan beetle Rhipicera femorata look like long eyelashes

On the sides are well-developed, complex faceted eyes of the beetle, sometimes consisting of 25 thousand individual lenses that create a mosaic image.

In some species on the crown there are additional simple eyes, while in the underground and cave dwellers the organs of vision may be completely absent.

The mouth apparatus of most beetles, intended for grinding food, consists of paired mandibles (maxilla) and maxilla (mandibles). On the lower lip and jaws of the coleoptera there are small palpi, which are peculiar organs of touch and taste of the insect.

The largest mandibles are observed in stag beetles (in the stag beetle and the hercules beetle).

In the structure of the breast of beetles, three segments are distinguished: the prothorax, movably connected with the mid-chest and accreted with the labia. On the side of the back, the segments are called pronotum, mesonotum, and metanotum. Each segment is formed by two half rings (upper tergite and lower sternite), which are movably interconnected. Hard elytra are attached to tergites of midspice, and webbed wings are placed on beetle on dorsal beetle. Three nursing sternites carry over a pair of limbs.

The form and sculpture of pronotum is very diverse, and its structure plays an important role in the classification of beetles. It can be either smooth or with lateral spikes or various forms of growths.

Extremities of beetles consist of 5 parts: a basin, a swivel, a thigh, a shin and a foot.

A distinctive feature of beetles is the presence of special spurs on the top of the shin, which can be paired or single. The legs of the beetle are covered with small dense hairs and have two claws of different shapes and lengths each.

Depending on the lifestyle of the beetle (beetle), the appearance of the limbs may differ somewhat and perform running, grasping, digging, swimming, or jumping functions.

In the process of evolution, the front wings of beetles became rigid elytra, not inferior in hardness to the insect’s chitinous exoskeleton.

In the folded state, the beetles of the beetle serve as a reliable protection for the mesonotum, the labia and the upper abdomen.

In species with reduced lower wings, the elytra usually coalesce, forming a monolithic skeleton. Some bark beetles have a dimple on the surface of the elytra, which is intended for transporting wood waste formed during the gnawing of a system of passages in the body of a tree.

The surface of the elytra is smooth, covered with a variety of grooves, outgrowths, grooves and spikes.

Sea beetle beetles with grooves

Elytra with depressions in the beetle Stigmodera macularia

The lower webbed wings of beetles are usually transparent and may be slightly colored or completely colorless.

Depending on the species and species, veins may have a different texture, both with the formation of transverse cells and with medial veins and branches from them.

The color of beetles is often a characteristic by which insects are divided into separate species.

The color of the beetle is usually monochromatic, dark brown, red-brown, black, green, yellow or red, often with a metallic tinge. However, there are species with characteristic bright patterns on the surface of the body or with a bioluminescent glow.

Goliathus regius beetle goliath

Stag beetle Phalacrognathus muelleri

Sexual dimorphism of beetles is usually expressed in size and color of individuals of the opposite sex.

In most species, males of beetles are smaller than females and have a more elongated body. However, in some genera, due to excessively developed mandibles resembling horns, the size of the beetles of males is much larger than the female. Also the length of the antennae or the front legs can indicate the belonging to a particular gender.

Elephant beetle, or megasoma elephant, — female on the left, male on the right

For some species of beetles, sound intercourse is characteristic, which allows to maintain relationships within one population, and males to find females and scare away insects of another species. Sound vibrations occur due to friction of the prothorax on the midgut.

The size of the beetles that make up the beetle varies in a wide range. Among these insects there are both real giants and babies, which can be well examined only under a microscope. For example, the size of a woodcutter-titanium beetle (Lat. Titanus giganteus) can reach 22 cm in length, relic woodcutter (lat. Callipogon relictus), living on the territory of Russia — 11 cm, and the length of the baby Scydosellamusawasensis does not exceed 352 microns.

Beetle woodcutter-titanium (lat. Titanus giganteus)

Relic woodcutter (relic barbel) (Latin Callipogon relictus)

Little Scydosella musawasensis beetle under the microscope

Where do bugs live?

Beetles live in almost all corners of the globe, ranging from the sultry deserts and humid equatorial forests, to the endless expanses of the tundra, with the exception of the eternal snow zone of high-mountain peaks, as well as the ice fields of Antarctica and the Arctic.

В многочисленный отряд жесткокрылых входят виды жуков, которые селятся в приповерхностном плодородном почвенном слое, населяют кору, древесину или корни деревьев, а также цветы или лиственный покров.

Обитатели пустынь и полупустынь приспособились к условиям повышенных температур, поэтому ведут активный ночной образ жизни. Многие жуки обитают в пресных или слабосоленых водоемах с обильной прибрежной и донной растительностью.

Чем питаются жуки?

Среди насекомых, входящих в отряд жесткокрылые, встречаются представители практически всех известных типов питания, присущих членистоногим. There are predator beetles that feed on other insects and their larvae, herbivorous beetles that feed on mushrooms, foliage, roots, fruits and seeds, as well as beetles that eat wood or bark of various plants. Many beetles are pests of crops and eat the leaves of potatoes, beets, cabbage, pears, apples, and other vegetables, fruits and fruit trees. One of the most famous pests is the Colorado potato beetle, which feeds on the leaves of solanaceous crops.

There are even species that are, in essence, forest nurses, as these beetles feed on dry and decaying parts of plants or decaying animal remains.

In addition, the food of beetles depends on the stage of development of the insect.

Imago of some species that feed on wood, pulp of green shoots, pollen or juice, being larvae at one time, ate decaying organic remains, or were predators. There are families that accumulate in the larval stage an adequate supply of nutrients, allowing adults to do without food for the rest of their lives.

The beetles, through their vital activity, have a positive effect on the ecosystem in their habitats. Both adult beetles and their larvae process dried wood, as well as parts of plants affected by various fungal diseases, actively participating in the process of humus formation. In addition, beetles can act as pollinators of flowering plants.

At the same time, some species of beetles can cause significant damage to most crops and forest plantations, the leather and tobacco industries, museums and libraries, as well as wooden structures and furniture.

Types of beetles, photos and names

The beetle detachment is one of the largest groups living on the planet today. It consists of about 390 thousand species of beetles, most of which have been little studied, since their description was compiled from single specimens found in a separate area.

Among the variety of families that make up the beetle, the most famous are the following:

  • Ground beetles (lat. Carabidae), including about 30 thousand species.

The length of the body of beetles from this family varies from 1 mm to 10 cm. The body is painted in dark colors, often with a rainbow shade, usually elongated and oval, although there are varieties that resemble a biconvex lens or a plant leaf. In the form of food, the species of beetles in the family can be both predators and herbivorous.

One of the representatives of this family is ground beetle, or hunchbacked pawn (lat. Zabrusgibbus,Zabrustenebrioides)having an oval-shaped body. The color of the beetle is saturated black with a metallic tinge. The size of an adult ground beetle can reach 12-18 mm. Well-developed mandibles enable the ground beetle to easily cope with hard plant covers in search of food. Slender insect legs are adapted for a quick run. Large elytra almost completely protect the abdomen.

This beetle lives in areas with moderate air temperature and high humidity, so it can be found in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and other countries in North Africa, in Italy, Spain, France, on the European territory of Russia, in the United Kingdom and Sweden. The largest populations of this species are found in Moldova and Ukraine.

  • Weevils or elephants (lat. Curculionidae), numbering in its ranks about 60 thousand species of beetles.

A distinctive feature of the representatives of this family is the special shape of the front of the head, resembling a tube. The size of adults, depending on the habitat can reach 30-50 mm. This family is characterized by a large variety of body shapes, which can be practically cylindrical, pear-shaped, rhombic, hemispherical, or flattened. The color of the beetles can be yellow, brown or black, sometimes with spots of a lighter or darker tone. All beetles in the family feed on plant food.

A typical representative of the family is rice weevil (lat. Sitophilus oryzae), having an elongated, slightly convex body up to 2.5-3.5 mm long with a thin elongated rostrum. Matt or slightly shiny chitinous covers of the beetle are colored brown. The surface of the pronotum is covered with rather large pits. Elytra traced by frequent thin grooves, between which are visible small points that make up the short rows.

The rice weevil beetle lives almost throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the North and South Americas, as well as in Africa.

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  • Beetles predators (lat. Staphylinidae), including almost 48 thousand species.

A characteristic feature of the beetles belonging to this family is the presence of short elytra. The size of beetles vary in the range of 0.5-50 mm, but the body length of most species does not exceed 8 mm. The outer covers are colored red-brown or brownish-black, often with spots of an indefinite form of red or yellow. These beetles live on almost all continents. Predatory insects inhabit the territory of the Czech Republic, Canada and Alaska, Japan, Europe, China, and North America. According to the method of feeding within the family, not only predators or scavengers are emitted, but also species whose diet consists of decaying plant debris or pollen, algae and plant sap.

One of the brightest representatives of the family can be considered coastal stafilina (shoreline blue-winged) (lat. Paederus riparius).The imago of this species grows up to 10 mm in length. The elongated spindle-shaped body of an adult beetle is yellow-orange or red, except for the blue elytra, as well as the head and the styloid end of the abdomen, which are painted black.

The beetle lives practically throughout the whole territory of Eurasia, North and South America, North Africa and Australia. It prefers to settle near water bodies or in damp grassy litter on household plots, where it destroys agricultural pests.

  • Lamellar (lat. Scarabaeidae), which include about 28 thousand species of beetles.

Numerous members of this family are characterized by average sizes ranging from 2 to 60 mm, although larger bugs are also found. The body of individuals of most species is oval, but there are subfamilies with an almost square or cylindrical shape. The color of the chitinous integuments is dark green or dark brown, and their surface can be covered with all kinds of growths and spikes. Most species of the family feed on manure or rotting plant remains.

The beetle is considered to be the most famous member of the family holy scarab (lat. Scarabaeus sacer). These beetles have a smooth strongly convex rounded-oval body, painted black, the length of the beetle is up to 25-37 mm. A distinctive feature of the scarab is the presence of large teeth on the surface of the shin of the front legs.

The spread of the beetle seizes part of the countries of North Africa, Spain and western Georgia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ukraine and Sicily. Individuals of this species of beetles feed not only on plant food, but also on animal manure.

  • Leaf beetles (lat. Chrysomelidae)

The structure of this family includes more than 36 thousand species. The body shape of leaf beetles can be both oval-flattened and strongly spherical, and the color of beetles is bright green, greenish-blue, bronze-yellow, etc. The size of an adult insect rarely exceeds 15 mm.

One of the most famous members of this family is leaf beetle green mint (lat. Chrysolina herbacea). It is a rather small insect, with a smooth convex body, which is painted in a bright blue-green color with a clear golden tint. Adult sizes rarely reach 11 mm. The food of the beetle is the tender leaves of a fragrant mint plant that gave the name to the species.

  • Usachi, or woodcutters(lat. Cerambycidae), numbering about 26 thousand species in their ranks.

A distinctive feature of beetles from the family of mustaches are long whiskers, which can exceed the length of the body of an insect several times.

The big oak barbel is a beetle with a very long mustache. The whiskers of this beetle are 2 times longer than the insect itself!

Depending on the species, the shape and length of the beetle’s body, as well as the sculptural decoration of the elytra and pronotum are different. Despite the fact that most species in the family are of medium size, there are giants among them, one of which is the beetle titan woodcutter (Titanus giganteus). It is the largest beetle in the world. Its maximum size can reach 22 centimeters in length, and the weight of the beetle exceeds 25 grams.

The body of the insect is elongated, slightly flattened, when viewed from the side it resembles a lens. Color brownish brown or tar-black. The pronotum clearly shows three sharp spines located on each side. Life expectancy of males does not exceed 35-38 days. The largest beetle in the world is a titan woodcutter living in the countries of South America.

Reproduction and developmental stages of beetles

Males of almost all species of beetles are aggressive towards each other and fight among themselves for places rich in food. And during the mating season, beetles make real carnations for the right to possess a female.

The mating process depends on the species and species, as well as the lifestyle of the beetles.

Coleoptera belong to higher insects; therefore, their life cycle occurs with complete transformation, which implies successive passage in the development of 4 stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, and imago.

In some species, as an exception, this process may have a greater number of phases due to an increase in the number of larval transformations.

The female beetle lays fertilized eggs in secluded places, which can be used as fallen leaves, insect nests of another species, stone debris, deep cracks in the bark of the tree, specially dug in the ground system of passages, folded leaves, etc. Oval or oblong-rounded eggs of beetles are painted in white, gray, greenish, yellowish, grayish-yellow color and covered with a thin chitinous or leathery shell. Their size and number depends on the species of insect. The average duration of the egg stage varies from 2 to 3 weeks.

The appearance and color of the beetle larvae is very diverse. The larvae of beetles that live in the soil layer or under the bark of a tree are painted in yellowish, whitish or pinkish colors, and in the larvae that feed on the surface, the outer coverings are brown, black, dirty green, often with red, yellow or brown spots. The beetle larva looks as follows: the body can be worm-like, fleshy, slightly flattened and elongated, with well developed legs or their absence, covered with chitinous protective covers or without them. However, all the larvae of beetles have a head protected by hard covers and an oral apparatus of the gnawing type. In the process of growth, the beetle larva goes through several molts.

The duration of the stage depends on the species, its type of food and climatic conditions and can take from several months to 6 years. Individual families are characterized by the possibility of puberty and reproduction already at the larval stage, and in some species, the development of a fertilized egg takes place in the mother’s oviduct until mature larvae appear.

Almost all beetles, regardless of the habitat, the period of transformation into an adult individual is carried out at a depth of 20 cm below the soil surface. Although some species of beetles produce pupation in places where the larvae develop. Before the process begins, the larvae arrange for themselves a kind of cradle in which they spend the entire transformation period lasting up to three weeks. During this time, an adult insect grows from a pupae larva.

An adult beetle, depending on the species, can live from several months to several years. Many species of beetles die after the mating season and laying eggs, although some adults calmly endure several winterings and re-participate in the breeding process.

Black beetles

It is believed that black beetles are the most dangerous for human habitation. The species of such insects are familiar to us from childhood: hruschaks, bark beetles, cockroaches. Whatever of these parasites or settled in the house, you need to get rid of it urgently. But for the effectiveness of the struggle it is necessary to determine who our enemy is.

Khrushka beetles are quite large in size: about two centimeters. But their larvae are very small, and therefore they are difficult to detect. They should be sought in flour and cereals. These are their favorite places. Such spoiled products should be thrown out, and shelves treated with potassium permanganate or vinegar.

Black cockroaches may also appear in the house. Their danger is that they are carriers of viral diseases. If Khrushchev and bark beetles die from insecticides, they do not act on cockroaches. Therefore, experts recommend using the services of health services.

In order to protect yourself from the appearance of uninvited guests, you can periodically carry out preventive measures that will help keep insects out of the house. To do this, again, use insecticides that process the back surfaces of the cabinets, especially in the kitchen, baseboards, corners, pantries. Sometimes it is easier to prevent the appearance than to get rid of.

The biggest bugs in the world

Once in childhood, it seemed to us that the May beetles were very large. But in fact in the world there are much larger insects. Let’s look at some kinds of big bugs.

Titan is the largest insect (bug) in the world. Biologists have discovered an individual seventeen centimeters long, and in nature there are twenty-centimeter giants. The habitat of such beetles are the Amazon rainforest. Females are larger than males. They live inside the trees. With such impressive sizes, beetles live only five weeks. Titan — just a unique creature that does not have even the closest relatives. It belongs to the family of barbel, they are also called woodcutters, who are distinguished by their beauty because of the large curved whiskers. The price of one such wood beetle comes to five hundred dollars.

Hercules beetles and other large insects

Hercules in length reaches sixteen centimeters, while it is not inferior to the famous woodcutter in weight. Sometimes males can be up to nineteen centimeters long, but it should be borne in mind that this figure includes the length of its horn. Hercules are residents of Central and South Africa, are found on the islands of the Caribbean. It should be noted that even in prehistoric times there were no beetles more than thirty centimeters. At that time there were giant dragonflies.

The elephant beetle also belongs to the largest insects of the world, although it is inferior in size to Hercules and Titan. The average beetle’s weight is 35 grams, the length of the females does not exceed seven centimeters, but the males reach 12 centimeters. Such insects live in Central America, Mexico, in the rain forests of South America. Such a device, like a crooked horn, serves as a beetle for tipping the enemy, but not for killing him. This creature feeds on the fruits and fruits of trees, especially likes bananas. There were such cases when, at harvest, an insect fell into boxes with fruit, and then, having received such a surprise, people were extremely surprised that the insect survived the journey.

In Malaysia, giant long-legged grasshoppers live. Once they were considered the longest insects.

But goliath has the status of the heaviest beetle in the world. Its weight reaches one hundred grams. The average length of males reaches nine centimeters. Different varieties have different coloring, but the main background is always black, and there are numerous white stains on it. Insects are diurnal, feed on overripe fruit and tree sap. The habitat of their habitat is Southeast and Central Africa.

In the CIS countries, the largest beetle is the relic barbel. The length of his body is 11.2 centimeters. This rare insect is listed in the Red Book. The beetle is found in the Far East, in China, as well as on the Korean Peninsula.

Deer beetle has its own title. It is the largest in all of Europe. It dwells mainly in oak and beech European forests. Its maximum length recorded by biologists is 8.8 centimeters. It got its unusual name due to jaws, which really look like deer horns. Such an adaptation is effectively used by the insect in the fight against enemies. Females do not have horns, but males are very beautiful because of them.

An insect develops unusually: its larva goes through a very long period from 4 to 6 years, and sometimes even to 8. And the bugs themselves live a very short but rich life, which takes place in the struggle for food and females. The process lasts from one to two months. These are unusual bugs.

Insect species are generally very diverse. All of them have their own characteristics — from the smallest pests to the biggest giants. It seems that they are so different, but in fact they belong to one large detachment. In many ways, their value depends on the habitat and the amount of food. Даже представители одного вида могут различаться по величине.

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