5 Things You Need to Know About Thick Blood Disease, Healthfully
Monitor the health of your community here
- 1 Monitor the health of your community here
- 2 More Articles
- 3 5 Things You Need to Know About Thick Blood Disease
- 4 Excess Blood Cells
- 5 Excess Clotting
- 6 Health Effects
- 7 Medical Treatment
- 8 Warnings
- 9 Why Is My Urine Brown?
- 10 Blood in Urine
- 11 Hepatitis
- 12 Cirrhosis
- 13 Kidney Disease
- 14 Intense Exercise
- 15 Anemia
- 16 Skin Cancer
- 17 Tick-Borne Disease
- 18 Medications
- 19 Your Diet
- 20 Monitor the health of your community here
- 21 More Articles
- 22 Can You Eat Certain Foods to Lighten Thick Blood?
- 23 Foods to Eat
- 24 Foods to Avoid
- 25 Anticoagulants
- 26 Considerations
- 27 Cat Bitten By Snake – Symptoms and First Aid
- 28 About
- 29 Where and when can snakes be found?
- 30 What is the difference between a venomous and non-venomous snake?
- 31 Can cats kill snakes?
- 32 What is snake venom, and what does it do?
- 33 What is antivenom?
- 34 Symptoms
- 35 Emergency care
- 36 Treatment
- 37 When can my cat come home?
- 38 Can a cat survive a snake bite?
- 39 Can I give Benadryl to a cat who has been bitten by a snake?
- 40 Aftercare
- 41 Keeping snakes out of your garden
- 42 What should I do if I find a snake in my garden?
5 Things You Need to Know About Thick Blood Disease
There’s a saying that “blood is thicker than water,” but blood that is too thick can be a serious medical issue. Although uncommon, there are some disorders that cause thick blood — including those that lead to an abnormally high number of blood cells and conditions that cause hypercoagulation, or excessive blood clotting 3. These disorders can lead to serious, life-threatening consequences, so early detection and treatment are important.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
Excess Blood Cells
Certain diseases, namely blood cancers, thicken the blood because they lead to abnormally high levels of blood cells. While rare, one of the more common reasons for thick blood is called polycythemia vera (PV), in which the body produces excessive blood cells — mostly too many red blood cells. PV is caused by a genetic mutation and typically develops slowly, over several years.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or blood cancer, that causes overproduction of an antibody — a type of blood protein — called immunoglobulin M. Myeloma is a blood cancer caused by abnormal and uncontrolled growth of plasma cells — a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies 5. These conditions can also cause thick blood, crowding the blood with abnormal antibodies, leaving too few of the infection-fighting antibodies.
When you suffer a wound or cut, your body forms a blood clot to stop the bleeding — a process called coagulation. The clot is formed from blood proteins called fibrins and platelets, or cell fragments. Typically, your body breaks down the clot. However, sometimes blood clots form too easily or do not dissolve properly. This excessive clotting — hypercoagulation — also causes thick blood 3. This can be dangerous since clots can form inside your blood vessels and block blood flow to tissues or organs. Hypercoagulation may be caused by genetic disorders or it may be associated with acquired conditions such as certain autoimmune diseases and cancers, pregnancy or certain medications.
Thick blood flows more slowly than normal blood, which deprives body organs and tissues of the amount of oxygen required for necessary function. Side effects include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, itchiness and vision problems. High levels of abnormal white blood cells can cause anemia, tiredness, weight loss, bone pain and frequent infections. Most seriously, people with thick blood — whether from excessive blood cells or hypercoagulation — are at high risk for clots that block or limit blood flow to vital organs. The possible consequences include a stroke, heart attack or serious damage to other organs such as the kidneys or lungs.
Many people are not diagnosed with these conditions until later in life. However, sometimes these disorders are uncovered by routine blood tests, through personal or family medical histories or when a doctor is investigating the cause of early symptoms such as tiredness or anemia. Depending on the severity and underlying cause of thick blood, there may be ways to correct the disorder or reduce the risk of related complications. Phlebotomy — the removal of some blood — or medications are treatments aimed at reducing blood cell numbers. Blood thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin) can reduce clotting. Consultation with a physician specializing in blood disorders will determine the best course of action for your specific condition.
Most importantly, immediate medical care is needed if a blood clot, stroke or heart attack is suspected. A blood clot in the leg can cause redness, pain, warmth and swelling in the lower leg. A heart attack or a blood clot in the lungs or heart can cause:
- shortness of breath
- chest pain
- chest heaviness or pressure
- discomfort in the neck
- upper back or arms
Symptoms of a stroke include difficulty speaking or understanding speech, headaches or paralysis that is typically on one side of the body. These symptoms require emergency medical care to determine the cause and receive live-saving treatment as soon as possible.
There’s a saying that “blood is thicker than water,” but blood that is too thick can be a serious medical issue. Although uncommon, there are some disorders that cause thick blood — including those that lead to an abnormally high number of blood cells and conditions that cause hypercoagulation, or excessive blood clotting?’). While rare, one of the more common reasons for thick blood is called polycythemia vera , in which the body produces excessive blood cells — mostly too many red blood cells. However, sometimes blood clots form too easily or do not dissolve properly. This can be dangerous since clots can form inside your blood vessels and block blood flow to tissues or organs. Most seriously, people with thick blood — whether from excessive blood cells or hypercoagulation — are at high risk for clots that block or limit blood flow to vital organs. A heart attack or a blood clot in the lungs or heart can cause: shortness of breath, chest pain, chest heaviness or pressure, discomfort in the neck, jaw, upper back or arms.
Why Is My Urine Brown?
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If your urine is brown, your first thought is probably, «I need to drink more water.» It’s true that dehydration can sometimes be the cause. But if you drink extra fluid and your pee is still brown, then something else is going on.
A number of different things, including some medical conditions, can lead to brown urine. While some are harmless, others need a doctor’s attention.
Blood in Urine
In some cases, bloody urine can look brown.
Doctors call bloody urine hematuria, and there are many different causes. These include:
If you think your urine is brown due to blood, and you are not menstruating, you should have a doctor check it out.
Brown urine is one of the first and most common signs of hepatitis, which is another name for liver inflammation. There’s more than one type of this disease, including hepatitis A, B, and C.
When you have it, your liver can’t clean your blood properly. This can lead to a buildup of an orange-yellow substance called bilirubin in your blood and urine, and can turn urine brown.
If hepatitis is behind your brown urine, you might also have symptoms like:
If you think you could have hepatitis, call your doctor. The treatment for the condition depends on the type of the disease you have.
Brown urine can also be a symptom of cirrhosis. That is the name for scars on the liver that form after you’ve been living for years with hepatitis or other types of liver disease.
Early cirrhosis might not cause symptoms, but in advanced stages, it can cause brown urine as well as:
- Difficulty concentrating
- Trouble sleeping
- Poor memory
- Water retention in your belly or legs
- Yellow skin or eyes
- Muscle weakness
Brown urine, especially along with yellow skin or eyes, can also be a sign of many other liver problems. If you have these symptoms, see your doctor.
Some kidney diseases can cause brown urine. For example, a kidney infection called post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) can turn your pee a reddish-brown color. This infection happens after strep throat and most often in children.
If kidney disease is the cause of your brown urine, you might also have symptoms like:
- Swelling in your face, around your eyes, and in your hands and feet
- Less of a need to pee, or less urine when you do go
- Feeling tired
You should see a doctor if you have symptoms. Doctors will diagnose the cause and suggest the right treatment.
In rare cases, intense exercise can cause muscle cells to burst and leak into the bloodstream. This condition is called rhabdomyolysis, or «rhabdo,» and it can turn your urine brown.
If you have brown urine because of rhabdo, you might also notice:
Rhabdo can cause serious kidney damage and can be life-threatening. If you think you have it, get medical attention.
One form of anemia called «hemolytic anemia» destroys red blood cells. This can turn your urine brown
Some people get this type of anemia from their parents. Others develop it after another condition, such as autoimmune disorders like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or ulcerative colitis.
Besides brown urine, hemolytic anemia can cause symptoms like:
- Abnormally pale skin
- Yellow skin or eyes
- Difficulty doing physical activities
- Faster heart rate
If you have these symptoms, see a doctor. Treatment depends on your health and the cause of the anemia.
Melanoma can sometimes cause skin pigment to leak into the bloodstream, though it’s rare. This can lead to brown urine.
The more common signs of melanoma are changes to moles. You should see a doctor for any skin abnormality that is growing or changing quickly and doesn’t go away.
Some ticks carry a bacteria that causes a serious infection called babesiosis. One of the symptoms is dark urine.
Other symptoms include:
Ticks in the Upper Midwest and Northeastern U.S. are most likely to carry the bacteria that causes babesiosis.
Babesiosis doesn’t make most people sick enough to need treatment, but there are drugs that can help if you need. If you get sick after a tick bite, see a doctor.
Some prescription drugs can cause brown urine.
The color should go back to normal after you’ve finished your prescription.
Fava beans, rhubarb, and aloe can cause your urine to turn brown if you eat a lot of them in a short period of time. Your pee will lighten up when the food is out of your system.
Cleveland Clinic: «What the color of your urine says about you,» «Hepatitis: Viral Hepatitis A, B, & C.»
Johns Hopkins Medicine: «Common Characteristics of Liver Disease,» «Hemolytic Anemia.»
Mayo Clinic: «Cirrhosis: Symptoms & Causes,» «Urine Color: Symptoms & Causes.»
CDC: «Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis: All You Need to Know,» «Blood in your urine?» «Babesiosis,» «Viral hepatitis.»
Harvard Health: «Rhabdo: A rare but serious complication of вЂ¦ exercise,» «Red, brown, green: Urine colors and what they might mean.»
New York State Department of Health: «Babesiosis.»
Urology Care Foundation: «The Meaning Behind the Color of Urine.»
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Can You Eat Certain Foods to Lighten Thick Blood?
Thick blood, hypercoagulability, is a condition where your blood is thicker and sticker than normal and is due to an abnormality in the blood clotting process. When your blood is too thick, it affects the circulation of oxygen, nutrients and hormones in the blood and can cause nutritional deficiencies as well as low levels of oxygen or a condition known as hypoxia. Having thick blood can also lead to heart attacks and strokes. Many people are treated with blood thinning medications called anticoagulants such as Coumadin, also known as warfarin, though there are foods that can also help to thin your blood naturally.
Foods to Eat
The vitamins and nutrients in certain foods act as natural blood thinners. Vegetable oils, nuts and some cereals contain vitamin E, which is a natural blood thinner, according to the Institutes of Health. You should avoid high doses because too much vitamin E can cause the blood to become too thin and cause a hemorrhagic stroke or bleeding in the brain. Other foods containing salicylates, the blood thinning property in aspirin, work as natural blood thinners. These foods include various fruits and vegetables, nuts and meats. Blueberries, fresh pineapple and tomatoes are all high in salicylates, according to Saraband Health.
Foods to Avoid
If you are trying to thin your blood, it is important to avoid foods that contain vitamin K. Vitamin K is necessary for the body to form clots and it is used to thicken the blood. Vitamin K can be found in many different foods such as kale, spinach, turnip greens and broccoli. The daily recommended intake of vitamin K is 80 mcgs and many of these foods contain far more than that in a single serving. For example, 1/2-cup of kale contains 660 percent of the recommended daily value of vitamin K so it is important to limit these foods.
If you believe you have thick blood or are at risk of clots, it is important to consult your physician and have your blood tested. If it comes back that you do need to thin your blood, your doctor may need to go further than advising a diet change and prescribe a blood thinning agent like coumadin. Coumadin and heparin are the two main prescription anticoagulants, which physicians sometimes prescribe to thin the blood and prevent the development of clots that could lead to a stroke, according to the American Heart Association.
Many foods contain natural anticoagulation and blood thinning properties; thus, some patients are able to thin their blood without the need for medication. If your doctor sanctions this course of action, he will require regular blood tests to monitor whether your clotting properties remain diminished and your blood indeed thinned. Based on the test results, he will adjust your treatment regimen as necessary.
Thick blood, hypercoagulability, is a condition where your blood is thicker and sticker than normal and is due to an abnormality in the blood clotting process. Having thick blood can also lead to heart attacks and strokes. Blueberries, fresh pineapple and tomatoes are all high in salicylates, according to Saraband Health. Coumadin and heparin are the two main prescription anticoagulants, which physicians sometimes prescribe to thin the blood and prevent the development of clots that could lead to a stroke, according to the American Heart Association. Many foods contain natural anticoagulation and blood thinning properties; thus, some patients are able to thin their blood without the need for medication.
Cat Bitten By Snake – Symptoms and First Aid
Last Updated on April 15, 2020
Due to their strong hunting instinct, cats are at risk of snake bites or be prey to large constrictor snakes.
Symptoms of snake bite toxicity:
Cats are bitten most often on the face and legs, symptoms can vary depending on the species, but may include:
- Blood in the urine or feces
- Dilated pupils
Snake bite treatment:
Administration of antivenom, as well as supportive care, while your cat recovers.
Cats are hunters by nature and unfortunately not able to discriminate between harmful prey and non-harmful prey. Many housecats will think nothing of chasing down and attacking a snake, not realising how much danger they are putting themselves in.
There are poisonous snakes throughout the world, and it would be too hard to list poisonous snakes country by country, so this article will aim to provide general information on snake bites, but not snake species-specific to any one country.
The most common snake bites to occur in cats in Australia are from the Eastern brown snake, tiger snake, death adder, copperhead, black snake and the red-bellied black snake.
Venomous snakes in the United States can include the copperhead, rattlesnake, cottonmouth, coral snake.
The majority of snake bites occur on the cat’s head, neck, and legs. Bites on the body can happen and tend to be more dangerous; the closer to the heart, the quicker the venom can travel around the body and the more dangerous.
Where and when can snakes be found?
Snakes are more prevalent in the warmer months of spring and summer, but in some areas, they can be found year-round. We have had a red-bellied black snake in our garden in June (which is winter in Sydney, Australia). As snakes are cold-blooded, they need the heat of their surroundings to warm up.
One snake catcher I spoke to told me the following…
‘Between 10 am and 4 pm is generally when they are out. Red-bellied black snakes optimal temp is 24 to 28 and Eastern Brown Snakes are 28 to 32. You will normally see them basking in a sunny position.’
But I need to reiterate; it is still possible for them to be out during other hours of the day (I encountered a red-bellied black snake yesterday at 8 am during my walk with the dog). It is common to find snakes close to the water of creeks or dams. When not sunning or hunting, they like to hide under rocks and logs and in dense shrubbery and long grasses.
What is the difference between a venomous and non-venomous snake?
Most (but not all) venomous snake has elliptical pupils (slit-like, like a cat) and a triangular or diamond-shaped head. A non-venomous snake has round pupils and a rounded head. Even non-venomous snakes have teeth and will bite, and while they may not poison the cat, the bite can cause pain and infection.
Contrary to popular belief, pythons and boa constrictors kill their prey by cutting off the blood supply and not by suffocation. By coiling themselves and squeezing tight, the heart doesn’t have enough strength to circulate blood against the pressure created by the snake. This is a far quicker and more efficient way to kill than by suffocation.
Can cats kill snakes?
Yes, a cat can kill a small snake, but it’s not something you should allow your cat to do. Even small, non-venomous snakes have the potential to inflict damage on a cat through biting. As much as I don’t personally like snakes, they serve an important ecological role in our environment. Do not encourage cats to hunt any wildlife, including snakes.
Even small pythons can quite easily kill a small dog or cat. Baby venomous snakes are still able to inject venom, and non-venomous snakes will still bite a potential threat which can be extremely painful and lead to infection.
If you do have a snake problem in your area, there are more effective ways to reduce numbers by making changes to your environment to make it less snake-friendly (such as moving woodpiles away from the home), or calling in a snake catcher to relocate a snake.
What is snake venom, and what does it do?
Venom is modified saliva, which is stored in sacs behind the eye on each side of the head. It contains zootoxins (toxins produced by an animal) which the snake injects into the skin via the hollow fangs in the snake’s mouth. It is used as a defensive mechanism against predators and to kill and digest the snake’s prey.
Venom can vary depending on the species and may contain toxins which affect the blood (hemotoxins), certain cells (cytotoxins) and nervous system (neurotoxins). The main function of venom is to kill prey the snake is hunting as well as protect the snake against predators.
Snakes can control the amount of venom is injected and in some cases may not inject any, this is known as a dry bite. Of course, it goes without saying that if your cat has been bitten by a snake, immediate veterinary attention is essential as you have no way of knowing if or how much venom has been injected.
Snake bites can affect various organ systems. Breathing difficulty, acute kidney failure (nephrotoxicity), bleeding disorders, paralysis (including the respiratory system), tissue necrosis (death) and severe allergic reaction. There are four types of snake venom:
Neurotoxins work on the nervous system and brain; they block nerve impulses, which leads to paralysis.
These toxins destroy red blood cells (hemolysis), lower blood pressure and disrupt blood clotting by destroying platelets which are non-nucleated cell fragments that form a clump to plug a damaged blood vessel as well as removing fibrinogen, which helps to mesh the platelet plug, resulting in internal bleeding.
Cytotoxins destroy tissue, usually specific cells, usually those of an organ such as kidney cells (nephrotoxins). Rattlesnake venom is cytotoxic and associated with soft tissue necrosis (death).
Mycotoxins destroy skeletal muscle cells, the break down of muscle fibre releases myoglobin (a protein in the muscle cells) into the blood plasma results in rhabdomyolysis, which can seriously damage the kidneys.
What is antivenom?
Antivenom (also known as antivenin) is used to counteract the effects of the venom. It is obtained by ‘milking’ snakes of their venom, which is diluted and a small amount is injected into horses or sheep. These animals mount an immune response, producing antibodies against the venom. Antibodies bind to the venom, thus neutralising it. However, they are not able to reverse the damage already done. This is why it is so important to seek immediate veterinary treatment.
There can be considerable variables with snake bites:
- Species and size of the snake
- Age of the cat (kittens and senior cats are at increased risk)
- Underlying medical conditions
- Amount of subcutaneous fat and thickness of fur
- Number and location of the bite(s)
- If the cat has been bitten previously (a repeat bite can cause a severe allergic reaction)
- Microbes in the snake’s mouth
Puncture wounds may not necessarily be apparent; they are either hidden by the fur or due to localised swelling. So don’t assume that the absence of puncture marks means your cat has not been bitten by a snake. The most common areas cats are bitten are the face, neck, chest, and forelimbs.
There are two stages which develop after a snake bite, pre-paralytic and paralytic. Symptoms can develop between a few minutes to 24 hours after being bitten and may include:
- Fang marks and/or swelling at the location of the bite
- Dilated pupils
- Ptosis (drooping eyelids)
- Photophobia (sensitivity to light)
- Increased respiration
- There may or may not be extreme pain, hemotoxins are extremely painful but are slower acting, neurotoxins are relatively pain-free but faster acting.
- Dilated (large) pupils (mydriasis) and fixed pupils which don’t respond to light, usually the pupils constrict (become smaller) due to increased light
- Muscle weakness
- Change in meow
- In-coordination (drunken gait)
- Rapid pulse and heartbeat
- Difficulty breathing or increased/shallow breaths (tachypnea)
- Blue-tinged gums from lack of oxygen
- Blood in the urine (hematuria) due to coagulation dysfunction
- Tea coloured urine (due to the breakdown of muscles)
- Paralysis which starts at the back legs and moves towards the cat’s head
It is important to repeat that not all signs will be present; they may also wax and wane.
Any snake bite needs immediate veterinary attention, call ahead to let them know you are on your way so that they can prepare for the cat’s arrival or refer you to another hospital if they do not have antivenom on hand.
Why a cat must stay still:
- Toxicity occurs at the site of the bite as well as throughout the body (systemic). Snake venom is injected under the skin or into the muscle and is released into the interstitial space, (fluid-filled areas that surround the cells).
- Blood vessels which circulate blood throughout the body (systemic circulation), cannot absorb large molecules (of many snake venoms) through their endothelium (cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels), but the lymph vessel (thin-walled tubes, that carry lymph) endothelium can.
- Snake venom enters the systemic circulation when lymph enters the bloodstream at the subclavian vein, via the thoracic duct. Unlike blood, which is continually pumped around the body via the heart, the lymphatic system works differently. Lymph circulates with the movement of muscles. Therefore, immobilisation of the muscles helps to slow down the movement of snake venom through the lymphatic system and into the systemic circulation.
If you have a person to help you, do the following below on the way to the veterinarian:
- Remove the cat’s collar.
- Keep the bitten area lower than the heart.
- Pressure immobilisation technique (PIT): Apply a pressure bandage over the affected area. The goal is to slow down venom spreading to the systemic circulation via the lymphatic system by immobilisation of the area to prevent the pumping action of the skeletal muscles and slowing down lymphatic drainage.
- Keep the cat quiet and calm; a rapid heart rate will help the venom to move more quickly around the body.
- If there is no heartbeat or pulse, administer CPR.
This should only be carried out if there’s more than one person. It is better to drive your cat straight to the veterinary practice than waste additional time and delaying urgent medical treatment.
Be careful when handling a cat who has been bitten, they are usually in a lot of pain and may lash out.
- Allow your cat to walk
- Cut the bitten area
- Attempt to suck the venom out of the bite (this will increase blood flow to the area)
- Apply a tourniquet
- Attempt to catch or kill the snake
- Apply ice
- Delay treatment
Treatment is aimed at reversing the effects of the venom as well as treating symptoms. The veterinarian will use snake venom test kit to determine the kind of snake that has bitten your cat as well as other tests to evaluate your cat, which may include:
- Biochemical profile, complete blood count , and urinalysis
- Check blood pressure
- Blood smear to evaluate the red blood cells
- Clotting time, to measure how long it takes a sample of the cat’s blood to clot (normal clotting time is Antivenom:
- Once the type of snakebite has been determined, the veterinarian will administer the appropriate antivenom. Some cats will need multiple vials of antivenom during treatment. Occasionally a cat will have an allergic reaction to the antivenom although this is more common in dogs than cats.
- Intravenous fluids to maintain blood pressure and help protect the kidneys from the toxins and maintain cardiac output.
- To reduce your cat’s chances of having an allergic reaction to the antivenom, your veterinarian may also administer antihistamines, steroids, and adrenaline before giving your cat the antivenom.
- Oxygen therapy or if the cat is unable to breathe on his own, he will be placed on a ventilator to breathe for him.
- A feeding tube may be required if your cat is unable to eat due to muscle paralysis.
- Cats suffering from paralysis will need to have their bladder manually expressed until they can urinate on their own.
- Antibiotics to treat secondary infections.
- Analgesics may be necessary to treat pain.
When can my cat come home?
This depends on the severity of the emergency and how quickly treatment began. The earlier he receives antivenom, the better. All cats respond differently to treatment.
Some cats may be able to come home in as little as 24 hours after treatment, as soon as they can eat, drink, go to the toilet and eat on their own. Some cats may take a little longer to recover, and it may be several days.
Cats who have been discharged from hospital need some recovery time; they should be kept quiet, calm and indoors during this period.
Can a cat survive a snake bite?
If the cat receives prompt veterinary attention, the prognosis is good, between 80-90% of cats who receive antivenom will survive a snake bite.
Can I give Benadryl to a cat who has been bitten by a snake?
No, Benadryl and other antihistamines block he action of histamines, which are responsible for allergy-related symptoms. Symptoms related to a snake bite are due to the action of the venom on various body systems, and Benadryl will have no effect on this.
Administer all medications as instructed by your veterinarian.
Keep your cat indoors while he recovers.
Please be aware that antivenom doesn’t offer your cat lifetime protection from snake bites. It is not a vaccine and only works during that particular exposure, not against future snake bites.
Keeping snakes out of your garden
The best way to avoid snakes in your garden is to provide an environment which isn’t attractive to snakes.
- Maintain your garden, so that is free of overgrown plants, regularly mow the lawn.
- Keep the garden free of debris, such as corrugated iron, building materials, overgrown weeds, old junk etc
- When installing fences, dig them at least 8-12 inches into the ground.
- Don’t leave containers of water lying around.
- If you have a shed, keep it free or rodents.
- Remove fallen fruit from the ground as this encourages rodents, which will, in turn, encourage snakes.
- Avoid wood piles, especially in the summer months. If you do have a wood pile, make sure it is well away from your house and not accessible to your cats or children.
- Avoid rockeries, which provide excellent habitat for snakes to hide.
What should I do if I find a snake in my garden?
Bring all pets indoors and shut doors and windows.
Contact your local wildlife group ( WIRES in Australia) or a licensed snake catcher. Do not attempt to catch or kill the snake.