Woman dies after having bee-sting therapy — BBC News
Woman dies after having bee-sting therapy
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A woman has died after undergoing bee-sting therapy, a form of treatment backed by Gwyneth Paltrow.
The 55-year-old Spanish woman had been having live bee acupuncture for two years when she developed a severe reaction.
She died weeks later of multiple organ failure.
Researchers who studied the case say live bee acupuncture therapy is «unsafe and unadvisable».
It is thought to be the first death due to the treatment of someone who was previously tolerant of the stings.
The woman’s case has been reported in the Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, by doctors from the allergy division of University Hospital, Madrid.
She had been having the treatment once a month for two years at a private clinic to improve muscular contractures and stress.
During a session, she developed wheezing, shortness of breath, and sudden loss of consciousness immediately after a live bee sting.
She was given steroid medication but no adrenaline was available, and it took 30 minutes for an ambulance to arrive.
The woman had no history of any other diseases like asthma or heart disease, or other risk factors, or any previous allergic reactions.
What is apitherapy?
- Apitherapy is the use of substances from honeybees, such as honey, propolis, royal jelly, or even venom (extracted or from live bees), to relieve various medical conditions. One type of apitherapy is live bee acupuncture.
- Although some benefits of apitherapy have been reported, they have mainly been anecdotal.
- Bee-venom therapy has been used for treating conditions including arthritis and MS.
- The theory behind the treatment is that bee stings cause inflammation leading to an anti-inflammatory response by the immune system.
- But the Multiple Sclerosis Trust says «there is no research to show it is an effective treatment for people with MS». They said a 2008 review of non-conventional approaches to treating MS found that there was only marginal evidence for bee-venom therapy.
The doctors found severe anaphylaxis had caused a massive stroke and permanent coma with multiple organ failure.
The report’s authors called for:
- Patients to be fully informed of the dangers of apitherapy before undergoing treatment
- Measures to identify sensitised patients at risk should be implemented before each apitherapy sting
- Apitherapy practitioners should be trained in managing severe reactions
- Apitherapy practitioners should be able to ensure they perform their techniques in a safe environment
- They should have adequate facilities for management of anaphylaxis and rapid access to an intensive care unit
But they acknowledged that because the treatment often takes place in private clinics, these measures may not be possible.
One of the report’s authors Ricardo Madrigal-Burgaleta concluded: «The risks of undergoing apitherapy may exceed the presumed benefits, leading us to conclude that this practice is both unsafe and unadvisable.»
Amena Warner, Head of Clinical Services for Allergy UK, said:
«The public need to be very aware of the unorthodox use of allergens such as bee venom. This will come with risk and, in susceptible individuals, can lead to serious life threatening reactions.»
Bee sting treatment — home apitherapy
The American Apitherapy Society offers and shares information to educate those of you who seek an alternative form of health care referred to as Apitherapy. Apitherapy encompasses the use of bee hive products including honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom. Apitherapy is used to treat many illnesses and to alleviate pain from injuries both chronic and acute. We are an organization reaching beyond traditional Western medicine helping others to help themselves in attaining better health through a holistic approach in harmony with the bee hive, a true gift of nature.
We are a membership organization where membership is open to everyone from anywhere in the world, inviting new ideas and the sharing of knowledge and experience amongst those seeking or practicing this form of alternative medicine. Our website offers a wealth of information on the hive products and offers a large network of like minded individuals sharing their knowledge on a global level. Member benefits include receiving our quarterly journal, posting on the forum, access to past issues of the journal and our past course and conference material, and access to our network list consisting of members all over the world willing to share their knowledge on apitherapy and their experiences with it.
We are not a referral service. We do provide our members with access to our network list, the individuals on this list are AAS members who agree to be contacted by other members through email or by phone to share information and assist others in becoming involved with apitherapy. Many of these members do practice apitherapy ranging from those who perform bee venom therapy to those who simply use other hive products in their healing protocols. Our large network offers a wide range of solutions and contacts in the realm of apitherapy. We are all helping each other to help ourselves as your commitment to health begins with you.
Annually the AAS presents the Charles Mraz Course and Conference held in different US cities where we spend 3 days teaching others about apitherapy through both a classroom venue and a practical hands on approach. Members leave our conference with knowledge passed on to them by our most experienced apitherapists and the confidence to help themselves and others participate in Apitherapy. It is a great venue not only to learn all there is to know about apitherapy but to network and become part of a community that takes an active interest in your health and the well being of others.
The AAS is a non profit organization founded in 1989. We are known throughout the United States and the world for our course and conference, our journal, our network, our website, and for the support that we give to the public and to our members. We depend on our members for their support and on the donations from those who believe we are making a difference, their commitment to us is vital to our success.
Health Benefits Of Bee Sting Therapy
Given a choice, a bee sting is something you would probably choose to avoid. Yet, a growing number of people are actually choosing to be stung by bees as an alternative form of medicine called apitherapy. But are there real benefits linked to bee venom?
How bee sting therapy works
Bee sting therapy is the medicinal use of products made by honeybees such as honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, beeswax and bee venom. Therapies involving the honeybee have existed for thousands of years. Bee venom therapy was even practiced in ancient Egypt, Greece and China. Ancient civilizations recognized the healing properties of bee venom for treating arthritis and other joint problems. Today, growing scientific evidence suggests that bee products promote healing by improving circulation, decreasing inflammation and stimulating a healthy immune response according to The American Apitherapy Society Inc .
Charlie Mraz , a founding member of the American Apitherapy Society was recognized in the United States as the pioneer of bee venom therapy. He initiated clinical research with scientists at the Sloan-Kettering Institute and the Walter Reed Army Institute. He also established the standard for purity for dried whole venom for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USDA) and was the supplier of venom to pharmaceutical companies throughout the world.
In 1981, Mraz wrote about bee venom therapy — from the perspective of Dr. Bodog F. Beck’s book “Bee Venom Therapy” — and its effect on arthritis and rheumatoid conditions. Previously, the venom was injected by needle into affected areas depending on the location of the arthritis. The application of the venom is most effective when applied to the “trigger points” or “hot spots,” matching acupuncture or acupressure points. According to Mraz, pressure is applied to the area with the thumb. When the thumb presses a trigger point, it produces sharp pain. It is this point that is treated with venom. Today, the venom is most often extracted and diluted, and delivered through “herbal acupuncture.”
Bee venom contains about 40 different healing compounds, including melittin. This is a 26-residue peptide and the major component of bee venom. Research suggests melittin has anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anticancer and antimicrobial properties. Along with the other components, it works to boost immunity and quicken the healing process.
The ‘reactive stage’ means it’s working
At first, there’s not much swelling from the venom. But later, the treatment does produce swelling, redness, itching, heat, more pain and even nausea. It’s at this point that Dr. Bodog found arthritic patients were discouraged, and therefore opted against further treatment, stating “reactions” to the venom. But according to Bodog’s research, the “reactive stage” is the most essential part of the treatment, as it’s an indication that the “immune system” is being stimulated to produce the healing processes.
If treatment is continued, after about two weeks of this “reactive period,” there is the stage of “resistance.” That’s when the body develops a resistance to the bee venom and will no longer swell when the venom is injected. After the stage of resistance is reached, treatments usually stop. In fact, bee sting therapy does not need to be applied again until symptoms recur, which can be years later or not at all.
Here are some of the benefits of bee sting therapy:
Helps relieve arthritis
Bee venom may help treat arthritis. An animal study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology found that bee venom helps prevent arthritis in rabbits. Bee venom seems to prevent arthritis through hormones called glucocorticoids. These hormones help regulate inflammation and may even slow the progression of inflammatory arthritis. In addition, clinical evidence from 304 studies published in the BMJ Open found evidence that supports bee venom acupuncture as a viable treatment for symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in humans. Those who used bee venom reported fewer swollen joints, tender joints and less morning stiffness than those who were given a placebo.
Nanoparticles carrying a toxin found in bee venom can destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while leaving surrounding cells unharmed, reports Washington University’s the Source . This research from the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis point towards developing a vaginal gel that may prevent the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Nanoparticles carrying melittin (a major component in bee venom) fuse with HIV, destroying the virus’s protective envelope.
“Melittin on the nanoparticles fuses with the viral envelope,” said Dr. Joshua L. Hood, a research instructor in medicine to the Source . “The melittin forms little pore-like attack complexes and ruptures the envelope, stripping it off the virus,” said Hood. The study shows that although destroying HIV, melittin does not harm normal cells.
While this study does not address contraception, Hood suggests the gel could also be adapted to target sperm. Although some people may only want the HIV protection. Researchers aim to find couples where only one of the partners has HIV, and they want to have a baby. “These particles by themselves are actually very safe for sperm, for the same reason they are safe for vaginal cells,” says Hood.
The most dominant ingredients in bee venom include melittin, adolapin and apamin. Each possesses anti-inflammatory properties and could help to reduce inflammation in the body. Benefits are also a result of the body’s own immune reaction to the venom. A Korean animal study designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cytokine effect of bee venom on induced arthritis in mice showed decreased signs of inflammation after bee sting acupuncture therapy. The therapy suppressed the development of arthritis and inhibited the immune responses in induced arthritis.
Treats symptoms of Lyme disease
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Lyme disease is often difficult for doctors to diagnose, because the symptoms associated with the disease commonly mimic other ailments. In addition, the tick bite can be painless, making it difficult to even realize you have been bitten. Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue and a characteristic skin rash, says the CDC. If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart and the nervous system.
Although doctors typically prescribe antibiotics to treat Lyme, some people turn to apitherapy for relief. According to Mother Nature Network , practitioners of apitherapy usually mix bee products and bee venom in some combination with raw honey. They then apply it topically as a salve or a cream. However, according to one testimonial by Dave Stier noted on the American Apitherapy Society website, direct stinging also yields favorable results. “After being stung for several weeks now, I feel a dramatic increase in life energy and a decrease in stiffness in my joints.”
Relieves multiple sclerosis (MS)
Apart from providing arthritic relief, the American Apitherapy Society suggests that the most popular and well-known use for honey bee venom in the United States is to treat those suffering from MS. Another testimonial on the website by Gerald Emshwiller claims that pain in his upper and lower back due to MS was virtually gone after the first week. And after the second week of treatment, he no longer had to use a cane for short or long walks. But, it’s important to note that although bee sting therapy is increasingly used to treat patients with MS, there is not enough clinical evidence to support the use.
Other beneficial bee products
Apitherapy does not only use bee venom for healing, it incorporates all the hive’s products — and usually in combination. For instance, Manuka honey is widely recognized and highly sought after because of its unique healing benefits. Regular bee honey is also used to treat a variety of ailments because of its broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. These medicinal benefits come from low pH, high sugar concentration and the presence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal compounds. Hydrogen peroxide, antioxidants, lysozyme, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and bee peptides are sometimes referred to as honey’s “peroxide” activity. Manuka honey has additional antimicrobial activity that goes above and beyond regular honey, according to Analytica Laboratories . Some strains of manuka honey are even richer in hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone.
But all manuka honey is not created equal. Hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone help make up what is referred to as the Unique Manuka Factor (UMF), a global standard of identifying and measuring the antibacterial strength of manuka. However, New Zealand’s Ministry for Primary Industries has also approved other methods identifying and measuring the antibacterial strength of manuka such as the KFACTOR™ rating system.
Bee sting therapy may be controversial, but it does have followers, which will no doubt grow over time. A word of caution: many people are severely allergic to bee stings and may not even know it. Therefore, this practice could produce potentially life-threatening allergic reactions for certain individuals. Make sure to check with your doctor to see if bee sting therapy is a good option for you.
Hoshindo is a gentle practice in which the Practitioner begins by tapping softly with the stinger of the bee along points and meridians. The Hoshindo practitioner provides the Patient with a pleasant apitherapy experience, in a calm, healing atmosphere.
The Practitioner begins with an Akashi for each patient. This health history and assessment, along with the pulse reading, guide the treatment plan. For the initial treatment a sensitivity test to the venom is conducted at this time.
Honey bee venom is perceived as a foreign protein in the body, alerting the immune system to target a specific area (see Benefits of Bee Medicine). The practitioner uses different delivery methods to administer the bee venom. Using the symptoms and reading of the pulses, the practitioner treats certain Meridians and Points (Tsubos) using a tapping method, setting the stinger, or full bee sting when indicated. These gentle methods are selected based on the needs of each patient.
Supplemental, supportive treatment with Bee Products may be offered, along with the following Integrative Therapies provided at our center:
∞ Reiki II
∞ Essential oils and herbs
∞ Rife machine specialist
∞ Movement therapy
Bee Venom Therapy
If modern medicine is unable to help you, try Bee Venom Therapy (BVT)…you have little to lose.
T he use of honey bee products for healing and health (known as Apitherapy) has been in use since ancient times, however, the most attention grabbing apitherapy treatment today tends to be the use of bee stings to reduce disease symptoms. The use of BVT for rheumatic diseases has been recognized for at least 2500 years. (Broadman 1962) While the majority of therapeutically applied bee venom is through injection in the form of desensitization shots for people suffering from hyper-allergic reactions to honey bee venom (anaphylaxis), anyone with access to a hive can obtain venom from the self-contained, self-sterilizing, self-injecting bee venom applicators living within.
An evolving experimental treatment
While bee venom injections are not yet approved by the medical establishment for use treating rheumatic diseases, the sting from the live bee is often used and found helpful for this purpose. Treatment typically consists of applications of bee stings three times a week, about every other day. Treatments are applied over the body on a rotating basis so that a former treatment area is not treated again until all symptoms of the previous stings have healed. This form of BVT is available almost anywhere and, as long as the patient is not hyper-allergic, the treatment is safe without long-term adverse effects even with long-term application of therapeutic doses.
No one has worked as long or as hard to promote the benefits of BVT as Charles Mraz who is recognized the dean of the therapeutic use of bee venom in the United States. Not only did Mraz initiate clinical research in conjunction with the scientists at Sloan-Kettering and the Walter Reed Army Institutes, he developed the USDA purity standard for dried whole venom and supplied venom to pharmaceutical companies worldwide. He went on to become a co-founder of the American Apitherapy Society (AAS): a clearing house for information on apitherapy, which to this day dedicates itself to carrying on Mraz’s legacy by educating the public and health care community about the traditional, clinical and scientifically proven uses of apitherapy.
While no medical treatment works on everyone 100 percent of the time, most forms of rheumatic disease seem to respond to BVT including gout, osteoarthritis, bursitis, tendinitis, fibromyalgia, lupus, and scleroderma. However, the use of BVT for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is the area most widely documented (Kwon 2001, Kang 2002, Lee 2004, Park 2004, Yin 2005, Hong 2005). The only cases that do not respond well are where the joints have deteriorated to the extent that there is bone-to-bone contact within the joint and where the bones have deteriorated. While BVT can help with some of the pain symptoms of rheumatic disease, bee venom cannot stimulate the growth of new bone and cartilage.
Although the use of BVT has proven to be clinically valuable in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms research into this area of BVT continues to evolve (Lee 2008). There is also significant research indicating the BVT may help in cases of malignant melanoma, basil cell carcinoma, lymphoma, breast and prostate cancer (Liu 2002, Son 2007, Liu 2008, Park 2011, Oršolić 2012, Mao 2017). BVT also has the potential to help reduce negative reactions to chemotherapy (Al-Atiyyat and Obaid 2017)
BVT has been associated with increased fertility in sterile women and curing miscarriages, but also with increased risk of miscarriage in newly pregnant women. Additional conditions that have been successfully treated with bee venom include; multiple sclerosis, post herpetic neuralgia (shingles), chronic pain syndromes, eczema, psoriasis, sclerosis, corns, warts (including planters warts), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), Lyme Disease, mononucleosis, premenstrual syndrome, menstrual cramps, irregular periods, mood swings, depression, and hypoglycemia.
Bee Venom Collection
Bees are stored in a jar with honey covered by a single layer of paper towel. The towel absorbs the honey and the bees can suck it up while standing on the towel and avoid drowning in the honey. Note a toilet paper core is included to provide a clustering place for the bees and has been cut on both ends to help prevent it from rolling around inside the jar.
Significant amounts of honey bee venom are required by the pharmaceutical industry. In order to provide them with the raw material they need to produce desensitization shots for those who are allergic, beekeepers collect and purify the venom. One way this is done is with a frame embedded with wires that are hooked up to a battery. Under the wire grid is a plastic sheet covered with a rubber membrane. The venom collector is placed up against the entrance to a hive and the hive is kicked in order to elicit a defensive response. When the bees come out, land on the collector and touch any two wires, they get a hot foot and sting the rubber membrane beneath the wires depositing their venom beneath the rubber. The venom that is collected is then dried, filtered and purified in an autoclave before being shipped.
Apitherapists avoid all the work involved in collecting bee venom by using live honey bees. Charles Mraz would re-use an old mayonnaise jar with holes punched in the lid for air to collect and store bees for BVT. Before collecting the bees, a tablespoon of honey is placed on the bottom of the jar and a piece of paper towel, large enough to just cover the bottom of the jar, is placed over the honey. This prevents the bees from wallowing in and potentially drowning in the honey. Charles also would place an empty toilet paper roll in the jar to provide a place for the bees to cluster.
Once the jar is prepared, collecting the bees was as easy as going out to a hive and rattling the jar over an upper entrance in order to stimulate the guard bees to come out and defend the hive. When the desired number of bees is in the jar, it is simply slid across to the edge of the hive and the lid placed on the jar.
Honey Bee Storage
Once the bees are collected, it is best to store them in a dark, quiet place for a while. If necessary, I wrap a dark cloth around the jar to prevent the bees from racing around and around the jar using up their life energy trying to get to the light they see through the glass. This also encourages the bees to quiet down and cluster making them much easier to grab them when the time comes to remove them.
If the bees are to be used for BVT shortly after they have been collected and they are energetically running around the inside of the jar, the container can be placed in the refrigerator for a few minutes. The cold greatly decreases the activity level of the bees making them much easier to catch. Care must be taken not to leave the bees in the cold too long or they will enter a state of torpor where they allow their body temperature to get very low in order to conserve energy. Bees in the torpor state will not readily sting when prompted and must be warmed back up before being used for BVT.
By pre-marking the sting sites, BVT can be targeted to specific points on the body.
Choosing the sting site
Charles Mraz developed a technique for choosing a sting site by pressing firmly along the joints and bones looking for spots that were sensitive and painful when pressed. He called these “hot spots” and would mark them with a pen or marker whenever they were discovered. This provided a bull’s-eye target for the actual sting. Interestingly, these “hot spots” often coincided with the body’s meridians—the places that acupuncturists insert their needles. Stings applied to these meridian points give greater results than when applied in other areas. (Lee 2005) Some even hypothesize that the honey bee was the first acupuncture needle ever used.
To help reduce the initial pain of the sting, extreme cold is applied to the ink mark area through the application of ice wrapped in a damp cloth or an ice-pack. The ice is applied for a minute or two in order to numb the sting site and reduce the initial pain associated with the sting.
Once the area is adequately numbed with ice, a bee is removed from the jar and the tip of the bee’s abdomen is applied to the ink mark. Eight to 12-inch forceps are the perfect tool for removing bees from the jar. It is important to try and grasp the bees by their head or thorax rather than the abdomen, since grabbing the bee by the abdomen may damage the stinging apparatus preventing the stinging mechanism from working.
If a person has not received a bee sting within the past two weeks, it is prudent to try a test sting before applying full stings to be sure they have not become hyper-allergic. To apply a test sting simply scratch out the honey bee stinger within a split second after it has become imbedded in the skin. Then wait for 15-20 minutes and monitor the patient. If they do not experience symptoms associated with anaphylaxis, such as fainting, loss of blood pressure, and breaking out in hives all over the body, then BVT can proceed with full strength stings.
The primary purpose of BVT is to stimulate the body’s immune system so that it can begin to heal itself. Once the stinger is imbedded in the skin, it pumps venom into the sting site. In reaction to the foreign substance entering its system, the body sends large amounts of blood to the area. This concentrates the healing properties within the blood around the sting site. In order to receive a full dose of venom, the stinger is left in the skin for at least 10-15 minutes. During this time the stinger is acting as an acupuncture needle as mentioned above.
The impact of the BVT treatment goes much further however. Dr. Artemov of Gorky University was among the first to prove that the bodies adrenal glands are stimulated by venom to release cortisol. Cortisol is the natural version of the steroid, Cortisone that is commonly used by physicians to treat arthritis and other cases of inflammation. While it is close, Cortisone is chemically not exactly the same as the Cortisol that the body produces and over time patients can develop liver toxicity from Cortisone treatment. It is believed that the body requires various B vitamins and vitamin C in order to produce Cortisol. Thus it is recommended that for best results, people obtaining bee stings for therapeutic reasons take 1,000 to 2,000 milligrams of vitamin C and a tablet containing multiple B vitamins about one hour prior to receiving BVT.
Items that you may want to have on hand when giving, or receiving, bee venom therapy. Unless side effects of stings become unbearable, only herbal salves and the homeopathic remedy, Apis Mellifica, should be used as they will not suppress the bodies immune response while they reduce the bodies reaction to the sting.
As with any treatment, there are side effects that can be expected from BVT treatment. While not everyone will experience all of the possible side effects, the most common side effects include the initial pain of the sting, as well as swelling, redness, itching, soreness and tenderness, feelings of heat in the treatment area, and in extreme cases nausea and fever. It is important to note that none of these localized reactions are typically life threatening. A life threatening anaphylaxis reaction will affect the entire body.
The public’s usual response to a sting reaction is to take an antihistamine. Liquid antihistamines sold for children will be absorbed by the body the quickest providing the fastest relief. A more powerful antihistamine is sold under the brand name, Zyrtec, and used to only be available by prescription but now can be purchased over-the-counter.
The problem with taking antihistamines for uncomfortable reactions to BVT is that they suppress the body’s immune system. Since BVT is practiced in order to stimulate the body’s immune response, drugs that depress the body’s immune system are contraindicated. It is preferable therefore to use the homeopathic remedy, Apis Mellifica, should the side effects of BVT become too uncomfortable, since the remedy can reduce symptoms without suppressing the immune system. Similarly, one should avoid the use of alcohol during bee venom therapy, since alcohol also suppresses the body’s immune system.
Although it is extremely rare, about one percent of the population is hyper-allergic to honey bee venom and will experience anaphylaxis. For this reason, it is prudent to always have an epinephrine injector (brand name: EpiPen) on hand when giving or receiving BVT and always apply a test sting first if the person has not been stung within the past two weeks.
American Apitherapy Society
As a benefit of being a member of the American Apitherapy Society, the AAS will provide you with a free prescription for an epinephrine injector if you need one. The AAS also provides members access to a list of AAS members who reside throughout America and around the world. This apitherapy network can provide information and assistance with most all aspects of apitherapy. This includes everything from where to source honey bees, to being able to post questions on the AAS forum that experienced apitherapists will answer. Questions can include anything from what type of apitherapy is recommended for certain conditions, to what protocols one should follow when treating specific conditions and what results other apitherapists have experienced when treating various diseases. The list can also be used to find an apitherapist in your area who may be able to treat you.
For over 100 years honey bee venom has demonstrated its efficacy in thousands of cases and the hundreds of papers written and published in the U.S., Europe and other countries. Charles Mraz believed that this provides a solid foundation on which to build an exciting new field of immunotherapy medicine.
For More Information Contact: the American Apitherapy Society http://www.apitherapy.org/contact/
Al-Atiyyat, N., and Obaid, A., (2017) Management of peripheral neuropathy induced by chemotherapy in adults with cancer: A review, International Journal of Palliative Nursing; 23:1, 13-17
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Hong, S.J., et. al., (2005) Bee venom induces apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Toxicon; 46(1):39-45
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Kwon, Y.B., et. al., (2001) The analgesic efficacy of bee venom acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis: a comparative study with needle acupuncture. American Journal of Chinese Medicine; 29(2):187-99
Mao, J., et. al., (2017) A novel melittin nano-liposome exerted excellent anti-hepatocellular carcinoma efficacy with better biological safety, Journal of Hematology and Oncology; 10(1):71. doi: 10.1186/s13045-017-0442-y
Park, H.J., Lee, S.H., Son, D.J., et al., (2004) “Antiarthritic effect of bee venom: inhibition of inflammation mediator generation by suppression of NF-κB through interaction with the p50 subunit,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 3504–3515.
Park, M.H., Choi, M.S., Kwak, D.H., et al., (2011) Anti-cancer effect of bee venom in prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase pathway via inactivation of NF-κB, Prostate, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 801–812
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Ross Conrad is the author of Natural Beekeeping: Organic Approaches to Modern Apiculture, 2nd Edition.