This blog is about pests and insects, Pests Worldwide

Pests Worldwide

Pests and insects, how do you save yourself from their attack?

Plum Moth (Angerona Prunaria)

Pest Type: Fruit Pests Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera Family: Moths – Geometridae It is found everywhere. It damages plums, cherry plums, apricots, cherries, cherries, hawthorn, buckthorn, honeysuckle, and buttocks. Butterfly with a wingspan of 40-50 mm; the wings of the female are […]

Pest Type: Fruit Pests

Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera

Family: Moths – Geometridae

It is found everywhere. It damages plums, cherry plums, apricots, cherries, cherries, hawthorn, buckthorn, honeysuckle, and buttocks.

Butterfly with a wingspan of 40-50 mm; the wings of the female are light; the male is orange; the pattern of the wings is represented by numerous dark brown transverse lines, the fringe is light orange or yellow. Egg size 0.5? 0.8 mm, oval, yellow. Caterpillar 40-60 mm long, gray with brown stripes; in the eighth segment, sharp tubercles; in other segments, tubercles are small. Pupa – 17.2-18.5 mm, dark brown, reddish at the end.

Caterpillars of the third and fourth centuries hibernate between cobwebbed leaves. In the last decade of April, nutrition is restored by the buds, which are blooming, and by the leaves. In the last decade of May, caterpillars pupate in a web of cocoon between leaves on the soil surface. After 10-15 days (mid-June) butterflies fly out. In the afternoon, they sit among the fallen leaves or in the crown of a tree on the underside of the leaves. Active at dusk and at night. After mating, the female lays eggs in small groups on the underside of the leaf. Fertility – 25 eggs. Caterpillars regenerated after 10-12 days first skeletonize, then eat leaves and, having reached the third or fourth centuries, remain for wintering until the spring of next year. One generation develops per year.

Protective measures. Autumn tillage in aisles and near-stem circles. Loosening of soil in the last decade of May, during pupation of caterpillars. When the number exceeds 4-5 caterpillars on the 1st branch, the treatment of trees with insecticides or biological products.

Pine Moth (Bupalus Piniarius)

Pest Type: Soft Pests Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera Family: Moths – Geometridae It happens everywhere. Damages ordinary pine, less often spruce, fir and other conifers. You need the best bug zappers! Butterfly with wingspan: female 35-40 mm, male 30-35 mm. The front […]

Pest Type: Soft Pests

Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera

Family: Moths – Geometridae

It happens everywhere. Damages ordinary pine, less often spruce, fir and other conifers. You need the best bug zappers!

Butterfly with wingspan: female 35-40 mm, male 30-35 mm. The front wings of the female are ore brown with a darkened apex and two dark brown transverse bands; tendrils are filiform; fore wings of male dark brown with yellowish oblong spots in the middle; tendrils are feathery. Egg size 1.2? 0.5 mm, light. Caterpillar 30-40 mm long, glabrous, greenish, with yellow-white stripes on the back and sides of the body; two pairs of abdominal legs, the head is flat, with three wide bright stripes. Pupa 7-15 mm long, yellow-brown, shiny, with a pointed wrinkled cremaster.

Pupae hibernate in forest litter, in a small depression, without a cocoon. The butterfly years from the end of May and lasts for a month. The maximum falls in the first half of June. Fly during the day at temperatures above 11 ° C. At night they fly into the light. Butterflies do not require additional nutrition and already on the second day, they begin to lay eggs.

The female lays eggs in rows, 7-30 pieces per old needles. Fertility – 150-200 eggs. The lower development threshold is 8 ° C. Caterpillars resurrected after 10-20 days to eat the oblong grooves on the needles of last year without touching the vein. Damaged needles are covered with drops of hardening resin and dry. Caterpillars of recent centuries eat whole needles, leaving small stumps. In late August and September, the moth damages the needles of this year.

During long-term development, one caterpillar eats an average of 100 needles or 3.5 g of needles. Massive damage leads to weakening and drying of the trees.

During the development of the female caterpillar, six centuries pass, the male caterpillar – five. In September – October, the caterpillars leave fodder trees and pass into the forest litter, where they pupate in 2-3 days and remain there until spring. One generation develops per year.

Accompanying species are pine floral moths. It is found everywhere. Damages a pine, less often spruce; smoky coniferous moth – Peribatodes Secundaria Esp. It is found everywhere. Damages young conifers in nurseries.

More than 100 species of parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera are known, which play an important role in limiting the number of moths. Eggs infect various bronchograms; caterpillars and pupae – braconids; ichneumonids, etc. Forest ants, ground beetles, birds (rooks, jackdaws, crows, cuckoos, woodpeckers, tits, blackbirds, finches), shrews, moles, hedgehogs feed on caterpillars and pupae. During the years of mass breeding, the death of older caterpillars is noted.

Protective measures. Attraction to plantations and protection of insectivorous birds. Resettlement of anthills. With a population exceeding two pupae per 1 m2 of the crown projection, treatment with biological products or insecticides during the revival of caterpillars.

Shingles (Triops Cancriformis)

Pest Type: Rice Pest Family: Arthropods – Arthropod Class: Chaffinch – Branchiata Row: Crustacea – Crustacea Contract: Leaf-footed Crustacea – Phyllopoda Ubiquitous crustacean damages rice in areas of its cultivation. Fossil animal, almost unchanged over 185 million years. Adult crustacean reaches 50-55 […]

Pest Type: Rice Pest

Family: Arthropods – Arthropod

Class: Chaffinch – Branchiata

Row: Crustacea – Crustacea

Contract: Leaf-footed Crustacea – Phyllopoda

Ubiquitous crustacean damages rice in areas of its cultivation. Fossil animal, almost unchanged over 185 million years. Adult crustacean reaches 50-55 mm. The body is ovoid.

It is called a shield due to the fact that the cephalothorax is covered by an oval chitinous shield of a grayish-green color with a longitudinal keel in the middle. The back of the abdomen is thin and short, with two thin long appendages, protrudes from under the shield, the length of which exceeds the length of the body. Ruminant jaws are well developed, allow you to eat small animals, including a fish fry, underwater particles of plants. A pair of complex eyes and a simple point provide an overview of the upper side. On the underside of the shield, there are several dozens of pairs of limbs that perform the functions of movement, respiratory and auxiliary – to grab small animals and transfer them to the mouth.

Shield eggs are covered with dense shells, providing viability in case of drying out of the reservoir, freezing for 7-9 years. Larvae appear in rice fields, in puddles, ponds, in early May. They have three pairs of legs, bodies without segmentation. The development of larvae occurs within 2-3 weeks, and in June adult shields appear.

Damage to rice causes clouding of water. Shitnits gnaw rice sprouts and roots, eat lower leaves, plants often float to the surface of disturbed water. Annual generation. In the case of mass reproduction of the pest, the water layer is reduced to 3-4 cm and the low places where the shields are collected are treated with bleach with a consumption rate of 10-15 kg/ha. Examination of the fields is carried out in a critical period between the rice stairs and their appearance above the surface of the water.

Protective measures. Compliance with crop rotation with the inclusion of legumes. Optimally, early sowing times of rice with mandatory wrapping to a depth of 1.5-2.0 cm increase the stability of the stairs to damage. In the case of mass propagation of the shield during the germination of rice, complete drainage of water is mandatory for 2 to 3 days, and the pests die, not having time to lay eggs. In case of accumulation of crustaceans in low places, they are treated with bleach at a rate of 10-15 kg/ha. At present, the economic threshold for harmfulness is 7–10 ind./m2 of adult shield species.

Silkworm Pine (Dendrolimus Pini)

Pest Type: Soft Pests Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera Family: Cocoon Spiders – Lasiocampidae It is found everywhere. Damages ordinary pine, in rare cases, other conifers. A butterfly with a wingspan of 60-80 mm, the color of the front wings is yellow-brown to […]

Pest Type: Soft Pests

Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera

Family: Cocoon Spiders – Lasiocampidae

It is found everywhere. Damages ordinary pine, in rare cases, other conifers.

A butterfly with a wingspan of 60-80 mm, the color of the front wings is yellow-brown to gray-brown, on each wing there are three transverse wavy lines and to the middle of the wing there is a small lunate white spot; in a calm state, the wings are folded in the form of a roof; hind wings gray, one-color. An egg up to 2 mm in diameter, first greenish, later dark. Caterpillar of the last age 90-100 mm long, gray-brown, with rare reddish hairs, dark blue spots on the dorsal side of the second and third segments; along the back stretches a series of rhombic spots with a bright middle. Pupa 20-40 mm long, dark brown, in a cocoon.

Caterpillars of the third and fourth centuries hibernate in forest litter, most often near a tree trunk, individual individuals pass shallow into the soil. In spring, at a temperature of 10 ° C, caterpillars crawl along the trunks into the crown at the place where they lie and begin to feed on young needles, and shoots and buds of May are also damaged. Eat-in the twilight and predawn hours. Over the entire development period, one caterpillar eats 20-35 g of needles, with 2-3 g in the fall and 18-32 g in the spring. Caterpillars of the male pass 6, caterpillars of the female – 7 centuries. In the first half of June, pupate among pine needles on branches or on tree trunks. After 20-25 days, butterflies come out. Their years last until mid-July.

After fertilization, females lay eggs on needles in groups of 20-150 pieces. Fertility – an average of 300 eggs. After 14-20 days, the caterpillars that feed on the needles of this year revive, gnawing the needles on the sides in the apical part. Caterpillars of the second age nibble needles along the entire length. In October, the caterpillars go to winter. Annual generation.

A combination of needles causes weakening of trees, drying of branches and their settlement with bark beetles, barbel.

The number of pine silkworms is reduced by more than 60 species of parasites and predators. The laid eggs infect the ovids, caterpillars, and pupae – the braconids; ichneumonids and others. Caterpillars and pupae feed on ants from the genus Formica and birds – cuckoo, oriole, jay.

In wet weather, epizootics are observed due to infection with fungal, bacterial and viral diseases.

Protective measures. Attraction to plantations and protection of insectivorous birds. With a population exceeding 400-500 caterpillars per tree, treatment in the early spring with biological products or insecticides of the forest litter and the butt of the trees.

Podkorovaya Leaflet (Enarmonia Formosana)

Pest Type: Fruit Pests Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera Family: Leaflet Tortricidae It is found everywhere. It damages the apple tree, pear, plum, cherry, cherry, apricot, peach, mountain ash. Butterfly with a wingspan of 15-18 mm; front wings with a bright pattern of […]

Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera

Family: Leaflet Tortricidae

It is found everywhere. It damages the apple tree, pear, plum, cherry, cherry, apricot, peach, mountain ash.

Butterfly with a wingspan of 15-18 mm; front wings with a bright pattern of stripes and spots that alternate. They consist of dark brown, yellow-orange and metallic-shiny scales; at the front edge there are seven good noticeable yellow-white strokes; closer to the middle of the wing – an orange spot with metal-shiny scales; hind wings are brownish-brown with yellow-gold shiny fringe. The egg is 0.9-1 mm in size, round, flat, black-red. Caterpillar 11-14 mm long, translucent, yellow chairman; prothoracic and anal scutes of gray-brown color. Pupa – 7-8 mm, dark yellow, with black eyes; cremaster in the form of a small pointed pyramid with four hooked setae.

Caterpillars of different ages of winter under the bark of fruit trees. In the spring they resume feeding with bast and sapwood, laying winding passages in them and covering them with cobwebs. In April-May, caterpillars pupate under the bark in a cradle, pasted over with excrement and drilling flour. Before the butterfly leaves, the pupa protrudes half from the bark. In 12-20 days after pupation, butterflies fly out, which lay eggs in the lower part of the trunks in the crevice of the bark, to the places of injuries and roots located above the soil surface. Fertility – up to 100 eggs. Caterpillars regenerated after 7-9 days penetrate the cortex and make passages there. In the fall, with the onset of cooling, they fall into diapause. One generation is developing in a year. The periods of pupation, a flight of butterflies, laying of eggs and the revival of caterpillars are quite extended. Trees populated by the pest weakly grow and bear fruit. In places of damage from the bark, corks of excrement stuck together with cobwebs stick out. In the morning gum flows out. In some varieties of cherries and cherries in the places of damage sagging and growths form.

The number of subcrustal leafworms is reduced by many predators and parasites. Predatory bugs from the families Nabidae and Anthocoridae and predatory bugs from different families feed on caterpillars in the passages.

The laid eggs are infected with a trichogram. Caterpillars and pupae infect endoparasites from the ichneumonid family; from the family of braconids; from the chalcid family – Brachymeria rugulosa Först; from the eulofid family; from a family of tahin flies.

Protective measures. Purification and burning of dead layers of the cortex. Preventing the placement of roots above the surface of the soil. Insecticide spraying of skeletal branches, trunks, and the root neck during a massive summer of butterflies often coincides with the first treatment against the first generation of the apple codling moth.

Sand Lance (Opatrum Sabulosum)

Pest Type: Multi-Pest Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera Family: Darkling – Tenebrionidae It is widespread, but numerous in the south of the steppe zone. Beetles are multinivorous and damage various crops, however, dangerous for row crops and vegetable seedlings in spring and early […]

Pest Type: Multi-Pest

Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera

Family: Darkling – Tenebrionidae

It is widespread, but numerous in the south of the steppe zone. Beetles are multinivorous and damage various crops, however, dangerous for row crops and vegetable seedlings in spring and early summer.

Larvae feed on putrefactive plant debris, living plants almost do not damage.

The beetle is 7-10 mm in size, oval, with almost parallel sides, slightly convex, black or grayish-brown from the soil crust that covers the entire body. Clypeus front with a deep semicircular notch. Elytra with regular longitudinal rows of large tubercles; no hind wings.

Larva – up to 18 mm, flat-cylindrical, from dark gray to tawny-yellow color, with a dark head; opaque integument, bottom colored lighter. There are glasses. The upper lip and the clypeus have two club-shaped tips in the middle.

Beetles live 1 – 2 years, winter among plant debris in the fields and in the upper soil layer. They appear on the soil surface in the steppe zone in late March or early April, depending on the degree of soil warming.

In April, as a rule, mating is observed and in late April – early May, egg-laying, which lasts until the end of May – beginning of June. Females lay eggs in the soil to a depth of 2 – 5 cm in heaps, from a few to a dozen. One female can lay up to 100 eggs per season. The egg-laying period is very extended in time, from eggs laid in early May, larvae appear in the second half of this month, and from eggs laid later in mid-June. Their full development is completed in 35 – 40 days; larvae pupate in the soil at a depth of 3–6 cm; pupal development lasts 6–8 days. Adults appear in July and continue to emerge from the soil during August.

Larvae that were reborn from late clutches pupate in August – September, and beetles remain in Lyalechka until spring. Beetles inflict the most significant damage from the end of April to mid-May.

Protective measures. The poisoned bait method is used against sand lag beetles. This method is based on the ability of adults to eat plants and to accumulate under shelters. On 1 ha, up to 100 piles of green baits, treated with permitted insecticides, weighing 200-500 g each, are laid out. On one bait spend 2 – 10 g of insecticide.

Peach or Greenhouse Aphids (Myzodes Persicae)

Type of pest: Tobacco pest, indoor vegetable pest, fruit crop pest Row: Equine – Homoptera Family: aphids – Aphididae Distributed everywhere. The primary owner is a peach and some of its hybrids with almonds. It damages fruit trees, tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, […]

Type of pest: Tobacco pest, indoor vegetable pest, fruit crop pest

Row: Equine – Homoptera

Family: aphids – Aphididae

Distributed everywhere. The primary owner is a peach and some of its hybrids with almonds. It damages fruit trees, tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, and cotton.

Founders and wingless parthenogenetic females – up to 2.5 mm in size, clear green, sometimes pink, mustache tubercles high, form a frontal groove, cylindrical tubules, slightly widened at the base and barely swollen to the end, finger-like tail. Amphigone female – 2 mm in size, from clear brown to cherry in color, hind legs thickened. Male – up to 1.9 mm, head, chest, antennae black, abdomen clear green, with black transverse stripes that merge into a continuous spot on the III-IV segments of the body. The egg is green, it darkens over time and before leaving the larva becomes black. Winters in the egg stage at the base of the peach buds.

The founders are reborn in March, however, depending on the temperature, they can be reborn in February or April. They feed first on the buds, later on blossoming leaves and flowers. The duration of their development is 17-28 days. In April, for 10-20 days, they revive 20-60 larvae. On a peach, 2-3 generations of wingless females develop. From the second generation, winged ones appear, in the next generations their number increases.

Aphids fly on weeds, and then on cultivated herbaceous plants. Up to 400 secondary host plants are known. Males develop on secondary and migrate to females; after mating, they lay 5-10 wintering eggs. In the south, as well as in greenhouses, greenhouses and indoor plants, aphids breed unevenly throughout the year.

The optimum temperature for the development of aphids is 24 ° C. The maximum number of aphids reaches in July, then its number quickly decreases and again increases only in September-October.

Protective measures. Destruction of weeds around greenhouses and greenhouses. The use of insecticides. Measures to protect fruit trees from aphids. Cutting of root shoots and fatty shoots, especially intensively populated by aphids. With a population of more than 10-20 eggs per 10 cm of shoots, it is necessary for the pest breeding centers in early spring, before buds open, at a temperature not lower than +4 ° С, spraying – washing of suicidal trees. If the aphid population density exceeds 5 colonies per 100 sheets, insecticide treatment is required. The regulated ratio of aphids and aphidophagous has one aphidophagous per 30 pest larvae. With this ratio, the use of affidavits is impractical.

Blue Linen Flea (Aphthona Euphorbiae)

Pest Type: Flax Pest Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera Family: leaf beetles – Chrysomelidae It is found everywhere. Damages flax, less often beets. Beetle 1.5-2 mm in size, black-green on top, less often blue or bronze; pronotum and elytra at small, barely noticeable […]

Pest Type: Flax Pest

Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera

Family: leaf beetles – Chrysomelidae

It is found everywhere. Damages flax, less often beets.

Beetle 1.5-2 mm in size, black-green on top, less often blue or bronze; pronotum and elytra at small, barely noticeable points; legs are yellow, hips of hind legs are black. The egg is oval, 0.5-0.6 mm in size, bright yellow. Larva – 4-5 mm, thin, worm-like, milky white, head bright yellow; the abdominal segments are not clearly separated.

Adults hibernate under plant debris. Released in April. They feed on the plants themselves (cereals, cabbage, beets, etc.). With the advent of seedlings of flax is transferred to them. Active on warm sunny days. Mating and egg-laying take place shortly after flax populations.

The female places the eggs one at a time or in small groups (2-3 pcs.) In the surface soil layer on the main and lateral roots. Fertility – up to 300 eggs. After 11-25 days, larvae are born, within 26-29 days they feed on small roots of flax. Having completed development, the larvae pupate in the surface layer of the soil. After 17-20 days (end of June), adults emerge that feed until August, after which they leave fodder plants and migrate to wintering places. One generation per year is developing.

Adults and larvae do harm. In spring, imago gnaws holes on cotyledon leaves, eat around the edges of real leaves. Sometimes they damage the cotyledons and the growth point, causing the death of seedlings. The damage leads to a decrease in the length of the stem and a decrease in the number of bolls and seeds. Larvae damage the roots, which leads to stunted growth and plant diseases. A new-generation imago scrapes the skin and part of the stem parenchyma, which impairs the quality of the fiber.

Protective measures. Optimal early tight sowing dates. Weed control. During the period of mass migration of adults to the flax ladder, when the number exceeds 10 adults for 10 plants, the treatment of crops with insecticides.

Silkworm Moth (Lycia Hirtaria)

Pest Type: Fruit Pests Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera Family: Moths – Geometridae It is found everywhere. It damages plants from 43 genera – all fruit and forest species. Butterfly with a wingspan of 35-40 mm; the main color of the wings is […]

Pest Type: Fruit Pests

Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera

Family: Moths – Geometridae

It is found everywhere. It damages plants from 43 genera – all fruit and forest species.

Butterfly with a wingspan of 35-40 mm; the main color of the wings is yellow-gray or simply gray with brown stripes and black sickle-shaped spots between the veins of the outer edge of the wing, on the anal edge is terry yellow; brown fringe; antennae of females are filiform, males are cirrus. The eggs are 0.7 mm in size, freshly laid – green, before the revival of the caterpillar – blue-black with a metallic sheen. The caterpillar, which completed its development, is 45-50 mm long; the main body color has multi-colored aberrations: gray, brown, gray-brown or gray-purple; the chairman is yellow, in December the legs and shields are black-brown, the ventral shields are bright, on the back, there are two yellow spots on each segment, on the 11th segment there are two black speeches that have a light hairline. Pupa – 17-20 mm, dark brown, with a large cremaster.

Pupae hibernate in soil, in an earthen cradle, at a depth of 8-15 cm or in the surface soil layer, under fallen leaves. The flight of butterflies begins in early spring at an average daily air temperature of 12-15 ° C – in the first ten days of April, in the steppe zone – in March. The output is extended and lasts more than a month. Butterflies emerge from sexual production that has developed since the fall. Females are inactive, do not fly, and after fertilization, they lay eggs one by one or in small groups in the folds of the cortex at the base of the kidneys. Fertility – 650-850 eggs. Embryonic development lasts from 10-15 to 30-35 days.

Reborn caterpillars are very mobile. They live separately, at first they skeletonize young leaves, braiding it with cobwebs, older caterpillars roughly eat leaves, often eating them whole. Having completed the development, which lasts 30-35 days, the caterpillars pass to the wintering places, pupate in the earthen cradle and remain until the spring of next year. One generation develops per year.

Protective measures. Autumn tillage in aisles and near-stem circles. Loosening of the soil during the transition of caterpillars to pupation. With a population exceeding 4-6 eggs per 2 m of shoots, spraying with insecticides in the phenophase, isolation of buds, pink bud.

Dark Nutcracker

Latin name: Agriotes obscurus Russian name: Dark Nutcracker Pest Type: Multi-Pest Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera It is widespread, but the most numerous in the mountainous part, especially in the western regions, as well as in the northern forest-steppe. Larvae severely damage corn, […]

Latin name: Agriotes obscurus

Russian name: Dark Nutcracker

Pest Type: Multi-Pest

Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera

It is widespread, but the most numerous in the mountainous part, especially in the western regions, as well as in the northern forest-steppe.

Larvae severely damage corn, root crops, and vegetables.

The beetle is 7–9.5 mm in size, with a wide-body, a transverse anterior back, and femoral tires not narrowed outward. The top is brownish-gray, the antennae and legs are brownish-ore. Larvae up to 28 mm in size, cylindrical, evenly colored.

Beetles winter in the ground at a depth of 50 – 80 cm. Beetles in the south of the forest zone exit at the beginning of the second decade of May, the active period continues until the end of the first decade of June.

The female lays eggs in the soil near the roots of cereal plants, prefers heavy loamy and clay soils. The larva develops, as a rule, four years, sometimes five years.

Deroceras Sturangi, Deroceras Agreste, Deroceras reticulatum

Pest Type: Pest Vegetable Indoor Crop

Type: Mollusks – Mollusca

Class: gastropods – Gastropoda

Row: Snails – Limacidae

These are polyphagous pests that damage more than 140 species of various plants, including almost all vegetable crops. These types of snails are similar to each other both in appearance and in developmental biology and lifestyle. During the day, they hide in the cracks of the soil, and at night they crawl out of the storages and feed on plants. They gnaw holes in the leaves and also damage the fruits of cucumbers and tomatoes. In places of residence, slugs leave silvery mucus, which subsequently dries up and forms a shiny path. The increased humidity of air and soil contribute to their development and mass reproduction. Slugs enter the greenhouse from the soil, as well as from weeds growing near the greenhouses.

Protective measures. Regular mowing of vegetation in moist places near greenhouses with mandatory removal of mowed plants so that they are not a repository for slugs. Spraying the soil after mowing the grass with a 10% solution of iron sulfate.

Gray Bud Weevil (Sciaphobus Squalidus)

Pest Type: Fruit Pest Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera Family: Weevils – Curculionidae Numerous in woodland and forest-steppe, in the steppe zone, is found in stations with increased moisture. It damages all fruit, berry crops, grapes, and forest species. Beetle 5-7 mm long, […]

Pest Type: Fruit Pest

Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera

Family: Weevils – Curculionidae

Numerous in woodland and forest-steppe, in the steppe zone, is found in stations with increased moisture. It damages all fruit, berry crops, grapes, and forest species.

Beetle 5-7 mm long, covered with gray scales; elytra ovate; the rostrum is shortened, legs and antennae are yellow-brown, the club of the antennae is dark, eyes are large; webbed wings are not developed. The beetle does not fly. The egg is 0.8 mm in size, oval; milky white. Larva -5-6 mm, white, with a light brown head, rows of setae and spines on the body; larvae of the first age on the ventral side of the thoracic segments have three pairs of long setae intended for movement in the soil. Pupa 5-6 mm long, white.

Immature beetles and larvae in the soil over winter. Beetles emerge at an average daily temperature of 10 ° C at the beginning of the swelling and budding of the kidneys. The rise in the crown of trees and feed for 20-30 days only in the afternoon. At night, they descend to the ground and hide in various shelters. In mid-May, after fertilization, the females begin to lay eggs. Eggs are laid in groups of 10-40 pieces under the edge of the top of the sheet. Egg-laying lasts 8-11 days. Fertility – 200-300 eggs. The larvae regenerated after 12-16 days fall to the ground and penetrate the soil to a depth of 40-60 cm, where they feed on small roots of trees without causing significant harm.

After hibernation, the larvae continue to develop until the end of next summer and in August pupate in a small box at a depth of 40-60 cm. The beetles formed in September remain in the earthen small box until spring. At the same time as the bugs, the larvae of the first-year winter. Thus, the development of gray kidney weevil lasts two years. The main harm is caused by beetles, eating buds, buds, and leaves. The buds eat up completely or gnaw wide holes in them, pestles and stamens gnaw out in buds, leaves are eaten from the edges.

The laid eggs of the gray kidney weevil infect the egg-eaters; larvae are braconids. A significant number of larvae die during their penetration into the soil from ground beetles, earwigs, spiders, and other predatory arthropods.

Protective measures. With a population exceeding 20-30 beetles per tree, during the period of budding, it is necessary to spray the trees with insecticides.

Sprout Fly (Delia Platura)

Pest Type: Pumpkin Gourd Row: Diptera – Diptera Family: Flower Flies – Anthomyidae It is found everywhere. It damages the stairs of pumpkin, legumes, beets, sunflowers, corn, cabbage, onions, and many other crops. Fly size 3-6 mm, yellow-gray; mesoscutum with brown bloom […]

Pest Type: Pumpkin Gourd

Row: Diptera – Diptera

Family: Flower Flies – Anthomyidae

It is found everywhere. It damages the stairs of pumpkin, legumes, beets, sunflowers, corn, cabbage, onions, and many other crops.

Fly size 3-6 mm, yellow-gray; mesoscutum with brown bloom and three dark brown stripes; abdomen gray with a narrow longitudinal black stripe; The chair is gray with a light orange velvet frontal stripe. An egg up to 1 mm in size, white, long, one end twisted, the other narrowed. Larva 6-7 mm long, pale white, fleshy; the front end is narrowed, two black curved mouth hooks are visible. Cocoon size 4 – 5 mm, brown-yellow, elongated-oval, with four large cloves at the posterior end.

Pupae overwinter in false cocoons in the soil, at a depth of 7-10 cm. Flies fly out in the second half of April. Additionally, eat. Eggs are laid under moist lumps of soil. In dry soil, laid eggs dry out and die.

Embryonic development lasts 3-9 days. In search of seeds, regenerated larvae actively move in the soil, feeding on plant debris. Having found seeds that germinate, the larvae penetrate the place where the sprout emerges and eats the grooves and pits in the cotyledons. Damaged seeds rot and die. In pumpkin stairs, the larva drills under the cotyledonary knee and penetrates the stem, causing the death of the plant. Three generations develop in a year. Years of flies of the first generation occurs at the end of April-May, the second – in June, the third – at the end of July. Larvae develop over 30-40 days. Populate in a fake cocoon in the soil. Particularly significant damage is caused by larvae of the first generation. The larvae of the two subsequent generations damage the roots of already stronger plants.

The pest is infected by riders from the Eukilid, Braconid, and other families. Nematodes of the Cephalobidae and Rhabditidae families parasitize flies in puparium. Pupae are affected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, microsporidia Toxoglugea, and adults by the fungus Entomophtora muscle.

Protective measures. Autumn plowing. Two, three times tillage during the season. Sowing optimally early. In the case of dangerous numbers (5-8 flies per 10 strokes of the net) – pre-sowing of granulated insecticides into the soil.

Cherry Slimy Sawfly (Caliroa Cerasi)

Pest Type: Fruit Pests Row: Hymenoptera – Hymenoptera Family: true sawflies – Tenthredinidae It is found everywhere. It damages cherries, cherries, pears, hawthorn, less – plums, thorns, quinces, mountain ash, cotoneaster, apple, and ii. The female is 5-6 mm long, the male […]

Pest Type: Fruit Pests

Row: Hymenoptera – Hymenoptera

Family: true sawflies – Tenthredinidae

It is found everywhere. It damages cherries, cherries, pears, hawthorn, less – plums, thorns, quinces, mountain ash, cotoneaster, apple, and ii.

The female is 5-6 mm long, the male is 4-5 mm, the body is black, shiny, legs are black, only brownish in the middle; wings are transparent, with a slightly darkened median band. The egg is 0.6 mm in size, oval, pale green. Larva – 9-11 mm, yellow-green, head small, brown or black; the front of the body (thoracic segments) is significantly expanded; legs – 10 pairs; the larva is covered with shiny black mucus and only at the last age loses it and becomes Bright. Pupa 6 mm long, yellow-white, in a dense oval earthen cocoon.

The eonimph larvae overwinter in an earthen cocoon in the soil at a depth of 6-15 cm. In the forest-steppe pupate in late May-early June, in the southern strip in the first half of May. A significant part of the larvae (sometimes up to 50%) remains in a state of diapause for repeated wintering. 7-10 days after the start of the pupation, a massive exit of imago from the soil is observed. On the second and third days after the departure, the females lay their eggs, placing them one at a time in the incisions made by the ovipositor in the incisions in the pulp of the sheet from the underside. The egg is clearly visible in the form of a brown tubercle. With mass reproduction of the pest on one sheet, there are 10-30 eggs laid by different females. It multiplies more often parthenogenetically. For 7-8 days of life, the female lays 50-75 eggs.

Embryonic development lasts 7-13 days. The mass revival of larvae occurs more often in the second half of June – early July. The larvae crawl onto the upper side of the leaf and become covered with mucus, which protects them from drying out. After 15-20 days, after 6-7 centuries, the larvae complete development and pass into the soil.

In Polesie and the northern zone, the Forest-Steppe develops in one generation, in the southern Forest-Steppe and the Steppe – in two. Years and laying of eggs of the second generation occur in the second half of August. The development of second-generation larvae often lasts until the end of September – beginning of October. Younger larvae gnaw out the flesh of the leaf in small spots, older ones skeletonize leaves, leaving only a network of veins. The second generation of the pest does more damage. The cherry mucous sawfly is a halophilic species, in connection with which it actively populates thinned stands, as well as slopes of the southern exposure. Severely damages the leaves on the south side of the crown of trees.

A significant role in reducing the number of the sawfly is played by lumps of parasites. So, the laid eggs actively infect the trichogram. The larvae infect a number of riders from the ichneumonids and eulophids and tahin flies.

Protective measures. Autumn plowing and spring loosening of soil in aisles and near-trunk circles. Loosening of the soil during the period of mass transition of larvae to pupation. When the pest colonizes more than 10-15% of the leaves – treatment with insecticides or biological products.

Motley Grape (Theresia Ampelophaga)

Pest Type: Grape Pest Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera Family: motley (string) – Zygaenidae Distributed in the south of the country. It damages grapes. Butterfly with a wingspan of 22-25 mm, blue or blue-green on top. Egg 0.4-0.6 mm in size, oblong, yellow, […]

Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera

Family: motley (string) – Zygaenidae

Distributed in the south of the country. It damages grapes.

Butterfly with a wingspan of 22-25 mm, blue or blue-green on top. Egg 0.4-0.6 mm in size, oblong, yellow, with a mesh pattern. Caterpillar 16-18 mm long, light gray; brown warts with a bunch of orange hairs are placed along the body in four rows. Pupa – 11-15 mm, yellow-gray, with dark dots on each segment.

Caterpillars of the II-III centuries overwinter in cocoons under the lagged bark, in cracks on the trunks and stumps of grapes, less often in plant debris. In the spring, during the swelling of the buds, the caterpillars climb the vine bush, bite into the buds and eat away their contents.

After that, they switch to young leaves, in which the parenchyma gnaw out from the lower side, leaving the upper cuticle. Caterpillars of recent centuries gnaw through holes. During development, five molts five times. Active in the morning and afternoon; hiding before the sunset. The caterpillar’s tumbling falls to the ground and coils into a ring. At the beginning of the flowering of grapes, they pupate in cocoons under the lagged bark, under fallen leaves, in the upper layers of the soil.

After 14-18 days, butterflies that do not feed fly out, lay eggs in groups of several tens to two hundred on the lower side of the leaves. Fertility – 400-600 eggs. After 8-10 days, the caterpillars revive on the leaves until they reach the second or third centuries, after which, approximately in August, they go to wintering places. One generation develops per year.

The main harm, which leads to significant crop losses, caterpillars are applied in spring, damaging the kidneys when they are numbing and blooming. Mass reproduction of pests is focal in nature. This is due to the fact that butterfly butterflies do not fly long distances.

The number of grape motley is reduced by ground beetles, coccinellids, goldfish, predatory bugs, larvae of syrphid flies, spiders.

Protective measures. Tillage during caterpillar pupation. With a population of more than 2-3 caterpillars per bush – spraying with biological products or insecticides.

Escape Raspberry Aphid (Aphis Idaei)

Pest Type: Pest of Strawberry and Raspberry Row: Equine – Homoptera Family: aphids – Aphididae It is found everywhere. Damages raspberries, smaller blackberries, and roses. A wingless parthenogenetic female 2.3-2.5 mm long, dark green with brown spots; tubules thin, cylindrical, long finger-like […]

Pest Type: Pest of Strawberry and Raspberry

Row: Equine – Homoptera

Family: aphids – Aphididae

It is found everywhere. Damages raspberries, smaller blackberries, and roses. A wingless parthenogenetic female 2.3-2.5 mm long, dark green with brown spots; tubules thin, cylindrical, long finger-like tail, eyes black; antennae. Winged individuals up to 2 mm long, abdomen green with brown spots, head and chest black. The eggs are small, black, shiny.

Fertilized eggs hibernate near the kidneys. Larvae regenerate at the beginning of budding. By the time of raspberry budding, the larvae turn into adult females. Aphids pass to the leaves, where the summer propagates. In addition to leaves, young shoots populate. During the season, 8-12 generations are developing.

Winged females appear from mid-June. Due to the deterioration of living conditions at the end of July – in August, the number of pests decreases, their morphology changes – the aphids become small, yellow, with 5 segmented antennae. The amphibole generation is developing from late September to November. Fertilized females lay up to four eggs, which remain until the spring of next year. Aphids form large clusters. Damaged leaves curl and dry, the shoots are bent. This leads to a decrease in yield and deterioration in the quality of berries.

Raspberries are also harmed by raspberry leaf aphids – Amphorophora RUBI Kalt, which differs little from raspberry Pagon aphids in their developmental features. Lives alone or in small groups on the underside of leaves, less often on young shoots. Aphids are carriers of raspberry viral diseases.

The number of aphids is reduced by predators – larvae and beetles of coccinellids, larvae of Zolotochok, gall midges, kyrı, bugs, etc. Actively destroy aphids by the larvae of flies of syrphid, etc.

Protective measures. Early spring (before swelling of the kidneys) treatment of suicidal. The economic threshold of damage before flowering is from 15 to 50% of leaf and fruit buds, after picking berries – 3-5 colonies per 100 apical shoots. If EPV is exceeded – spray raspberries with insecticides. With a ratio of aphids and predators of 40 … 80: 1, the use of insecticides is impractical.

exmagworldwide.com

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