Processing grapes before sheltering for the winter: what to spray grapes in autumn > Garden
Rules for processing grapes before sheltering: how to prepare the plant for winter
- 1 Rules for processing grapes before sheltering: how to prepare the plant for winter
- 2 Before processing (autumn pruning)
- 3 Spraying against diseases and pests
- 4 Grape shelter
- 5 Domestic middle-late potato Wizard: characteristic of the variety, its description and photo
- 6 Potato Wizard: variety description
- 7 A photo
- 8 Characteristics and features of cultivation
- 9 Diseases and pests
- 10 Fruitful beauty for every taste — Altai tomato red, pink, orange
- 11 Altai tomatoes: variety description
- 12 Origin and Application
- 13 Advantages and disadvantages
- 14 Features of growing
- 15 A photo
- 16 Diseases and pests
At the end of the summer season you need to take care of the proper wintering of all trees, bushes and plants. Particular attention should be paid to the grapes, as it is a thermophilic plant that requires special care. Let’s look at how to prepare the grapes for winter.
- Before processing (autumn pruning)
- Spraying against diseases and pests
- Folk remedies
- Grape shelter
Before processing (autumn pruning)
After you harvest the grapes, the last foliage will fall from its vines — you can start pruning. The juice in the vines stops its movement completely after the fall of all the leaves in the autumn period. At this time, you can begin to cut off the extra shoots, leaving only the branches that will definitely bear fruit next year. Do not forget to cut the branches that are damaged, sick, broken, dried, or just quite old.
Pruning grapes too rather complicated process requiring skill and knowledge, so we will talk about it in another article. Here, cutting off extra branches on the bush should be mentioned only because if you plan to carry out the autumn processing of the grapes, thus protecting it against diseases and pests, then it should be done only after preliminary cutting the vines.
Spraying against diseases and pests
Spraying of grapes before shelter for the winter is carried out in order to get the vines from pests, diseases that «cling» to the shrub in the autumn when it is most exposed to external influence. Experienced winegrowers recommend carrying out such a spraying of the vineyard for preventive purposes in order to prevent the harmful effects on the plant.
You can process the vineyard by any chemical means that will not harm it, but you should carefully spray each bush. For example, You can use to process:
- copper or iron sulphate;
- hydrated lime;
- Bordeaux mixture.
Also, summer residents who trust chemical fertilizers process the vineyard with folk remedies.
Fungicides are chemicals for fungal plant diseases. They are widely used in viticulture as reliable, proven and inexpensive means which will be able to preserve the future harvest.
Experienced winegrowers who grow this plant for years, do not recommend treating the grapes in the fall before winter shelter with iron sulfate. This is due to the fact that, despite its action against insects, iron sulfate significantly weakens the plant’s protection against the cold, your vineyard may simply not survive the winter. Since the autumn processing of grapes with iron sulfate should not be carried out without extreme necessity, it is better to hold it in spring. In the spring, the dosage of ferrous sulfate for spraying a plant is 500-700 g per 10 liters of warm water.
Processing of grapes in the fall before winter shelter with copper sulfate should be carried out as follows. Immediately before carrying out the treatment, dilute half a cup of the product (or 100 g) in a bucket of water with a capacity of approximately 10 liters. Stir the copper sulfate granules well until completely dissolved in water. Spend a means of 2 liters per bush.
The next remedy is Bordeaux mixture which is a fungicide that can be bought at any plant protection store. But still it is better to cook it at home. Experienced agronomists-winegrowers recommend spraying the vine with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture, since a large concentration can easily burn the vine. To prepare the necessary mixture, take half a cup of copper sulphate and a little more than half a glass of hydrated lime, stir everything in a bucket of water. After that, you can begin processing.
A very old and effective way to protect grapes from infection is slaked lime. To begin, prepare a solution of quicklime, quench the lime in water (2 liters of water to 1 kg of lime in consistency), then pour 10 liters of water and mix the solution. Paint brush or a broom, apply a solution to each bush and branch of grapes. Such a simple solution will reliably protect the plant from mold and mildew right up to spring, even in case of a temperature increase.
There are some folk remedies that will help protect the grapes from pests and fungus in the fall, they were developed over a thousand-year history of viticulture.
If you want to protect the plant from powdery mildew — take freshly harvested grass, place it in a pile and wait until a gray mold appears in the middle of the pile of grass. After that, put the grass in a bucket of water, stir and drain. Then spray the resulting liquid with a vine.
You can protect yourself from spider mites with this solution: Pour 2 kg of green tops of potatoes with 10 liters of hot water, then let the solution stand. After settling the agent, treat the bush with it.
The most affordable folk remedy is a solution of infused onion peel. To prepare this miracle cure, pour half a bucket of onion peel with water, boil it for 20 minutes and let it brew for 24 hours.Then add to the water solution to 10-liter volume, add 20 g of honey, strain the solution and process the vine with it.
Regardless of the latitudes of growth, these plants growers advise to cover for the winter right after the leaves have fallen. The easiest way to fill the bushes with earth, namely, pre-pruned and processed grapes are placed in trees at a depth of 30 cm and covered with a 20-centimeter layer of earth on top. Do not forget that the ground must be taken away from the bush, so as not to reveal its roots. However, this method is bad because rainwater can wash away the shelter, which will lead to frosting of the bush.
If the temperature in your latitudes changes significantly several times during the winter, as a result of which the snow melts and freezes again, need to use a more radical means.
Cover the entire bush with a film, securing its edges on the ground (bricks or earth). The film can replace slate. In the spring, remove the film or leave the vents, because the bushes can sopret.
Equip such shields with ramps to form an air gap, then close the ends with earthy dust and sprinkle with earth. This design will serve you for many years, firmly holding the snow.
Only in this way can grapes easily survive the winter. And also will be able to please you in the spring with its dense foliage, and in summer it will bear plenty of fruit.
Domestic middle-late potato Wizard: characteristic of the variety, its description and photo
Domestic breeders are considered among the most productive in the world. Our country has donated more than one potato variety, which combines both good taste and unpretentiousness in grooming.
One of these rightly and the potato Wizard. In this article you will find a detailed description of the variety, its characteristics, the subtleties of agricultural engineering, the propensity to disease and attack of pests.
Potato Wizard: variety description
|general characteristics||medium early table variety of Russian breeding, unpretentious and harvested|
|Gestation period||80-90 days|
|Mass of commercial tubers||75-120 g|
|The number of tubers in the bush||up to 15|
|Yield||270-350 c / ha|
|Consumer quality||good sweet taste, suitable for mashed potatoes and frying|
|Pulp color||light cream|
|Preferred growing regions||North, North-West, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, North Caucasus, Middle Volga, Far Eastern|
|Disease resistance||moderately susceptible to potato nematode, resistant to late blight|
|Features of growing||agrotechnical standard|
|Originator||GNU LENINGRAD NIISH «Belogogka» of the Russian Agricultural Academy|
It is a product of domestic breeders, the patent owner of this variety is the GNU Belogorka Leningrad Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture. In the State Register of Varieties of Russia was included in 2000 for the Far Eastern, Middle Volga, North Caucasus, North-West, North, Volga-Vyatka and Central Black Earth regions.
Treats table srednepozdny types of potatoes, the full vegetative period passes in 80 — 90 days from the moment of the first shoots. It has good yield — usually it turns out about 27 — 35 t / ha of commodity fruits (marketability is 85 — 97%). Tubers are large, heavy, oval in shape and with small superficial eyes. The skin is thin, smooth, light cream color. The flesh is milky white, quite dense and does not darken when cuts.
You can compare potato yields Wizard with other varieties in the table below:
|Magician||270-350 c / ha|
|Beauty||400-450 c / ha|
|Vector||670 c / ha|
|Artemis||220-350 c / ha|
|Yanka||up to 630 c / ha|
|Svitanok Kiev||up to 460 c / ha|
|Santana||160-380 c / ha|
|Nevsky||300-500 c / ha|
|Taisiya||up to 460 c / ha|
|Colomba||220-420 c / ha|
|Lapot||400-500 c / ha|
The average weight of a marketable fruit is 75 — 120 g, but often the tubers can grow up to 150 g. The starch content in the fruit varies between 12 and 15%. Differ excellent keeping quality (97%), thanks to which they can be stored in cellars or in warehouses for several months.
In the table below you will find this characteristic in different varieties:
Bushes of medium height, erect. Plant leafy sprawling type, and the leaves themselves are about 15 cm in length. They have a light green color and a straight shape, without waviness characteristic of the potato at the edges.
In the flowering period appear quite lush flowers with white corollas.
Find out what is dangerous solanine and useful juice, what the benefits and harm of raw potatoes, and why people eat sprouts.
See below: Potato Wizard photo
Characteristics and features of cultivation
Wizard is very popular in Russia grade. Partly due to the fact that it tolerates heat and drought well, partly due to the fact that it tastes great. The flesh does not darken under the influence of heat treatment, but when cooked it shows good crumbiness.
Fruits are not prone to physical deformation, so they do an excellent job with transportation. Steamed with keeping quality and a nice looking view, these qualities make the Sorcerer an excellent grade for sales. Potatoes are well kept. Read more on our website about the timing, temperature and places for storing potatoes, about possible problems. And also about how to store roots in the winter, in vegetable stores and in the apartment, in the cellar and on the balcony, in boxes, in the refrigerator and peeled.
Another plus is unpretentiousness to the choice of soil. It can be planted in almost any soil, you just need to follow a few basic rules of this process:
- About a month before planting, the planting material must be placed in a warm and lighted place so that the tubers have time to germinate well;
- If you want to get a better crop in the shortest possible time, germinated tubers can be treated with growth stimulants, for example, «Mival»;
- The soil in which your roots will be planted should be heated to 6 — 8 ° C (depending on the region, the planting date may vary between the end of April and the beginning of May);
- The landing pattern is 60 × 35, and the digging depth is about 10 cm.
In the future, your plants will need not so much care, and basically these will be standard methods for the care of this culture. The main thing is not to forget about loosening the soil and eliminating weeds.
As for the first feeding, it is carried out together with the first hilling of the tops, and nitrogen-containing substances are used as the fertilizer itself.
And also, how to pile up the planting manually and with the help of the motor-block and whether it is possible to get a decent crop without weeding and hilling.
In general, the agrotechnology of this variety is not difficult, follow the basic procedures, do not forget about the mulching and feeding, and you will succeed.
But how to feed the potatoes, which fertilizers are the best, what is the use of minerals, when and how to make them, and how to do it properly when planting, read our articles.
Diseases and pests
In the fight against this pest well helps correct crop rotation, which is recommended to include legumes and cereals. Of the chemical means of struggle, Nematorin copes better than others, which must be introduced into the soil before planting.
Read also about Alternaria, blight, Fusarium, scab and verticilliasis.
Among insect pests, special troubles are brought to gardeners by Colorado beetles and their larvae, bears, wireworms, potato moths.
How to win them, read in the articles of our site:
- How to get rid of the wireworm.
- Coping with the potato moth: part 1 and part 2.
- What to use against Medvedka: chemistry and folk remedies.
- Measures to combat the Colorado potato beetle — folk methods and chemical means:
The magician does not have any bright properties, significantly distinguishing it from other varieties. However, it is reliable, possesses excellent taste, heat resistant and many diseases. Therefore, if you want to grow beautiful tasty potatoes for yourself or for sale, then you definitely should pay attention to it.
Let me draw your attention to a series of articles on different ways of growing potatoes. All about modern Dutch technology and the intricacies of growing early varieties, about which potato is most loved in Russia and grown in other countries of the world. And also alternative methods: under straw, in bags, in barrels and in boxes, from seeds.
Below in the table you will find links to articles on potato varieties ripening at different times:
Fruitful beauty for every taste — Altai tomato red, pink, orange
Altai tomato variety is a good choice for lovers of diversity. In the garden you can plant as many as three variants of these tomatoes — red, pink or orange.
High-yielding, with excellent taste and aroma, they will become a real decoration of your garden and table.
And in our article you will find a detailed description of the variety, you will get acquainted with its characteristics, learn everything about the features of cultivation, inclinations to diseases and damage by pests.
Altai tomatoes: variety description
|general description||Late-season, indeterminate, large-fruited variety for greenhouses.|
|The form||Fruits are flat-rounded, large, medium density.|
|Colour||The color of the ripe fruit is red, pink or orange depending on the variety.|
|Average tomato mass||250-350 grams|
|Application||Good fresh, suitable for juices and sauces.|
|Yield varieties||4 kg from a bush|
|Features of growing||Scheme — 50-40 cm. 3-4 plants per 1 sq. M.|
|Disease resistance||Sufficiently resistant to major diseases of the nightshade. Rarely affected by fuzarose, verticillus, tobacco mosaic|
Altai is a high-yielding late-ripe hybrid. From the emergence of seedlings to maturation, 110-115 days pass. The bush is indeterminate, tall, moderately leafy. The height of an adult plant is about 150 cm. The leaves are large, simple, dark green. Inflorescences are simple. The fruits ripen with brushes of 4-6 pieces.
The fruiting period is extended, tomatoes can be collected from mid-summer until frost. Fruits of medium size, weighing from 250 to 300 g. The mass of individual specimens reaches 500 g. The shape is flat-rounded, with slight ribbing at the stem. Tomatoes are fleshy, juicy, with tender pulp melting in the mouth.
You can compare the weight of tomatoes of this variety with others in the table below:
|Grade name||Fruit weight (grams)|
The number of seed chambers is from 3 to 6. The skin is thin, but dense, well protecting the fruit from cracking.
The color of ripe tomatoes depends on the variety. Altai red tomato has fruits of a warm red shade. The skin is shiny, thin. The taste is bright, rich and sweet, with a barely noticeable sourness. Fruits are rich in lycopene, amino acids and beta carotene. The high content of sugars and dry substances allows us to recommend fruits for baby and diet food.
- Altai pink tomatoes are painted in warm pink color, the flesh has the same shade. Excellent taste, fruits are sweet, juicy, not watery.
- Pink tomatoes are very tender, they are suitable for people who are allergic to traditional red tomatoes. Altai orange tomatoes are distinguished by the fruits of juicy orange-yellow color.
- Bright orange flesh is sweet, with subtle fruity notes. The variety is ideal for making juices and mashed potatoes.
Origin and Application
The variety of tomato Altai bred by Russian breeders. It is recommended for cultivation in an open ground and under a film, in glass and polycarbonate greenhouses. Harvested fruits are well stored, transportation is possible.
Tomatoes are used for amateur or industrial cultivation, they are great for sale. Green tomatoes ripen quickly at room temperature. Altai red, pink and orange tomatoes belong to the salad type. Fleshy, juicy fruits are tasty fresh, they are used to make sandwiches, sauces, soups, mashed potatoes.
Ripe tomatoes make a delicious sweet juice, which you can drink freshly squeezed or procure for the future. Three varieties of tomatoes can be made tasty and beautiful vegetable platter, tomatoes are salted and pickled. They are well combined with other vegetables: cucumbers, peppers, cauliflower.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the main advantages of the variety:
- color variety of fruits;
- good yield;
- excellent taste of tomatoes;
- easy care;
- tolerance for the vagaries of weather;
- resistance to major diseases.
The features include the need to form and tie up a bush. The variety is sensitive to the nutritional value of the soil, with insufficient dressings, the yield decreases.
It is possible to compare the yield of Altai with other varieties in the table below:
|Altaic||4 kg from a bush|
|De barao giant||20-22 kg from a bush|
|Polbyg||4 kg per square meter|
|Sweet bunch||2.5-3.2 kg per square meter|
|Red bunch||10 kg from a bush|
|Summer resident||4 kg from a bush|
|Fat jack||5-6 kg from a bush|
|Pink Lady||25 kg per square meter|
|Countryman||18 kg from a bush|
|Batyana||6 kg from a bush|
|Golden anniversary||15-20 kg per square meter|
Features of growing
Altai varieties are best grown in seedlings. Before sowing, the seeds are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate, washed with clean water and dried. After that, the seed can be treated with a growth stimulator, significantly increasing germination.
The soil for seedlings is made up of a mixture of garden soil with humus or peat. It is possible to add a small portion of washed river sand, superphosphate and wood ash. Seeds are sown in containers or peat cups with a slight deepening, sprinkled with peat and sprayed with water. You can use mini-greenhouses.
The use of individual containers will avoid subsequent picks. Landings are covered with foil and placed in heat. For seed germination need a temperature not lower than 25 degrees. It is necessary to plant tomatoes on the beds that were occupied by legumes, cabbage, lettuce, carrots or other cruciferous ones.
It is undesirable to use soil in which eggplants, physalis or peppers were grown. If there is no other option (for example, when using a common greenhouse), it is recommended to replace the top soil layer by thoroughly mixing it with peat or humus. How to prepare greenhouse soil read here.
Before planting the soil loosened. Tomatoes are planted in the wells, located at a distance of 40 to 50 cm from each other. Inter-row widths of 70-80 cm are required. Superphosphate mixed with potassium salts, or wood ash (1 tablespoon per plant) is placed along the holes.
When transplanting next to each bush supports are installed: durable stakes or metal rods. It is possible to use rope lanes to which you need to tie stalks and branches with fruits. Tomatoes need to be watered as the topsoil dries with warm settled water. In between watering grounds, the soil is loosened so that it does not form a hard crust, making it difficult for oxygen to enter.
During the season 3-4 feedings are carried out with a full complex fertilizer or organic matter (diluted mullein or bird droppings). Root and outside root dressings are possible, for example, spraying superphosphate diluted in water.
Read also how to use as a fertilizer yeast, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and why tomatoes need boric acid.
A very important point — the formation of bushes. Tomatoes lead to 1-2 stems, removing the stepchildren above the third brush. If the stem is too pulled, you can pinch the point of growth.
It is recommended to remove the lower leaves on the plants, this will improve air exchange and sunlight access to the fruit. Many gardeners pinch off small or deformed flowers on the hands, so that future fruits are larger.
You may also find articles about the difference between determinant and indeterminant varieties of tomatoes.
Look at the photo below — Altai pink, red, orange variety tomatoes:
Diseases and pests
To prevent fungal diseases, apical and root rot, you need to carefully loosen the soil, removing weeds. Mulching of soil with straw, peat or humus will also help. Planting is useful to spray phytosporin or other non-toxic bio-drug. Read about other disease control measures here.
In the open field, tomatoes are threatened by pests. During the flowering period of the plant, the spider mite, whitefly, thrips attack, and later the bear, Colorado beetles, naked slugs appear. Detect unwanted guests will help weekly inspection of landings.
For prophylactic purposes, spraying with a weak solution of potassium permanganate is recommended. Industrial insecticides help from spider mites, but they can only be used before fruiting. Later, toxic compounds are replaced by tried and tested folk remedies: decoction of celandine or onion peel.
Slugs, Medvedka, the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle are harvested by hand, and the plants are sprayed with an aqueous solution of ammonia. Stalks affected by aphids, washed with warm soapy water, preventing it from entering the soil.
Choosing Altai varieties of tomatoes, you can be sure of the high quality of the crop. With proper care, the plants bear fruit throughout the season, delighting with color and flavor variety. Seeds for subsequent planting can be harvested on their own, from ripe tomatoes.
Read also all about how to grow the best crop of tomatoes in the open field, how to delight yourself with tasty tomatoes all year round, and what is the secret to growing early varieties.
We also bring to your attention articles on tomato varieties with different ripening terms: