- 3 Aphid on the currant – control measures
- 4 UK Plant Health Information Portal An online hub for plant health information, data and resources
- 5 How to deal with the glass rust on the currants
- 6 What is dangerous rust?
- 7 Signs of defeat
- 8 Prevention
- 9 Control measures
- 10 Resistant varieties of currants
- 11 Glasshouse Remote Control kit for Alps & TKD motorised pot
- 12 Current and Voltage Unbalance- causes and counter measures
Last updated on June 19, 2019
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Aphid on the currant – control measures
Summer is a period when you will not envy the cottage dwellers. And work all on the site must be done in a short time, so that the harvest was good, and watering is not to miss, and to not lose the plants to forget. And there are also various pests here and there. Among them, and aphids, which in the summer attacks and currant bushes. If the plant has not yet faded, then chemicals will help. However, most often this pest gives information about itself during the appearance of the first green berries. How to be and what means can be used to save the harvest of such tasty, aromatic and healthy berries?
It is better, of course, to start the main processing of currant bushes in the period when the first green tips appear on them in spring. Various drugs from aphids on the currant («Fitoverm», «Commander», «Aktelik», etc.) to find today is not a problem. In a wide range they are offered in any specialized stores. But do not think that one treatment of currants from aphids will be effective. Spraying will have to be repeated when the first buds appear. Two more treatments should be performed immediately before flowering and immediately after it. It should be noted that after the first two sprayings the green aphid on the currant will practically disappear, and the third treatment will scare off the firefly, the caterpillars of which are covered with dense cobwebs. The fourth spraying is a preventive measure against aphids and other pests on the currant.
It should be noted that the gall midge on the currant is the result of the appearance of ants on the currant. The appearance of these insects should immediately alert you, because ants use aphids as so-called cows. Helping pests to settle on a plant, they feed on a drop, a sweetish liquid that aphids release after they suck the juice from the currant leaves. If you kill the ants, then the aphids will leave the currant bushes alone. Fill all the ant trails with an ash solution or infusion of water with hot pepper.
And what to spray the currant from aphids, if time is lost, and the leaves on the tops of bushes are already twisted? Summer residents have long been familiar with folk remedies that help get rid of pests. So, how to destroy the aphids on the currant and save the harvest. Below are the methods that will help solve the problem.
- Rinse the tops of bushes with a strong solution of water and tar soap (always untwist all folded leaves!).
- Spraying bushes with infusion of tobacco and ash (0.2 kg per 10 liters of water, insist 24 hours).
- Spraying with infusion of 1 kg of onion per 10 liters of water (pour onion boiling water for 6 hours, infusion strain).
- Rinse the affected aphids with infusion of hot pepper (boil 50 g of pepper in one liter of water, dilute the concentrate in a 1: 7 ratio with water).
- Spraying infused during the day with a solution of 0.5 kg of garlic in 5 liters of boiling water.
- Rinsing of affected currant branches with infusion of wormwood, soap and ash (5 liters of water requires 0.5 kg of wormwood, 50 g of soap, a glass of ash, to insist for 5 hours, dilute with water 1: 2).
Currants of currant, which attacks aphids, it is better to handle in the afternoon three times a week. Folk methods do not give such a result as chemical preparations, but there will be no harmful substances in berries. If after processing the aphids did not disappear, do not stop fighting with it — the result will be, but later.
Also it is necessary to plant spicy plants under currant bushes. The scents of parsley, coriander, dill, celery, parsnip, sage and rosemary scare away these pests. But the neighborhood with corn beds for currants is dangerous, as the aphids love her very much.
UK Plant Health Information Portal
An online hub for plant health information, data and resources
Alternatively, use additional searches based on risk register priorities for actions or try an image based search
About the UK Plant Health Information Portal
Defra recognises the additional challenges being presented to industry as a result of the current COVID-19 outbreak. We aim to support businesses involved in the trade in plants and plant products, to help ease pressure on the food supply chain without compromising the safeguarding of UK biosecurity. We are also contributing to central initiatives, for example, on how Defra can best support the UK’s food supply chain through this period. For guidance and support for businesses and employers, visit GOV.uk.
There are many pests and diseases that can seriously damage crops and plants in the UK. Assessing and understanding these threats is essential to informing the actions needed to protect plant health set out in Protecting Plant Health — A Plant Biosecurity Strategy for Great Britain .
As the Strategy makes clear, tackling threats to plant health is not just a matter for government; success is dependent on partnership working between all those with a role to play. To this end the Portal is a shared resource providing information about plant pests and diseases, including the assessments of risk undertaken by government and the data underpinning those assessments, with links to other sites of interest, including non-government sites, as well as information on the plant health controls and services provided by government.
The smarter rules for safer food (SRSF) package is a set of EU regulations for the protection against animal disease, plant pests, and for the organisation and performance of official controls. SRSF brings major changes to the UK plant passport system, and the importing and exporting plants and plant products. The PHR and OCR became applicable on the 14 December 2019. Use the ‘Smarter Rules for Safer Food (SRSF)’ page to find out more.
How to deal with the glass rust on the currants
Rust is one of the most common and dangerous diseases for currants and gooseberries.
Description, diagnosis, treatment — we will tell about it below.
What is dangerous rust?
A diseased plant begins to lose leaves, the quality of berries deteriorates, and resistance to frost decreases. In the shrub metabolic processes are disturbed, photosynthesis, the loss disappears, the evaporation of water increases. Lack of treatment will lead to the death of the bush.
Did you know? Rust is a fungal disease of plants. Such a fungus forms colonies in the form of goblets. Hence the name «goblet».
Infection occurs by spores falling on the currants from the marsh sedge, where the fungus successfully hibernate. Wind disputes are transferred to other plants.
Rust affects a large number of plants, such as: cucumbers, carrots, onions, pears, apples, raspberries, gooseberries, roses, peonies, carnations.
Signs of defeat
Cup rust on currant leaves is easy to detect when visually inspected.
Symptoms of the disease:
- the appearance of red spots and stripes;
- yellow leaves;
- premature fall.
The best treatment of any disease, of course, is prevention.
Plant diseases do not always cure safely for plants. Therefore, prevention comes to the fore.
Important! The first method of prevention is the destruction of sedge, growing in the vicinity of the garden, and other weeds.
- weed control;
- cleaning and disposal of fallen leaves;
- Digging the earth in spring or autumn;
- thinning and pruning shrubs;
- spring spraying of bushes (before bud break);
- the use of varieties resistant to fungal infections can also be considered a method of prevention.
We have considered what the currant rust of the currant is, and how to fight — we will tell further.
If the prophylaxis did not produce a result, or if an inadvertent infection occurred, then it is necessary to begin the treatment of the scrub.
Processing plants fungicides («Previkur», «Skor», «Fitosporin-M», «Topaz») allows you to stop the development of the fungus. Use colloidal sulfur and products that have copper in their composition, for example, Bordeaux liquid.
Important! The content of vitriol should not exceed 0.4%, and the content of lime — 1%. Otherwise it may cause damage.
Processing must be carried out either before flowering or after. The first spraying is carried out during the blooming of the leaves. The next spraying — before flowering, the third — after the end.
Spraying is best done with a knapsack or hand sprayer. If the damage is very strong, you should apply the fourth treatment — on the tenth day after the third.
Resistant varieties of currants
Exist fungus resistant currant varieties:
Glass rust — a dangerous disease. But quite simple methods of prevention and care for your garden will help prevent infection and contribute to the recovery of already sick bushes. If your garden is located in the marshland, then use varieties of currants that are resistant to diseases. Have a good harvest!
Glasshouse Remote Control kit for Alps & TKD motorised pot
We have now launched the Glasshouse Selector Remote Control Kit to be used in conjunction with the Glasshouse Remote Control kit for the Alps and TKD Motorised Potentiometers, both designed by Nick Gorham. For more details on the remote control kit please visit this PAGE.
The Glasshouse control board measures 80mm x 47mm x 25mm(h), it can be powered by 6.3V (standard heater supply) to 15V AC supply or a DC supply ranging from 6.3V to 15V DC.
Supplied fully built and tested, the sensor can easily be removed for positioning elsewhere, flying leads needed, make sure you fit the same way round. Available with or without programmed, ready to use, handset and Alps or TKD motorised potentiometer. Standoffs are optional too — 15mm, 20mm & 25mm.
Remote control measures 170mm x 45mm x 18mm and takes 2 x AAA batteries, not supplied.
We do provide the remote programmed and ready for use, however, this is the sequence to programme it, if you need to do the process again.
- Press the red O button (on/off) & Mute (picture of a speaker with a cross through it) and the same time
- The LED stays on
- Then press 0513
- The LED will blink 3 times and it will now be ready for use
control board — £37.00+vat+p&p
handset — £10.00+vat+p&p
Alps motorised pot, 20K or 50K — £30.00+vat+p&p
TKD 2CP-2511 MC motorised pot, 10K, 20K, 50K or 100K — £88.25+vat+p&p
Current and Voltage Unbalance- causes and counter measures
What is unbalance?
Any deviation in voltage and current waveform from perfect sinusoidal, in terms of magnitude or phase shift is termed as unbalance. In ideal conditions i.e. with only linear loads connected to the system, the phases of power supply are 120 degree apart in terms of phase angle and magnitude of their peaks should be same. On distribution level, the load imperfections cause current unbalance which travel to transformer and cause unbalance in the three phase voltage. Even minor unbalance in the voltage at transformer level disturbs the current waveform significantly on all the loads connected to it. Not only in the distribution side but through the transformer, voltage unbalances disturbs the high voltage power system as well.
Causes of unbalance
Practical imperfections which can result in unbalances are:-
1. A three phase equipment such as induction motor with unbalance in its windings. If the reactance of three phases is not same, it will result in varying current flowing in three phases and give out system unbalance.
– With continuous operation, motor’s physical environment cause degradation of rotor and stator windings. This degradation is usually different in different phases, affecting both, the magnitude and phase angel of current waveform.
– A current leakage from any phase through bearings or motor body provides floating earth at times, causing fluctuating current.
2. Any large single phase load, or a number of small loads connected to only one phase cause more current to flow from that particular phase causing voltage drop on line.
3. Switching of three phase heavy loads results in current and voltage surges which cause unbalance in the system.
4. Unequal impedances in the power transmission or distribution system cause differentiating current in three phases.
How to calculate unbalance –
Unbalance is calculated in terms of maximum deviation of current in a phase from the mean of three phases. To calculate the percentage deviation- 
Where- Im is mean of currents in three phases (i.e. Im= (Ir+Iy+Ib)/3
Ir, Iy, Ib are phase currents.
Besides, an unbalance can also be quantified by comparing the intensity of negative sequence currents in comparison to the positive sequence currents. The permissible limit in terms of percentage of negative phase sequence current over positive sequence current is 1.3% ideally but acceptable upto 2%. 
Effects of unbalance:
1. The unbalance decreases the motor efficiency by causing extra heating in the motor. Heat generated also effect the equipment life by increasing the operating temperature, which decompose the grease or oil in the bearing and de-rate the motor windings.
2. In induction motors connected to unbalanced supply, the negative sequence currents flow along with positive sequence current resulting in decreased percentage of productive current and poor motor efficiency. Any unbalance above 3% hampers the motor efficiency.
3. Torque (and thus the speed) produced by the motor becomes fluctuating. These sudden changes in torque cause more vibration in the gear box or the equipment connected to it. The vibration and noise produced damages the equipment and also reduces the efficiency of equipment.
4. The variable frequency or speed drives connected to an unbalanced system can trip off. VFD treats high level unbalances as phase fault and can trip on earth fault or missing phase fault.
5. Unbalances cause de-rating of power cables and thus increase I2R losses in the cable. For distribution cables de-rating factor represents the part of total current giving fruitful outcomes.
6. UPS or inverter supplies also perform with poor efficiency and inject more harmonic currents in case of unbalances in the system.
7. Negative phase sequence current flowing due to unbalance can cause faults in the motor, resulting in, tripping or permanent damage of the electrical equipment.
Quantifying the losses-
An unbalance of 1% is acceptable as it doesn’t affect the cable. But above 1% it increases linearly and at 4% the de-rating is 20%.  This implies that- 20% of the current flowing in the cable will be unproductive and thus the copper losses in the cable will increase by 25% at 4% unbalance.
1. For motors, an unbalance of 5% will result in capacity reduction by 25%.  That means, the motor current will increase to match the equipment’s torque needs which will result in proportional copper losses in motor. The voltage unbalance of 3% increase the heating by 20% for an induction motor. 
2. The resistance for negative sequence current is 1/6th of the positive sequence current which means a small unbalance in voltage waveform will give more current and thus losses. 
Effects on the distribution Transformer-
Transformer offers high reactance to negative phase sequence currents and thus reduces the level of unbalance on the other side of the system.
– Ideally any distribution transformer gives best performance at 50% loading and every electrical distribution system is designed for it. But in case of unbalance the loading goes over 50% as the equipments draw more current.
– Following data represents the efficiency of transformer under different loading conditions- 
1. Full Load- 98.1%
2. Half Load- 98.64%
3. Unbalanced loads- 96.5%
For a distribution transformer of 200KVA rating, the eddy currents accounts for 200W but in case of 5% voltage unbalance they can rise upto 720W. 
1. All the single phase loads should be distributed on the three phase system such that they put equal load on three phases.
2. Replacing the disturbing equipments i.e. with unbalanced three phase reactance.
3. Reducing the harmonics also reduces the unbalance, which can be done by installing reactive or active filters. These filters reduce the negative phase sequence currents by injecting a compensating current wave.
4. In case the disturbing loads cannot be replaced or repaired, connect them with high voltage side this reduces the effects in terms of percentage and even controlled disturbance in low voltage side.
5. Motors with unbalanced phase reactance should be replaced and re-winded.
To identify the exact reasons for unbalance, Zenatix recommends metering at different loads in the distribution. Zenatix can collect high resolution data from these metering locations and analyze it to identify the exact causes and control measures that can result in improvement in the unbalance. Further, such detailed metering will provide data that can be used to identify other wastages that happen in the day to day operations of a facility thus providing further benefits of the installed solution.
For further clarification on the voltage and current unbalance, three phase currents of two of the zenatix’s customers were analyzed. For the purpose of case study, we can name the two clients as client1 & client2.
First, the readings of three phase currents were taken at the frequency of 15 minutes for a month. Then we need to remove the readings during non-working hours too, as during such times load current will be quite low and thus a current unbalance of only 2-3 amps can shown very high percentage unbalance. After refining the data, percentage of unbalance was calculated by running simulation on R-software. As all the readings mentioned are taken at the duration of 15 minutes, we got percentage unbalance readings for the whole month with the frequency of 15 minutes. These continuous readings were then plotted.
It is clear by only looking at the plot that for client1’s system is more balanced as compared to client2’s. Further analysis was done for getting consolidated data on what is maximum unbalance, what is the average unbalance and which phase is causing it.
Following data was tabulated based on the results obtained after analysis.
Fig.1 – Shows the plot of percentage unbalance with time for zenatix’s client with balanced system.
Fig.2 – Shows the plot of percentage unbalance with time for zenatix’s client with balanced system.
Fig.3 -Shows the comparison between the system of two clients.
References- – De-rating of Induction Motors Operating with a Combination of Unbalanced Voltages and Over- or Under-voltages- P.Pillay, Jean Newell Distinguished Professor in Engineering, Clarkson University AND P.Hofmann, Manager of Power Quality , Manhattan, NY. - Limits for Voltage Unbalance in the Electricity Supply System, Version 1.0, 30th November 2005, Prepared by- Abu Dhabi Distribution Company, Al Ain Distribution Company and RASCO.