OS X Server — Overview

Just like that, your Mac is a powerful server.

OS X Server brings even more power to your business, home office, or school. Designed for OS X and iOS, OS X Server makes it easy to collaborate, develop software, host websites and wikis, configure Mac and iOS devices, and remotely access a network. It’s also remarkably simple to install, set up, and manage. Add OS X Server to your Mac from the Mac App Store.

What’s new in OS X Server 5.

iOS 9 users can now open, edit, and save documents on OS X Server. Any share point can now be used to share documents with your Mac, your PC, or apps like Pages on your iPhone or iPad. Caching Server in OS X Server can accelerate the download of personalized data stored in iCloud, including photos and iCloud Drive. And Profile Manager allows for easier management of new features in iOS 9 and OS X El Capitan.

Plenty of power to go around.

With powerful tools in OS X Server, your organization can share information, collaborate, and work more effectively together.

The server for everyone.

OS X Server is perfect for a small studio, business, or school. And it’s so easy to use, you don’t need your own IT department.

OS X Server resources.

Everything you want to know about OS X Server, including training, services, and documentation.

www.apple.com

Windows Network Architecture and the OSI Model

Overview

The Microsoft Windows operating systems use a network architecture that is based on the seven-layer networking model developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Introduced in 1978, the ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference model describes networking as «a series of protocol layers with a specific set of functions allocated to each layer. Each layer offers specific services to higher layers while shielding these layers from the details of how the services are implemented. A well-defined interface between each pair of adjacent layers defines the services offered by the lower layer to the higher one and how those services are accessed.» The following diagram illustrates the OSI reference model.

Microsoft Windows network drivers implement the bottom four layers of the OSI Reference Model:

Physical Layer

The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model. This layer manages the reception and transmission of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium. The physical layer carries the signals for all of the higher layers. In Windows, the physical layer is implemented by the network interface card (NIC), its transceiver, and the medium to which the NIC is attached.

Data Link Layer

The data link layer is further divided by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) into two sublayers: logical link control (LLC) and media access control (MAC).

The LLC sublayer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another. The LLC sublayer establishes and terminates logical links, controls frame flow, sequences frames, acknowledges frames, and retransmits unacknowledged frames. The LLC sublayer uses frame acknowledgement and retransmission to provide virtually error-free transmission over the link to the layers above.

The MAC sublayer manages access to the physical layer, checks frame errors, and manages address recognition of received frames.

In the Windows network architecture, the LLC sublayer is implemented in the transport driver, and the MAC sublayer is implemented in the NIC. The NIC is controlled by a software device driver called the miniport driver. Windows supports several variations of miniport drivers including WDM miniport drivers, miniport call managers (MCMs), and miniport intermediate drivers.

Network Layer

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. This layer determines the physical path that the data should take, based on the following:

Priority of service.

Other factors, such as routing, traffic control, frame fragmentation and reassembly, logical-to-physical address mapping, and usage accounting.

Transport Layer

The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no loss or duplication. This layer relieves the higher-layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between them and their peers. A minimal transport layer is required in protocol stacks that include a reliable network or LLC sublayer that provides virtual circuit capability. For example, because the NetBEUI transport driver for Windows an OSI-compliant LLC sublayer, its transport layer functions are minimal. If the protocol stack does not include an LLC sublayer, and if the network layer is unreliable and/or supports datagrams (as with TCP/IP’s IP layer or NWLink’s IPX layer), the transport layer should include frame sequencing and acknowledgment, as well as retransmission of unacknowledged frames.

In the Windows network architecture, the LLC, network, and transport layers are implemented by software drivers known as protocol drivers, which are sometimes referred to as transport drivers.

docs.microsoft.com

Find the model and serial number of your Mac

The model name, serial number, and other details are in About This Mac and System Information.

You might want the model name or serial number of your Mac when checking warranty coverage, searching for specifications or other information about your model, creating a home inventory, and more. Identifying your Mac model is also important when selling or giving away your Mac or learning whether it’s compatible with the latest operating system or other software or hardware.

Use About This Mac

From the Apple menu  in the corner of your screen, choose About This Mac. You’ll see an overview of your Mac, including its model name and serial number.

If you see a window like this, double-click the version number beneath “OS X” to show the serial number:

Use System Information

The System Information app also shows your Mac model and serial number. Open the app, then select Hardware on the left side of the System Information window. The model name and serial number appear on the right:

If your Mac doesn’t finish starting up

If you can’t use the solutions above because your Mac doesn’t finish starting up:

support.apple.com

Resource

Abstract: People with mental and substance abuse disorders may die decades earlier than the average person

People with mental and substance abuse disorders may die decades earlier than the average person — mostly from untreated and preventable chronic illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease that are aggravated by poor health habits such as inadequate physical activity, poor nutrition, smoking, and substance abuse. Barriers to primary care — coupled with challenges in navigating complex healthcare systems — have been a major obstacle to care.

At the same time, primary care settings have become the gateway to the behavioral health system, and primary care providers need support and resources to screen and treat individuals with behavioral and general healthcare needs.

The solution lies in integrated care, the systematic coordination of general and behavioral healthcare. Integrating mental health, substance abuse, and primary care services produces the best outcomes and proves the most effective approach to caring for people with multiple healthcare needs.

Whether services are organized via traditional models within primary care settings or behavioral health settings – or are Health Homes models, CIHS gathers current developments, research, models, and other important resources to ensure the success of healthcare’s future: integration.

Webinars

The webinar, Understanding Primary and Behavioral Healthcare Integration, hosted by the National Council provides an overview of integration for the behavioral health and primary care fields.

Resources

What is Integrated Care: Understanding Health Care Reform – Integrated Care and Why You Should Care from SAMHSA provides a detailed overview of the importance of integrated primary and behavioral healthcare.

A Collaborative Care Lexicon for Asking Practice and Research Development Questions was developed by the Collaborative Care Research Network to help create unified language around primary and behavioral healthcare integration.

A Family Tree of Related Terms in Use in the Field of Collaborative Care provides a common dictionary for integration and related concepts.

CalMEND developed Integration of Mental Health, Substance Use, and Primary Care Services: Embracing Our Values from a Client and Family Member Perspective (Volume 1) to address integrated care from the client and family member perspective. It is the first comprehensive paper offering this perspective; it also addresses consumer values and emerging learning related to whole health.

The National Council’s 2003 background paper, Behavioral Health/Primary Care Integration Models, Competencies, and Infrastructure, provides an overview of integration and proposes a conceptual model for how behavioral and physical health services can be integrated to improve services for consumers and achieve improved health outcomes.

Tags: Integrated Care Models

Call Our Helpline: 202.684.7457

What is Integrated Care?

Abstract: People with mental and substance abuse disorders may die decades earlier than the average person

People with mental and substance abuse disorders may die decades earlier than the average person — mostly from untreated and preventable chronic illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease that are aggravated by poor health habits such as inadequate physical activity, poor nutrition, smoking, and substance abuse. Barriers to primary care — coupled with challenges in navigating complex healthcare systems — have been a major obstacle to care.

At the same time, primary care settings have become the gateway to the behavioral health system, and primary care providers need support and resources to screen and treat individuals with behavioral and general healthcare needs.

The solution lies in integrated care, the systematic coordination of general and behavioral healthcare. Integrating mental health, substance abuse, and primary care services produces the best outcomes and proves the most effective approach to caring for people with multiple healthcare needs.

Whether services are organized via traditional models within primary care settings or behavioral health settings – or are Health Homes models, CIHS gathers current developments, research, models, and other important resources to ensure the success of healthcare’s future: integration.

Webinars

The webinar, Understanding Primary and Behavioral Healthcare Integration, hosted by the National Council provides an overview of integration for the behavioral health and primary care fields.

Resources

What is Integrated Care: Understanding Health Care Reform – Integrated Care and Why You Should Care from SAMHSA provides a detailed overview of the importance of integrated primary and behavioral healthcare.

A Collaborative Care Lexicon for Asking Practice and Research Development Questions was developed by the Collaborative Care Research Network to help create unified language around primary and behavioral healthcare integration.

A Family Tree of Related Terms in Use in the Field of Collaborative Care provides a common dictionary for integration and related concepts.

CalMEND developed Integration of Mental Health, Substance Use, and Primary Care Services: Embracing Our Values from a Client and Family Member Perspective (Volume 1) to address integrated care from the client and family member perspective. It is the first comprehensive paper offering this perspective; it also addresses consumer values and emerging learning related to whole health.

The National Council’s 2003 background paper, Behavioral Health/Primary Care Integration Models, Competencies, and Infrastructure, provides an overview of integration and proposes a conceptual model for how behavioral and physical health services can be integrated to improve services for consumers and achieve improved health outcomes.

www.integration.samhsa.gov

How to find your Mac’s model and age?

This tip replaces version 2126 originally released on the Discussions Feedback forum.

Find the serial number on:

Plug your serial number in at this link:

Do not use third party links as they may not be secure.

Do not post the serial number on this board, as that is your key to any support you may have left.

Use this tip also to help figure out which portion of the Support Community to post in, as this tip explains:

When you have no serial number, use one of these third party sites to find your model, production year, time in year

(early, middle, late, summer, fall, winter, spring):

PowerMac, PowerPC, eMac, iMac PPC, iBook (Apple recycled the name iBook for its eBook application on new Macs and iOS devices), Powerbook, Classic all refer to Macs that are older than the present series

of Macs. Posting in those forums about a current Mac, shows you have not researched your Mac sufficiently to get a succinct answer to your query. Apple menu -> About This Mac will tell you the Mac OS version or System version you are running. The X in the version is important, and so is the preceding 10 in the version if it exists.

Questions saying X.1 could refer to Mac OS X 10.13.1, 10.1. Don’t truncate the version you see.

There are no iOS forums specific to the operating system found on iPads, iPod Touch, AppleTV, Apple Watch, and iPhones. Figure out the type of portable device you are running to ask a question about that device specifically.

Apple has these identifying articles as well:

Macs generally will not run an older Mac OS X operating system than shipped with them.

The one exception is virtualizing 10.6 Server on 10.7 or later, which is described later.

Also important to note is that the Apple App Store only has 10.7, 10.8, and 10.12, except for those who purchased in between systems, and have a Mac that shipped with in between systems. For all others if you need an in between system, and your Mac is older, contact the App Store tech support.

A quick upgrade guide has been posted on

These dates are important for recognizing what Mac OS X will run on Macs. Macs released on or after (including their model #s or name

September 30, 2018 will only run 10.14 or later

September 25, 2017 will only run 10.13 or later.

  • iMac Pro 1,1
  • MacBook Pro 15,x (2018 model)

June 5, 2017 Mac models (all 2017 Models except iMac Pro) will only run 10.12.5 or later

• MacBook Pro 14,x

September 20, 2016 will only run 10.12 or later.

  • MacBook Pro with touchbar (instead of physical F keys)
  • MacBook Pro 13,x
  • iMac 18,x
  • MacBook Air 7,2 see this article on which ones could only run 10.12 or later.

September 30, 2015 will only run 10.11 or later. These Macs are the first Macs that can be upgraded directly to

Mac OS 10.14 without installing any other software.

  • iMac 16,x and 17,x
  • Macbook 9,x (these Macbooks came with the USB-C, instead of the USB 2 or USB 3 connector. USB 3 and 2 look identical on the outside, use System Profiler to determine which you have)

October 16, 2014 will only run 10.10 or later (10.10 is only available for Macs that shipped with it).

  • MacBook Air 7,1 and 7,2 (some models could only run 10.12 or later).
  • Mac Mini 7,x
  • iMac MF885LL/A came with 10.10.2. All other 15,x came with 10.10.0
  • MacBook 8,x — the oldest that can run Mac OS 10.14 with this model name after installing 10.11 or later.
  • MacBook Pro 11,4 and 11,5

October 22, 2013 will only run 10.9 or later (10.9 is only available for Macs that shipped with it).

  • Macbook Pro 11,1 through 11,3
  • Mac Pro 6,x
  • MacBook Air Early 2014
  • Mac Mini 6,x
  • iMac 14,4

June 25, 2012 will only run 10.8 or later. 10.8 through 10.11 are supported by these Macs [indicate machine ID found in profiler], and newer models may run some variety of 10.9, 10.10, or 10.11):

  • MacBook Pro with Retina EMC 2557 from 2012 and 2013 and later models.
  • MacBook Air (2013 or newer) [6,1]
  • MacBook Air (Mid 2013 or newer) [6,1]
  • Mac mini (Late 2012 or newer) [6,1] — the oldest that can run 10.14 after installing 10.11 or later.
  • iMac (Late 2012 or newer) [13,1]
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013) [6,1]

These models above are the first models that can be upgraded directly to High Sierra 10.13 without other prior upgrades.

The oldest MacBook Air and iMac that can run Mac OS 10.14 after installing 10.11.

These Macs which are older can also be upgraded to 10.12 by upgrading to 10.7.5 first, and 10.13 by upgrading to 10.8 first:

  • MacBook (Late 2009 or newer) 6,1
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2010 or newer) 6,1
  • MacBook Air (Late 2010 or newer) 3,1.
  • Mac mini (Mid 2010 or newer) 4,1
  • iMac (Late 2009 or newer) 10,1
  • Mac Pro (Mid 2010 or newer) 5,1

The Macs are compatible with 10.8 and later from prior 10.8’s release

  • Mac Pro (Early 2008 with AirPort Extreme card, or Mid 2012) [3,1]-[5,1] (Earlier Mac Pros are discussed on the 10.8 upgrade tip).
  • MacBook Late 2008 [5,1] to mid 2010 [7,1] with no Pro or Air in the name.
  • iMac (Early 2009 to mid-2011) [9,1] to [12,1]
  • Mac mini (Mid 2010 to mid 2011) [4,1] to [5.1]
  • MacBook Air (Late 2010 to mid-2012 [3,1]-[5,2]
  • MacBook Pro Late 2008 [5,1] to Retina 2012 that are not EMC 2557.

July 20, 2011 will only run 10.7 or later. The model IDs (x,x) and EMC that fit this description until June 25, 2012 release of 10.8 (excluding the ones which will run only 10.8 or later earlier mentioned) :

iMac of an EMC of 2496; 13,x and later.

Mac Mini 5,x and later.

Macbook Air 4,x and later.

MacBook 8,x and later (no Pro no Air in the name)

Mac Pro 5,1 with EMC 2629 — the oldest that can be have Mac OS 10.14 installed after installing 10.11 or later, those without that EMC number came with 10.6 and can also be updated to 10.14 the same manner; 6,x and later.

MacBook Pro with EMC 2555, 2563; 9,x and later.

Note all the Macs that can only run 10.7 and later, may be able to run 10.6 Server with Parallels, if you need compatibility with an older operating system:

Beyond this point Macs released during certain date ranges also have a maximum operating system, and/or

minimum retail operating system and system specific operating system requirement (when I say up to 10.9 that includes all incremental updates):

Note: images shown below for retail operating system are those that have no «Update, Dropin, or OEM» wording on them.

March 15, 2010-July 19, 2011 will only run prebundled 10.6 installer disc, and not retail, but also able to be upgraded to 10.9. Note this tip

August 28, 2009-March 14, 2010 will only 10.6 or later up to 10.9. And will at minimum be able to use

10.6.3 retail to install 10.6. Note this tip if upgrading to 10.7 or later: https://discussions.apple.com/docs/DOC-6271

During 2000 to 2009, the serial number also made it easier to identify the Macs, as the 3rd, 4th, and 5th character of the serial number referred to the week

and year of the shipment date. Thus for serial numbers where x can be any letter or number, xxABCxxxxx serial numbers would refer to an A which is the last digit of the year, and BC=week of the year. xx905xxxx is the fifth week of 2009. You can then use Wikipedia to figure out what date the release was, and if it was after a specific retail release of an operating system to determine which pre bundled disc it came with, and which later retail discs the Mac could work with.

will also run up to Mac OS X 10.11 if you follow this tip: https://discussions.apple.com/docs/DOC-6271

October 28, 2007 -December 14, 2008 will at minimum be able to use the 10.5.6 retail , and install up to 10.9 if included on https://discussions.apple.com/docs/DOC-3761 if you follow this tip https://discussions.apple.com/docs/DOC-6271

January 10, 2006-October 27, 2007 will at minimum be able to 10.5 retail , and if

able to run 10.9. Core2Duo and Xeon can upgrade to a minimum of 10.7.5. Otherwise if they only have a CoreDuo, CoreSolo Intel

processor only be able to upgrade to Mac OS X 10.6.8. G5, G4, and G3 processors are not Intel.

Earlier dates are covered on this tip:Can I download my Mac OS upgrade?

Using the dates from the above documents, and the dates according to Wikipedia when specific retail

operating system systems were released, you can find which retail releases were newer than the Macs and the ones immediately older.

An October 24, 2011 Macbook Pro will only run 10.8 retail, and 10.9 retail downloads, but needs an

AppleCare requested 10.7 installer to install 10.7. An exception exists in 10.6 Server, as indicated here:

A pre-October 26, 2007 MacBook Pro will only run the system specific Mac OS X 10.4 installer

that shipped with it, which can be ordered from AppleCare, or newer retail installer versions

of 10.5 , 10.6 compatible with its hardware, and 10.7 if it is at least a Core2Duo.

CoreDuo, nor is CoreSolo is not compatible with 10.7.

For PowerPC Macs, Mac OS X 10.4.11 and earlier offer Classic compatibility, and on certain 2003 and earlier Macs dual booting on Mac OS X 10.5 & Mac OS 9:

No Mac may run an older version of Mac OS 9 than was prebundled with it.

A more precise timeline of Mac OS X follows (in U.S. date notation. Links to relevant articles up to 10.7 are included, as 10.7 drops PowerPC applications on Intel):

4/8/2015 10.10.3 (with supplemental on 4/16/2015)

10/16/2014 10.10 Yosemite

10/22/2013 10.9 (10.9 & 10.9.1 should be skipped due to security issues) Mavericks

10/3/2013 10.8.5 supplemental update

9/25/2013 10.8.4 iMac Late 2013

6/10/2013 10.8.4 MacBook Air mid 2013

11/29/2012 10.8.2 Mac MIni Late 2012

10/4/2012 10.8.2 supplemental update

10/4/2012 10.7.5 supplemental update

7/25/2012 10.8 Mountain Lion

7/25/2011 10.6.8 v1.1

5/4/2011 10.6.7 Early 2011 MacBook Pro

4/13/2010 10.6.3 v1.1

4/1/2010 10.6.3 retail installer presently sold at the online Apple Store.

12/15/2008 10.5.6 retail installer (Last PowerPC installer)

6/30/2008 10.5.4 retail installer

11/15/2007 10.5.1 retail installer

10/26/2007 10.5 retail installer (Leopard)

8/7/2006 Mac Pro (Intel, first Snow Leopard compatible professional desktop) replaces PowerMac G5 (the last PowerPC Mac and Mac capable of running Classic)

5/16/2006 The MacBook replaces the iBook (the last consumer notebook capable of running Classic)

4/3/2006 10.4.6 retail PowerPC only.

2/28/2006 First Intel Mac Mini (not capable of running Classic, first Mac)

1/10/2006 First Intel iMacs, MacBook Pro replaces Powerbook (first Macs not capable of running Classic, first Mac capable of running Snow Leopard)

10/31/2005 10.4.3 retail PowerPC only.

8/9/2004 10.3.5 retail

12/17/2003 10.3.2 retail

Some hints about operating systems:

— Mac OS X 10.8 or later are required to sync with iOS 9.2 or 9.2.1.

— No PowerPC Mac can run Mac OS X 10.5.8 or higher, or sync with iOS 6 or higher.

— No PowerPC Mac can run Boot Camp

— No Mac can run Classic (side by side Mac OS 9 with Mac OS X without reboot) on the same partition as Mac OS X 10.5 or higher.

— No Intel Mac can run Classic.

— All Intel Macs can run at least Mac OS X 10.6.8 as long as they are older than Mac OS X 10.7’s release.

— PowerPC applications need Mac OS X 10.6.8 or earlier to run on Intel Macs.

— Boot Camp needs Mac OS X 10.5 or later on Intel Macs. Note other virtualization tools are available for Mac OS X 10.4.11 or earlier on Intel Macs.

— Mac OS X 10.7.3 is needed for the latest Java and minimum iCloud.

— The same minimum system requirements exist for Mac OS X 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, and 10.11.

— 10.6.6 is the minimum for the Mac App Store, and upgrading to 10.7 without erasing the drive you install 10.7 on if the hardware supports it.

— 10.6.8 is the minimum for 10.8 or later upgrades if the hardware supports it.

— Apple has a 10.6.8 to 10.11 updateon the App Store.

— Some Macs that shipped with 10.6 can install up to 10.12 if they are upgraded to 10.7.5 first.

discussions.apple.com

Comparing tabular and multidimensional solutions

APPLIES TO: SQL Server Analysis Services Azure Analysis Services Power BI Premium

SQL Server Analysis Services provides several approaches for creating a business intelligence semantic model: Tabular, Multidimensional, and Power Pivot for SharePoint.

Having more than one approach enables a modeling experience tailored to different business and user requirements. Multidimensional is a mature technology built on open standards, embraced by numerous vendors of BI software, but can be hard to master. Tabular offers a relational modeling approach that many developers find more intuitive. Power Pivot is even simpler, offering visual data modeling in Excel, with server support provided via SharePoint.

All models are deployed as databases that run on an Analysis Services instance, accessed by client tools using a single set of data providers, and visualized in interactive and static reports via Excel, Reporting Services, Power BI, and BI tools from other vendors.

Tabular and multidimensional solutions are built using Visual Studio and are intended for corporate BI projects that run on a standalone Analysis Services instance on-premises, and for tabular models, an Azure Analysis Services server in the cloud. Both solutions yield high performance analytical databases that integrate easily with BI clients. Yet each solution differs in how they are created, used, and deployed. The bulk of this topic compares these two types so that you can identify the right approach for you.

For new projects, we generally recommend tabular models. Tabular models are faster to design, test, and deploy; and will work better with the latest self-service BI applications and cloud services from Microsoft.

Overview of modeling types

New to Analysis Services? The following table enumerates the different models, summarizes the approach, and identifies the initial release vehicle.

Azure Analysis Services supports tabular models at the 1200 and higher compatibility levels. However, not all tabular modeling functionality described in this topic is supported in Azure Analysis Services. While creating and deploying tabular models to Azure Analysis Services is much the same as it is for on-premises, it’s important to understand the differences. To learn more , see What is Azure Analysis Services?

Type Modeling description Released
Tabular Relational modeling constructs (model, tables, columns). Internally, metadata is inherited from OLAP modeling constructs (cubes, dimensions, measures). Code and script use OLAP metadata. SQL Server 2012 and later (compatibility levels 1050 — 1103) 1
Tabular in SQL Server 2016 Relational modeling constructs (model, tables, columns), articulated in tabular metadata object definitions in Tabular Model Scripting Language (TMSL) and Tabular Object Model (TOM) code. SQL Server 2016 (compatibility level 1200)
Tabular in SQL Server 2017 Relational modeling constructs (model, tables, columns), articulated in tabular metadata object definitions in Tabular Model Scripting Language (TMSL) and Tabular Object Model (TOM) code. SQL Server 2017 (compatibility level 1400)
Tabular in SQL Server 2019 Relational modeling constructs (model, tables, columns), articulated in tabular metadata object definitions in Tabular Model Scripting Language (TMSL) and Tabular Object Model (TOM) code. SQL Server 2019 (compatibility level 1500)
Multidimensional OLAP modeling constructs (cubes, dimensions, measures). SQL Server 2000 and later
Power Pivot Originally an add-in, but now fully integrated into Excel. Visual modeling only, over an internal Tabular infrastructure. You can import a Power Pivot model into Visual Studio to create a new Tabular model that runs on an Analysis Services instance. via Excel and Power Pivot BI Desktop

1 Compatibility levels are significant in the current release due to tabular metadata engine and support for scenario-enabling features available only at the higher level. Later versions support earlier compatibility levels, but it is recommended you create new models or upgrade existing models to the highest compatibility level supported by the server version.

Model Features

The following table summarizes feature availability at the model level. Review this list to ensure that the feature you want to use is available in the type of model you plan to build.

Multidimensional Tabular
Actions Yes No
Aggregations Yes No
Calculated Column No Yes
Calculated Measures Yes Yes
Calculated Tables No Yes 1
Custom Assemblies Yes No
Custom Rollups Yes No
Default Member Yes No
Display folders Yes Yes 1
Distinct Count Yes Yes (via DAX)
Drillthrough Yes Yes (depends on client application)
Hierarchies Yes Yes
KPIs Yes Yes
Linked objects Yes Yes (linked tables)
M expressions No Yes 1
Many-to-many relationships Yes No (but there is bi-directional cross filters at 1200 and higher compatibility levels)
Named sets Yes No
Ragged Hierarchies Yes Yes 1
Parent-child Hierarchies Yes Yes (via DAX)
Partitions Yes Yes
Perspectives Yes Yes
Query interleaving No Yes 2
Row-level Security Yes Yes
Object-level Security Yes Yes 1
Semi-additive Measures Yes Yes
Translations Yes Yes
User-defined Hierarchies Yes Yes
Writeback Yes No

1 See Compatibility Level for Tabular models in Analysis Services for information about functional differences between compatibility levels.

2 — SQL Server 2019 and later Analysis Services, Azure Analysis Services.

Data Considerations

Tabular and multidimensional models use imported data from external sources. The amount and type of data you need to import can be a primary consideration when deciding which model type best fits your data.

Compression

Both tabular and multidimensional solutions use data compression that reduces the size of the Analysis Services database relative to the data warehouse from which you are importing data. Because actual compression will vary based on the characteristics of the underlying data, there is no way to know precisely how much disk and memory will be required by a solution after data is processed and used in queries.

An estimate used by many Analysis Services developers is that primary storage of a multidimensional database will be about one third size of the original data. Tabular databases can sometimes get greater amounts of compression, about one tenth the size, especially if most of the data is imported from fact tables.

Size of the model and resource bias (in-memory or disk)

The size of an Analysis Services database is constrained only by the resources available to run it. The model type and storage mode will also play a role in how large the database can grow.

Tabular databases run either in-memory or in DirectQuery mode that offloads query execution to an external database. For tabular in-memory analytics, the database is stored entirely in memory, which means you must have sufficient memory to not only load all the data, but also additional data structures created to support queries.

DirectQuery, revamped in SQL Server 2016, has fewer restrictions than before, and better performance. Leveraging the backend relational database for storage and query execution makes building a large scale Tabular model more feasible than was previously possible.

Historically, the largest databases in production are multidimensional, with processing and query workloads running independently on dedicated hardware, each one optimized for its respective use. Tabular databases are catching up quickly, and new advancements in DirectQuery will help close the gap even further.

For multidimensional offloading data storage and query execution is available via ROLAP. On a query server, rowsets can be cached, and stale ones paged out. Efficient and balanced use of memory and disk resources often guide customers to multidimensional solutions.

Under load, both disk and memory requirements for either solution type can be expected to increase as Analysis Services caches, stores, scans, and queries data. For more information about memory paging options, see Memory Properties. To learn more about scale, see High availability and Scalability in Analysis Services.

Power Pivot for Excel has an artificial file size limit of 2 gigabytes, which is imposed so that workbooks created in Power Pivot for Excel can be uploaded to SharePoint, which sets maximum limits on file upload size. One of the main reasons for migrating a Power Pivot workbook to a tabular solution on a standalone Analysis Services instance is to get around the file size limitation. For more information about configuring maximum file upload size, see Configure Maximum File Upload Size (Power Pivot for SharePoint).

Supported Data Sources

Tabular models can import data from relational data sources, data feeds, and some document formats. You can also use OLE DB for ODBC providers with tabular models. Tabular models at the 1400 compatibility level offer a significant increase in the variety of data sources from which you can import from. This is due to the introduction of the modern Get Data data query and import features in Visual Studio utilizing the M formula query language.

Multidimensional solutions can import data from relational data sources using OLE DB native and managed providers.

To view the list of external data sources that you can import to each model, see the following topics:

Query and Scripting Language Support

Analysis Services includes MDX, DMX, DAX, XML/A, ASSL, and TMSL. Support for these languages can vary by model type. If query and scripting language requirements are a consideration, review the following list.

Tabular model databases support DAX calculations, DAX queries, and MDX queries. This is true at all compatibilities levels. Script languages are ASSL (over XMLA) for compatibility levels 1050-1103, and TMSL (over XMLA) for compatibility level 1200 and higher.

Power Pivot workbooks use DAX for calculations, and DAX or MDX for queries.

Multidimensional model databases support MDX calculations, MDX queries, DAX queries, and ASSL.

Data mining models support DMX and ASSL.

Analysis Services PowerShell is supported for Tabular and Multidimensional models and databases.

All databases support XML/A.

Security Features

All Analysis Services solutions can be secured at the database level. More granular security options vary by mode. If granular security settings are requirement for your solution, review the following list to ensure the level of security you want is supported in the type of solution you want to build:

Tabular model databases can use row-level security, using role-based permissions.

Multidimensional model databases can use dimension and cell-level security, using role-based permissions.

Power Pivot workbooks are secured at the file level, using SharePoint permissions.

Power Pivot workbooks can be restored to a Tabular mode server. Once the file is restored, it is decoupled from SharePoint, allowing you to use all tabular modeling features, including row-level security.

Design Tools

Data modeling skills and technical expertise can vary widely among users who are tasked with building analytical models. If tool familiarity or user expertise is a consideration for your solution, compare the following experiences for model creation.

Modeling Tool How Used
SQL Server Data Tools Use to create tabular, multidimensional, and data mining solutions. This authoring environment uses the Visual Studio shell to provide workspaces, property panes, and object navigation. Technical users who already use Visual Studio will most likely prefer this tool for building business intelligence applications.
Power Pivot for Excel Use to create a Power Pivot workbook that you later deploy to a SharePoint farm that has an installation of Power Pivot for SharePoint. Power Pivot for Excel has a separate application workspace that opens over Excel. It uses the same visual metaphors (tabbed pages, grid layout, and formula bar) as Excel. Users who are proficient in Excel will prefer this tool over SQL Server Data Tools.

Client Application Support

In-general, tabular and multidimensional solutions support client applications using one or more of the Analysis Services client libraries (MSOLAP, AMOMD, ADOMD). For example, Excel, Power BI Desktop, and custom applications.

If you are using Reporting Services, report feature availability varies across editions and server modes. For this reason, the type of report that you want to build might influence which server mode you choose to install.

Power View, a Reporting Services authoring tool that runs in SharePoint, is available on a report server that is deployed in a SharePoint 2010 farm. The only type of data source that can be used with this report is an Analysis Services tabular model database or a Power Pivot workbook. This means that you must have a tabular mode server or a Power Pivot for SharePoint server to host the data source used by this type of report. You cannot use a multidimensional model as a data source for a Power View report. You must create a Power Pivot BI Semantic Model connection or a Reporting Services shared data source to use as the data source for a Power View report.

Report Builder and Report Designer can use any Analysis Services database, including Power Pivot workbooks that are hosted on Power Pivot for SharePoint.

Excel PivotTable reports are supported by all Analysis Services databases. Excel functionality is the same whether you use a tabular .database, multidimensional database, or Power Pivot workbook, although Writeback is only supported for multidimensional databases.

docs.microsoft.com

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