Management Coaching Skills and Methods, Harvard Professional Development Programs

How to Adopt a Coaching Mentality and Practice

Madeline McNeely & Michelle Ehrenreich

McNeely and Ehrenreich are leadership and business consultants who co-teach the program Leadership Coaching Strategies.

As the famous adage goes, people leave bosses not companies. As a manager, you may excel at directing projects, solving problems, and driving results. But how much time are you investing in developing and empowering your employees?

When given the opportunity to learn and grow, people thrive. By adopting a coaching mentality and approach, you can help members of your team realize their potential. An investment in employees will help retain top talent and foster a culture of growth and opportunity, which is a win for people and profit.

Shifting From «Manager» To «Coach»

For many managers, however, the transition to “coach” isn’t easy. In fact, some coaching traits are at odds with what are seen as managerial strengths. Developing the skills and changing your managerial approach amid daily demands can be difficult.

Shifting from a managerial to coaching mindset requires you to serve, at times, more as a guide. Learning what makes people tick so you can help them succeed is a key competence of a good manager employing a coaching approach. You also have to be willing to navigate organizational resistance to coaching as it’s not always applauded when there’s too much to do in not enough time.

Here we offer three tips to help you face these challenges.

1. Overcome the Desire to Be Directive

Your ability to direct people and projects likely helped you move up the management ranks, but being directive can come at a price.

A marketing director we know took great pride in her ability to quickly tackle problems. She expected her staff to take the advice and move into action. In time, her employees didn’t feel the need to think for themselves, and those who did felt stifled.

Coaching is a more open-ended process. Rather than providing the solutions, help your team members explore options and aspirations. Asking questions allows individuals to challenge their assumptions and explore new ways of thinking.

You need to become comfortable with a certain amount of ambiguity. Your team may not solve a problem or arrive at the same solution you would have. But with your support and motivation, they’re likely to come up with an idea that’s as strong as—or even better than—yours. Ultimately if they own the solution, they’ll be more invested in processes that work, which ultimately will create excellent results.

Bugs: Rethinking the History of Computing

Cait McKinney, Dylan Mulvin, Bugs: Rethinking the History of Computing, Communication, Culture and Critique, Volume 12, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages 476–498,


This paper argues that scholars of computing, networks, and infrastructures must reckon with the inseparability of “viral” discourses in the 1990s. This co-assembled history documents the reliance on viral analogies and explanations honed in the HIV/AIDS crisis and its massive loss of life, widespread institutional neglect, and comprehensive technological failures. As the 1990s marked a period of intense domestication of computing technologies in the global North, we document how public figures, computer experts, activists, academics, and artists used the intertwined discourses surrounding HIV and new computer technologies to explicate the risks of vulnerability in complex, networked systems. The efficacy of HIV as an analogy is visible in the circulation of viral concepts, fears surrounding interdependence, and emergent descriptions of precarity in the face of a widespread “infrastructure crisis.” Through an analysis of this decade, we show how HIV/AIDS discourses indelibly marked the domestication of computing, computer networks, and nested, digitized infrastructures.

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Recruiting and Hiring Top-Quality Employees

As all employers quickly learn, there’s a world of difference between a worker who’s correctly matched to their job and their organization, and one who is not.

But how do you find and match the right people to the right jobs? By including, in your comprehensive people strategy, a well-structured recruiting and selection program. The key to successfully developing such a program is to follow a proven recruiting process for the positions you need to fill. Resist the temptation to omit steps, because shortcutting the process can shortchange your results. Here’s what you’ll need to do:

1. Develop accurate job descriptions. Your first step is to make sure you have an effective job description for each position in your company. Your job descriptions should reflect careful thought as to the roles the individual will fill, the skill sets they’ll need, the personality attributes that are important to completing their tasks, and any relevant experience that would differentiate one applicant from another. This may sound fairly basic, but you’d be surprised at how many small companies fail to develop or maintain updated job descriptions.

2. Compile a «success profile.» In addition to creating job descriptions, it’s important to develop a «success profile» of the ideal employee for key positions in your company that are critical to the execution of your business plan. These might include such positions as team leaders, district managers and salespeople. For example, let’s say you currently have 20 salespeople. Within that group, you have four that are top performers, 12 that are middle-of-the-road and four that aren’t quite making the grade. If you could bump the number of folks in the top group from 20 percent to 33 percent, that could have a dramatic impact on your company’s performance.

To accomplish that goal, you need to profile everyone in the sales group to identify any skills and attributes that are common to the top group but missing from the other groups. Using this information, you’ll be able to develop a profile to help you select the candidates most likely to succeed in that position. Remember, you can’t tell if you’ve found a match if you’re not matching candidates against a specific profile.

3. Draft the ad, describing the position and the key qualifications required. Although some applicants will ignore these requirements and respond regardless, including this information will help you limit the number of unqualified applicants.

4. Post the ad in the mediums most likely to reach your potential job candidates. Of course, the Internet has become the leading venue for posting job openings, but don’t overlook targeted industry publications and local newspapers.

5. Develop a series of phone-screening questions. Compile a list of suitable questions you can ask over the phone to help you quickly identify qualified candidates and eliminate everyone else.

6. Review the resumes you receive and identify your best candidates. Once you post your ad, you’ll start receiving resumes. sometimes many more than you anticipated. Knowing what you’re looking for in terms of experience, education and skills will help you weed through these resumes quickly and identify potential candidates.

7. Screen candidates by phone. Once you’ve narrowed your stack of resumes to a handful of potential applicants, call the candidates and use your phone-screening questions to further narrow the field. Using a consistent set of questions in both this step and your face-to-face interviews will help ensure you’re evaluating candidates equally.

8. Select candidates for assessment. Based on the responses to your phone interviews, select the candidates you feel are best qualified for the next step in the process.

9. Assess your potential candidates for their skills and attributes using a proven assessment tool. A resume and phone interview can only tell you so much about a job applicant, so you’ll need a dependable assessment tool to help you analyze the core behavioral traits and cognitive reasoning speed of your applicants. For example, a good test will provide insights as to whether the individual is conscientious or lackadaisical, introverted or extroverted, agreeable or uncompromising, open to new ideas or close-minded, and emotionally stable or anxious and insecure.

The success profile you created for each position will help you determine which behavioral traits are important for that position. For example, you would expect a successful salesperson to be extroverted. On the other hand, someone filling a clerical position might be more introverted.

These assessment tests can be administered in person or online. Online testing and submission of results can help you determine whether the applicant should be invited for a personal interview.

10. Schedule and conduct candidate interviews. Once you’ve selected candidates based on the previous steps, schedule and conduct the interviews. Use a consistent set of 10 or 12 questions to maintain a structured interview and offer a sound basis for comparing applicants.

11. Select the candidate. Make your selection by matching the best applicant to the profiled job description.

12. Run a background check on the individual to uncover any potential problems not revealed by previous testing and interviews.

13. Make your offer to the candidate. The information you collected during the interview process will provide you with important insights as to starting compensation levels and training needs.

Additional Pre-Recruiting Tips

Before you start the hiring process, determine your strategy relative to how people fit into your organization. What is your process for making sure they’re a good fit with your company’s culture? Decide whether your approach to the cultural question should include a second interview. Also, who else, if anyone, do you involve in the interviews to help make this selection and judge the candidate? Your goal is to have a plan that will help you determine whether you have a qualified applicant who will fit into your company’s culture.

In addition, decide whether you’re going to conduct pre-employment testing. How much is it worth for you to know an individual’s strengths and weaknesses, not just as a hire/don’t hire test, but as a coaching tool to help you determine their training needs and the best approach to maximize the person’s productivity? Pre-employment testing is often overlooked, when it could be a very valuable tool. For example, if you find an applicant who fits the job description and appears to be the person you want to hire, pre-employment testing can help you determine how to work with them more effectively and move them along in your organization.

If you want your business to attract and retain good clients, your comprehensive people strategy must include a recruiting and selection strategy that attracts and retains quality employees. Following a well-thought-out, structured process will help you best match the right people to the right jobs in your company.

Better Games Through Usability Evaluation and Testing

No one wants to play games that are either frustrating or difficult for the wrong reasons. The best way to make sure that unintended problems do not hinder enjoying the game is to take usability into account in game development. This article presents how this can be done and what kind of results to expect.

Usability is an integral part of software development and has been so for the past 20 years. For one reason or another, usability has not gained similar popularity in game development. This, however, is about to change. Ease of use and optimal user experience are already important in games and will become even more so in the future.

Usability is about maximizing effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. This definition originates from the traditional software industry, but it translates well to game development. In games, usability is about delivering a better and deeper experience with less unnecessary interruptions or challenges that have not been designed by the developers.

Why is Usability Important?

There are many reasons why usability is important in games. For one, playing games is voluntary. If the player has to struggle with problems that make playing less fun than doing something else, then there is nothing to stop the player from switching off the console. This is a serious risk as the user experience is very sensitive to usability problems. Even the smallest glitch or hiccup in the user interface may render an otherwise good game into a rather annoying experience. For example, if managing the inventory in a role playing game is not fluent enough or restarting a race in a driving game is tedious the player is not likely to enjoy playing the game.

Another reason why usability is important in games is the competition. Competition in the market is fierce. The gamers can choose which game to buy from a wide variety of titles; if the controls are not fluent in one soccer game, there are five more titles left from which to choose. Usability is one of the key factors that make the game stand out of the crowd.

The delicacy of the user experience and heavy competition actually make usability more important in games than it is in other software. There are not too many word processors to choose from, and having fun at work is not usually a top priority.

There are also other reasons why ease of use is important. One of them is that modern games are large and complex programs. In even the most focused games there are tons of menus and ways to interact within the game, not to mention games like the Grand Theft Auto series. Usability is important when making a game as easy and intuitive to play as possible. Good examples of complex games made easy are World of Warcraft and Xbox Live games. Both have succeeded in making traditionally difficult multiplayer gaming easy.

Usability is also important for the future of gaming. For gaming to continue to increase its popularity, the ease of setting up games and a fluent gaming experience are of the essence. This is because newcomers are not familiar with the conventions and common pitfalls of gaming. For them, learning the peculiarities that old gamers are already familiar with can be too much.

This Article

The focus of this article is not only to tell why usability is important in games, but also to introduce two usability methods and the kind of results they yield. The methods are expert evaluation and usability testing.

It will be presented how these were applied in the development of Frozenbyte’s Shadowgrounds ( game. Adage Corporation ( was responsible for the usability related activities in the project. Before moving on to the methods, the game will be presented briefly.

Frozenbyte’s Shadowgrounds Game

Frozenbyte Inc. is an independent games studio, based in Helsinki, Finland, founded in year 2001. Frozenbyte is currently working on a PC game called Shadowgrounds, which is to be released in the third quarter of 2005.

Shadowgrounds is an action game viewed from the top-down/3rd person perspective (see Figure 1). The main features of the game are adrenaline-pumping old-school action, realistic lighting, destructible environment and upgradeable weaponry.

Figure 1. Intense battles, lightning effects and upgradeable weapons are key elements of Shadowgrounds.

Usability Expert Evaluation

In a usability expert evaluation, usability experts review the game and search for potential usability problems. Based on both their knowledge and experience they review the game systematically and report the findings.

In a typical expert evaluation three usability experts review the game. The experts first evaluate the game independently. After that the experts have an evaluation meeting together. In this meeting, the usability problems found are discussed and rated for severity. After that a report is written where the usability problems found are listed systematically. For each problem there is a title, severity rank, and a detailed description of the problem. A solution to each problem is also suggested.

This process takes approximately a week. Preliminary results, however, can be given in a few days. After handing in the final report, a meeting between the usability experts and the game developers is arranged. In this meeting, the findings are discussed in more detail, and the usability experts can answer questions that come about from the report.

Expert evaluation is a very flexible method, and it can be done at almost any point of game development. In the case of Shadowgrounds the expert evaluation was done approximately six months before the planned deadline of the game. In the version evaluated there was one playable level and the basic gameplay mechanics were implemented. Everything was, however, not ready. For example, the destructible environment was not fully implemented yet, voice acting was missing, and many smaller bugs were still present.

It is also possible to conduct an expert evaluation even in earlier stages of game development. For example, menus and displays can already be evaluated on the basis of paper prototypes, and potential usability problems affecting gameplay can be spotted from the design document. The earlier the expert evaluation is done, the easier and more cost efficient it is to make changes.

The depth and scope of an expert evaluation are also easy to change. For example, if there is a desire for constant input from the usability experts to the development process, then conducting several smaller usability evaluations with less experts and faster reporting may be a good idea.

Results of the Expert Evaluation

In total 135 usability problems were found in the expert evaluation of Shadowgrounds. Out of these problems 2 were classified catastrophic, 30 severe and 60 intermediate. The remaining 43 problems were either minor or cosmetic. The distribution of the problems is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Classification of the usability problems found in the expert evaluation.

The number of usability problems found may seem high, but in reality it is not exceptional by any means. Expert evaluation gives feedback to almost every area of game development. In a typical evaluation, usability problems are found in menus, in-game displays, controls, gameplay and level design. Because of this, the total number of problems found can be quite high. Here are some examples of usability problems along with the game developers’ view on the problem.

One color has multiple meanings in the map display.


The light blue color in the map display has three different meanings. It marks the area visited, unknown area, and areas that cannot be accessed (e.g. mountains).

Using the same colour to symbolize three different things makes understanding the map difficult. Every time the user opens the map, s/he must stop for a second and think what the colors mean in different locations. There is also a danger that the users do not understand what the colors mean or misinterpret the map.

Use different colors for displaying visited, unknown and inaccessible areas.

Developers’ comment
This problem could have been addressed earlier if the design document had covered the map screen more thoroughly. In the final game, a map legend will be displayed, and only one color (shade) will be used for one meaning.

No feedback is given if the player cannot pick an item.


Sometimes it happens that the player cannot pick up an item because there is no room in the inventory. If this happens, the user is not given any feedback.

This is problematic as the user may not know why s/he cannot pick up the item. It is likely that the user will figure it out eventually, but the confusion and extra effort required are likely to cause frustration.

Give the user proper feedback in every situation where the user interacts with the environment. If the item cannot be picked up, inform the user about this with a sound and/or textual feedback.

Developers’ comment
This was addressed only vaguely in the design document, and was overlooked by the programmers at the time. It is likely that this feature would have been implemented in due time, and goes to show that sometimes developers leave many of the smaller usability issues to the final stretch of development.


The player often fixes items in the game. Fixing an item is done by moving close to the item and holding down E. A progress bar is displayed and the item is fixed when the bar reaches the end. The progress bar is displayed too far away from the item fixed.

Presenting the feedback closer to the location at which the action takes place makes it easier to understand that the feedback and action are linked to each other. It also reduces the need for the user to move his/her attention between the feedback and the action.

Display the progress bar close to the location it refers to.

Developers’ comment
This seems like a no-brainer but it went unnoticed for a long time by the development team, because it had grown so accustomed to the game and its features. The feature had only a vague description in the design document (loosely translated to «a repair bar is displayed on the screen»). Had the document been given more thought or had it been read by usability experts before implementing the feature, the feature might have been done correctly from the get-go.

It is not immediately obvious whether the upgrades presented next to the weapon are installed or not.


The upgrades available for the weapons look active even before purchasing them. This is because they are marked with a similar color scheme as the weapons next to them, which are active.

This is especially problematic early in the game. Because the upgrades look active, the user may not understand that this menu can be used to purchase new upgrades.

Make the upgrades that have not been purchased yet clearly inactive. This can be done for example by using a darker shade of blue to present the upgrades that have not been bought yet.

Developers’ comment
The weapon upgrade feature had not been fully implemented by the time of the testing, but regardless, this particular problem had not been taken into consideration. Later user-testing showed that this was definitely a problem with gamers, especially in the beginning of the game.

When fixing an item, the feedback is displayed too far away from the location being fixed.


Enemies are marked with small red spots in the radar. The radar is semi-transparent: the scenery is visible through it.

In some buildings there are computers and other equipment that have small red lights. When it happens that such a light is visible through the radar it is easily thought to be an enemy.

Do not use small red lights in levels, or change the method of displaying enemies in the radar.

Developers’ comment
Sometimes the developer can freely ignore the comments or suggestions made by the usability report. Here, Frozenbyte decided that this problem occurs too rarely to warrant any changes to the user interface.

After the expert evaluation some of the most central usability problems were fixed to prepare the game for the usability testing that was scheduled to start two weeks later. For example, the map problem discussed earlier and minor usability problems related to the radar were fixed.

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Red lights in the computers are easily mixed with enemies displayed in the radar.